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1 V 


. ■ » 

A R T I '' ^ I » \ : ! A . t n , 1 A 








teibd edition. 
Editid by R PHEN6 spiers, F.S.A,, 


nt Tifkt tf TVofUjalifB it Tomtd. 



/ * 


ij/iiri Edition, with 330 Illustrations, 2 vols., medium Bvo, 31s. 6d. 



By the late JAMES FERQUSBON, F.B.8. 

A New Edition, Revised and Enlarged. With a Special Account of 

the Architecture of America. 

By ROBERT KERR, Professor of Architecture at King's College, London. 


New and Cheaper Edition, with 400 Illustrations, medium 8vo, 31s. 6d. 



VTAliroKD STRUrr AMD CHAMJMa 01006. 






C«AF. Pack 

VII. Circular churches — Towers at 
Prato and Florence — Porches — 
Civic buildings — Town-halls.— 
Venice — Doge's Palace — Ck 
d'Oro — Conclusion 1 

Vin. Sicily — Population of Sicily 
— The Saracens — Buildings at 

Chap. Paoi 

Palermo — Cathedral of Monreale 
— Cef alu — The Pointed Arch . . 22 

IX. Gothic Abchttectube in Palbs- 
TiNE — Cliurch of Holy Sepulchre, 
Jerusalem — Churches at Abd Qosh 
and Lydda — Mosque at Hebron . . 32 


L Dirision of subject — Pointed 
arches — Provence — Churches at 
Avignon, Aries, Alet, Fontifroide, 
Maguelonne, Vienne — Circular 
churches — Towers — Cloisters . . 39 

IL Aquitahia— Churches at Peri- 
gueux, Souillac, Angouldme, Al- 
by, Toulouse, Conques, Tours — 
Tombs 64 

IIL Akjou — Cathedral at Angers 
— Church at Fontevrault — Poi- 
tiers — ^Angiovine spires .. 81 

IV. AuTKBOinB — Church at Issoire 
— Clermont — ^Fortified Church at 
B^at 89 

V. BuBOUHDT — Church of St 
Martin d'Ainay— Cathedral at 
le Poy-en-Velay — Abbeys of 
Tonniiis and Cluny — Cathedral 

of Autnn — Church of St Menoux 94 

VI. Fbankish Pbovince — Excep- 
tional buildings — Basse (Euvre, 
Beauvais — Montier-en-Der . . .. 104 

VII. Normandy — Triapsal Churches 
— Churches at Caen — ^Intersecting 
Vaulting — ^Bayeux 110 

Vin. Fbankish Abohitectubs — 
Historical notice — The pointed 
arch — Freemasonry — Mediieval 
architects 120 

IX. Fbench Gkyrmo Cathedbals — 
Paris — Chartres — Bheims — 
Amiens — Other Cathedrals — 
Later style — St. Ouen's, Bouen .. 130 

X. Gothic details — Pillars — Win- 
dows — Circular Windows — Bays 
— ^Vaults — ^Buttresses — Pinnacles 
— Spires — ^Decoration — Construc- 
tion — Furniture of Churches — 

Domestic architecture 161 





Chap. Paob 

L HiBtorioal notioe — Old Churches 
— Cathedral of Toumay — Ant- 
werp — St. Jaoqaee at Lii^ge .. 187 

IL Civil Architecture — Belfries — 

Chap. Paos 

Hall at Ypres — Lonyain — Bros- 
selB — Domestio architectare .. 199 

UL Holland — Churches — Civil 
and Domestic Buildings .. 206 


I. Introductory— Chronology and 
Historical notioe 209 

IL Basilicas ~ Plan of St. Gall — 
Church at Reichenau — Remain- 
Metier — Granson — Church at 
Gemrode — Treves — Hildesheim 
— Cathedrals of Worms and Spires 
— Churches at Cologne — Other 
Churches and Chapels — ^Double 
Churches — Swiss Churches .. 213 

UL CntouLAB Chxtbohes — Aiz-la- 
Chapelle— Nymwegen — Fulda — 
Bonn — Cobem 247 

IV. Domestic! Architecture — 
Lorsch — Palaces on the Wart- 

burg — Gelnhausen — Houses — 
Windows 255 

V. Pointed Style in Germany — 
History of style — St. Gereon, Co- 
logne — Churches at Gelnhausen 
— ^Marburg — Cologne Cathedral 
— Freiburg — Strasburg — St. Ste- 
phen's, Vienna — Nuremberg — 
Miihlhauson— Erfurt 264 

VI. Circular Churches — Church 
Furniture — Civil Architecture 
Town-hall at Brunswick . . 292 

VII. Northern Germany — Brick 
Architecture — Churches at Lu- 
beck — in Brandenburg — in Er- 
meland — Castle at Marienburg 302 


L Sweden — Norway — Denmark — Gothland — Round Churches — Wooden 
Churches 313 


I. Introductory 335 


.. 341 

III. English Medlsyal Archttec- 
TURB— Plans of English Cathedral 
Churches — ^Vaults — Pier Arches 
— Window tracery — External 
Proportions — Diversity of Style 
— Situation — Chapter-Houses — 
Chapels — Parish Churches — 

Details — Tombs— Civil and Do- 
mestic Architecture 345 

IV. Architecture of Scotland — 
Affinities of Style — Early Spe- 
cimens — Cathedral of Glasgow — 
Elgin— Melrose — Other Churches 

— ^Mouasteries 418 

V. Ireland — Oratories — Round 
Towers — Domical Dwellings — 
Domestic Architecture — Bunic 
Cross Decoration 443 




Chap. Page 

I. Spain — Intboddctory .. .. 460 

IL Bomanesqae Churches at 
NaraDco, Boda, and Leon — 
Early Spanish Gothic : Churches 
at Santiago, Zamora, Toro, Avila, 
Salamanca, and Tarragona — Mid- 
dle Pointed style : Churches at 
Toledo, Burgos, Leon, Barcelona, 
Manresa, Gerona, Seville — Late 
Gothic style : Churches at Se- 

Chap. Paoi 

goyia, Villena — Moresco style : 
Churches at Toledo, Ilescas, and 
Saragoza 464 

IIL Civil Architecture — Monastic 
Buildings — Municipal Buildings 
— Castles 502 

IV. Portugal— Church of Batalha 
— Alcoba9a — Belem 507 



I. Saracenic Architecture in 
Christian Countries ; or, Byzan- 
TTNB Saracenic — Introduction .. 512 

II. Syria and Egypt — Mosques at 
Jerusalem — El Aksah — Dome of 
the Bock — Mosque at Damascus 
— Egypt — Mosques at Cairo — 
Mosque at Kerouan — Other 
African buildings — Mecca.. .. 516 

ITL Spain — Introductory Remarks 
— Mosque at Cordoba — Palace at 
Zahra — Churches at Sta. Maria 
and Cristo de la Luz at Toledo — 

Giralda at Seville — Palace of the 
Alcazar — The Alhambra — Sicily 542 

IV. Turkey — Mosques of Maho- 
met II. — Suleiiuanie and Ahmod- 
jie Mosques — Mos(]uo8 of Sultanas 
Valide, and of Osman III. — Civil 
and Domestic Architocture — 
Fountains, &c 556 

V. Persia — Historical notice — 
Tombs at Bagdad — Imaret at 
Erzeroum — Mosque at Tabreez — 
Tomb at Sultanieh — Bazaar at 
Ispahan — College of Husein Shah 
— Palaces and other Buildings — 
Turkestan 567 


I. Intboductory 


IL Central Auebica — Historical 
notice — Central American style 

— ^Temples — Palaces — Buildings 
at Palenque — Uxmal, &c 589 

III. Peru — Historical notice— Titi- 
caoa — ^Tombs — Walls of Cuzoo, &c. 600 


• •• 




no. PAOB 

I^OHUtpieoe, — ^Portal of the 
Conyent at Belem, near 

Vvflietie to Title-page.^Fa^de 
of Church at Tourmania. 

Frontispiece to Part If. (con- 
tinued). — View of Cologne 
Cathedral zvi 

513. Plan of Baptistery, Parma . . 2 

514. Baptistery at Parma, half Section 

half Elevation 2 

515. View of the Dnomo at Prato .. 3 

516. Torracio at Cremona 4 

517. Campanile, Palazzo Scaligeriy 

Verona 5 

518. Campanile, S. Andrea, Mantua . . 6 

519. Campanile at Florence .. 7 

520. North Porch, Sta. Maria Mag- 

giore, Bergamo 9 

521. Palace of the Jurisconsults at 

Cremona 11 

522. Broletto at Como 12 

523. Ornamental Brickwork from the 

Broletto at Brescia 13 

524. Window from ^the Cathedral of 

Monza 14 

525. 526. Windows from Verona .. 15 

527. Central Part of the Facade of the 

Doge'a Palace, Venice .. .. 16 

528. Palace of Ck d'Oro, Venice . . 18 

529. Angle Window at Venice .. .. 19 

530. Ponte del Paradise, Venice .. 20 

531. San Gioyanni degli Eremiti, Pa- 

lermo 25 

532. Plan of Church at Monreale .. 26 

533. Portion of the Nave, Monreale . . 27 

534. Lateral Entrance to Cathedral at 

Palermo 28 

535. East £;nd, of Cathedral at Pa- 

lermo 29 

536. Plan of the Church of the Holy 

Sepulchre, Jerusalem .. .. 34 

537. Holy Sepnlchi«-.-Plan and Eleva- 

tion as it existed befbre the fire 
in 1808 35 

538. Plan of Church at Abii Gosh .. 36 

539. Section of East End of same . . 36 

^. Section of East End of Church at 

Lydda 37 


541. Plan of Apse of Church at Lydda 37 

542. Plan of Mosque at Hebron .. 38 

543. Diagram of the Architectural 

Divisions of France 41 

544. Diagram of Vaulting 46 

545. Diagram of Dome pendentives . . 47 

546. Section of Church at Carcassonne, 

with the outer aisles added in 

the 14th century 48 

547. Porch of Notre Dame de Doms, 

Avignon 51 

548. Porch of St. Trophime, Aries .. 52 

549. Apse of Church at Alet .. .. 53 

550. Internal Angle of Apse at Alet .. 54 

551. Elevation of half one Bay of the 

Exterior of St. Paul-Trois- 

Chftteauz 55 

552. Half bay of Interior of same . . 55 

553. Longitudinal and Cross Section of 

Fontifroide Church 56 

554. Doorway in Church at Mague- 

lonne .. .. 57 

555. Plan of Cathedral, Vienne . . . , 58 

556. Plan of Church at Planes .. .. 59 

557. Tower at Puissalicon 60 

558. Church at Cruas 61 

559. Cloister at Fontifroide .. .. 62 

560. 561. Capitals in Cloister, Elne .. 62 

562. Plan of St. Front, P^rigueuz .. 64 

563. Part of St. Front, P^rigneux .. 65 

564. Interior of Church at Souiliac .. 67 
565.' Plan of Cathedral at Angoul^me 68 

566. One Bay of Nave, Angoul^me ., 68 

567. Plan of Church at Moissac .. 69 

568. Plan of Cathedral at Alby .. 69 

569. Plan of Church of the Cordeliers, 

at Toulouse 70 

570. Section of Church of the Cordeliers 71 

571. Angle of Church of the Cordeliers 71 

572. Plan of St. Semin, Toulouse .. 72 

573. Section of St. Semin 72 

574. Plan of Church at Conques 73 

575. Plan of St. Martin at Tours . . 74 

576. Plan of Church at Charrouz .. 75 

577. Plan of St. Benigne, Dijon .. 75 

578. St. Semin, Toulouse 77 

579. Church at Aillas 78 


SBO. Charch at Lenpiac 

5S1. St. Eloi, E*I«1>°D 

SSa. Tomb at St. Pierre, TouIodm .. 
583. Plan of Cathedral It Angers .. 
5S4. Plan of St. TrinitS, Angen 

585. Tiew of the Interior of Lochai . . 

586. PliDofClinrcbalFoDteTrBult.. 

587. ViewofCherelat FonterniuU.. 

588. ElcTatioQ of one of the Baft of 

the Kare at Fonterrsult 

589. Farads of Chnrch of Notra Dame 


590. PUn nf Cathedr«Ut Poitiera .. 

591. Spire at Cananlt 

593, flan of Church at lawire .. .. 

593. EUratJOD of Church at luoJTf .. 

594. SeetioD of Charch at Isioire, 


595. KleTBtioD of ChcTct, Notie Damo 

do PoTt, Clermont 

59«. Plano/Cheyetofmioe „ .. ' 

597. Fortified Chnrch at Royat 

598. Fafide of Church of St. Martin 

d'Ainaj, Lyons 

599. Cloister of Cathedral of Le Puj- 


600. View of Interior of Abbey at 


601. Plan of Abbey Church «t Clunj 

602. View in A[sle at AutuD .. .. 

603. View ia Nare at Autnn .. .. 
6<^(kction of Narthei at Veielay .. 
605. £ait End, St. UaaoDi .. .. 

6(16. CheTet, St. Menoni 

60/ Plan and SeetJoa of BasHCEurre 

" Beauvaii 

608. Eitemal and Internal View of 

JlaJse (Eurre 

609. Decoration of St. Oenfreui 

610. Section of Eastern portion 

Church of MoDtier-en-Der 

611. Triapaal Chnrch M Querque- 


6ia. Planof the Chnrch DfSt.StepheD, 

613. WecUm Fafsde of ume .. .. 

614. Section of NaTft of nine .. .. 

615. Diagiara of Vaulting of ume .. 

616. Eleration of Compartment of 
, NiTc of St. Stephen, Caen .. 

^, Compartiotnt, Abbaye-ani- 
Dam«, Caen 

618. Eut End of St. Nicolas, Caen .. 

619. Lower Compartment, NaTe, 


620. . PUn of Cithndrd of Notre Dame, 

621. Section of Side-aiale*, of ume .. 

{.EitemalEleratioD ofaame .. 133 

k. Plan of Chartrei Cathedral ., IM 
K PUnof RheimsCalhedrsl.. .. 135 
1. Plan of Amieni Cathedral .. .. 135 
J. Vit» of the Facade of the Cathe- 
dral at I'arii 136 

r. North-west View of the Cathe- 
dral atChartrei 138 

). Battreii at Chartrei 139 

). Jjiittresseg at Rheims 139 

t. Bay of Nam ufBeauFais Cathedral 143 
1. Doorway, South Transept, B«au- 

»ai. 143 

!. PlsD ofCalhedndatNoyon .. 144 
!. Spires of Laon Cathedral .. 145 

i. View of Cathedral at Coutaacea 146 
>■ LadyCbapel,Auierre .. 147 

!. Plan ofCathedralnt Troyes .. 149 
'. ranQdeofCethcdralatTroyes .. 149 
1. Wind(.wofCulhedralalI.rDns.. 15« 
I. PUn of Cathedral at Baua .. 150 
). Plan of Cathedral nt BouT^g .. 151 
I. Section of Cathedral at Bourges 153 
i. View ID the Church of CharW 


■ontigny .. .. 
ront of Sle, Marie 


Church of St.Ouen 


i. Church of St. Ouen from the S.E. 198 
'. Southern Porch of same ., .. 159 
(. Diagram of plans of Pillara ,. 183 
). Window, Kt. Martin, Paris .. 163 
). Window in Nave of Cathedral at 

Charcres 163 

I. Window in Ciioir of Cathedral at 

Chartrej 163 

i. Window at Kheims 164 

). Window at St. Oueo 164 

k Window atChartrei .. ., .. 165 
i. We^l Window Chartres .. ,. 166 
). TruLnept Window, t'hnrtrea .. 166 
I. West Window, Rheims ., ..168 
i. West Window, Erreui .. .. 166 
J. West Window, St. Ouen ., ..167 
). Dingram of Vaulting .. .. 169 

1. Abbey Church, Soutigny .. .. 170 
i. Diagram of Bnttru»i .. .. 173 
). Flying Bnttressea of St. Ouen ,. 173 
I. Flfiog Buttress at Amiea 

t. Pier 
i. Lantern, St. Ouen, Boaen .. 

'. Corbel 

1. Capitala from Rheimi 

). Eood-Screen from the Mad. 

at Troves 



). HAlaldeVilUofSLAntooiD .. 

I. HoueataBor 

1. Honu at Triaii 

). PdtUI of tha Dncal Palace at 

L View of Wait End of CbuTch at 

3. PlauofCaDicdralatTonmar .. 
i. SecliDQ of Cantral Portion of 

uma, lookiDg Sontli 
J. Weat Front of »otrs Dama d« 


!. Spire of the Chapel of St. Sang, 

). Windav in Chorcli at Villera, 

near l5fnap[w 

). Plan of the Cathedral at Antwerp 
[. Plan of St. Jacqnea, Li»ge 

I. Betfrr at Ghent 

)^ Cloth-hall at Yprei 

i. Town-hall, Brnsseli 

S. Part of the Biahop'i Palace, Diga 
i. Serluclinn of an orinnal plan of 
ntStGall.. .. 

: PUn H-.f <-1iijrrli At Mitt 

tell, i. 

■l.iuJ "fKei, 

i. EltratianofWest EDdofuine.. S 
3. Plan of the Church of Romaio- 

Moticr 2 

). Viewofjame 2 

t. Section orChurch at Granson .. 2 

I. PlanofChnrchat Gerarode .. 2'. 
i. View of Weat End of Church at 

Genirode 2! 

I. View of Weat End of Abbey of 

Coney 21 

;. Plan of original Church at Travel SI 
J. PUn of Uedicral Church at 

Tr*™ 2: 

r. WeatemApiaorChnrchatTriTea 2: 

i. EattenApKofChDrchatTr^Tei S: 
). Internal View of the Chumh of 

SL Michael at Hildetheim .. 2: 

), PUnofaatne 2! 

[, Ftan of Cathedral of Wormi . . 2: 

i. One Bay cf Cnthidral at Womu 2! 

J. SideElBTalionofiome .. .. 2i 

L Plunnftlifi Cathedral at Spire* 21 
i. Weitem Apm of Cathedral at 

Hayance 3; 

i. Church at Uinden. Cathedral at 

PaderborTi. Church at Soeit 21 
7. Plan of Sta. Uari* in Capitolio, 

Cologne 2; 

i. Apse of the Apoatles' Church at 

Cologne a; 

). ApM of St. Martina Cbnrch at 

Cologne 2; 

710. Euit End of Church at Boon .. 2 
Til. Plan of Church at Laach .. .. 2 

712. View of Church at Laaoh .. .. 2 

713. Charch at Siniig 2 

7U. Hood Screen at Wechselburg .. 2 

7IS. Crypt al Gullingea 2 

TIS. Fa^eofCharcbat Roaheim .. S 

717. Chnrch at Harmontier .. .. 2 

718. Section of Church of Schwarti 

Rheindorf 2 

719. Viewofiame 3 

720. Plan of Chapel at Landaberg .. 2 

721. Section of Chapel at Undaberg .. 2 

722. View and Plan of the Cathedral 

atZnrich 2 

723. Dogrway at Baale 3 

724. Plan of Church at Ail -la- 

Chapella 2 

725. Church at Nymwegen .. .. 2 
725a. Plan of Church at Meltlacb ..2 
725b. Capital of Triforium of aame .. 2 

726. Church at Peteraberg .. ..2 

727. Plan of Chnrch at Pnlda .. .. 2 

728. Plan of Chnrch at Driiggclte .. 2 

729. Baptistery at Bonn 2 

730. Chapel at Cobcrn on the Mobile 2 

731. PorchofCoDVi'ntatLornch .. 2 
733. Arcada of the Palace at (ielu- 

hauien 2 

733. Capital, Gelnhausen 2 

734. View of the Palace on the Wart- 

•"■rg 2 

735. Cloitter at Zurich 3 

736. Dwell iog-bouie, Cologne .. .. 2 

737. WiDdowainbackofaame .. .. 2 

738. Windowa from Sion Church, 

Cologne 2 

739. Windowa from St. Quirinua at 

Ncuia 2 

740. SectionofSt.Gereon, Cologne .. 2 

741. Plan of St Gereon, Cologne .. 2 

742. East End of Chnrch at Geln- 

hau«n 2 

743. Plan of Chnrch at Marburg .. 2 

744. Section of Chnrch at Marburg .. 2 

745. Plan of Church at Altenbcrg .. 3i 

746. Plan of Cathedral at Cologne .. 3 

747. Weatem Facade of Cathedral of 

Cologne 2 

748. View of Church at Freiburg .. 2 

749. Plan of Slissburg Catliciiral .. 2 

750. Wet Front of same .. 2 

751. Tien of Ratiibon Cathedral . . 2 

752. ViewartheS;dreofSt.Stephen'a, 


I. Plin of St. UimiiM's Chtinh, 
Norcmbcrg .. 2 

>. Ptui of Chordi >t Euttcnbci^, 
Ukn kbora th« nwf of th« 
■iile* S 

I. ScctioaoftbaChnrchoTums .. 2 

r. PI»n of Ohnrch of St. Victor at 
Xuten 2< 

). Vi«r of Units Eirclio, UGfal- 
tuuicn 2. 

). Plui of Uuien Eirchi, Hubl- 

). SL S«Tenu ChoTch at Erfurt .. 2: 

I. Audb Chapl at Heilig^Dttadt .. 2! 
). 5acniTnFDtsiiiiu9chPD,Kareinbcrg2! 
1. Dooroij-ofChureh Bl Ch*mnili S' 
I. Scbdne Brunneoiit Nuremberg 2' 
i. Todt*Blenchter Vietinii ,. .. 2' 
i. Bay Window from Si. S«lu1d'> 

PsnwQflga, Nursmbfrs .. .. 2' 
r. Facade of HoDn at Bruck-am- 

Mnr 2 

(. Tonrn.hall st BniMwkk .. .. 3 
». Plan of C'lthedril, Luteck .. S 
). Plan of Mariin Kirchs, Lobcclc . . S 

I. Viewofitm a 

I. Town in the KtebliDger Straaac, 

HanoTer 3' 

I. Church at Fraaonburg ., ..3' 

L. Church at Saotopp«n 3' 

>. Fatadt of UaricD Kirche, Bran- 

dmbnrg 3 

1. Fa^e of the Knight-ball in the 

Cartla of Mjirienburg .. .. 3 
r, Planof fpsaU CatheJrsl „ .. 3 
1. Apse of Lund Cnthcdral .. .. 3 
». Old Country Church and Belfry 3 
). riim of Cathedral of Trondhjem 3 
1. TiewofCnthetiral ofTroudhji.™ 3 
!. DeTaUoDofDouikirche Roeikilde 3 

t. Plan of aiDic 3 

I. Fme Eircbe, Aarhniu .. .. 3 
i. Church of Kallundborg ,, ., 3 
1. Helgi-Anders Church, Wiaby .. 3 
r. Interior of Cburcb at Gothein .. 3 
!. FolB Church, Gothland .. .. 3 
). PoiUl, Sondeo Church, Gothland 8 
). Portal, Hoatc Churcb, GotbUnd 8 
.. ViewofSouQdChurcb,TborHger, 

L SecCionandGrounJ-planof lima 3 
1. BoQiid Choreh of Oiater Lanker, 

Boraholm 3 

b View and plan of Hagby Church, 

Sweden 8 

I. lidnrbiD Choreh and Wapenhna, 

Gothland 3 

T9S. Plan of Church at Hittatdal .. 3 

797. ViewofChurcbiil Hittcrdal .. 3 

798. Church of Umo, Norway .. 3 

799. Tipwf r of Earl's Barton Church 3 

800. Windows, Earl'a Barton .. .. 3 

801. Saion Doorway at Monkwear- 

mouth 8 

802. Plan of Norwich Cathedral .. 3 
808.- Plui of Canterbury Cathedral .. 3 
BOji. Plan of Durham Cathedral .. » 

805. Plan of Salisbury Cathedral .. 3 

806. Plan of ■Winchester Cathedral .. 3 

807. Plan of Ely Cathedral .. ..a 

808. Octagon at Oy Cathedral .. .. 3 

809. Plan of Westminster JVbbey .. a 

810. Nare of Feterboroagb Cathedral 3 

811. Nave of Lincoln Cathedral .. 3 

812. NarcoflJcbficldCathedTli .. 3i 

813. Choir of Gloucester C«thed™l .. 3 

814. J>iagrnnis of Vaulting ,. a 

815. Vault of Cloiitcr.GlDncester .. » 

816. Vault of Aisle at St. Georre'i, 

/ Windsor „ Z 

8t7/Aiiie in Henry Vll.'s Chapel, 

Westminster 3 

818. Retro-choir, Peterboroogh Cathe- 

dral 3 

819. Choir Arches of Oiford Cathedral 3 

820. TrBtmfi.rTuation nf the Nave, Win- 

chester .. ,. 3 

821. Choir of Ely Cathedral .. .. » 

822. Two Lays .>f tije Nave of West- 

minaler Abbey 8' 

823. One Bay of Cathedral at Eieter 3 

824. The Fire Sisters Window. York 3 

825. Ely CjthHra), Kast End ., ., 3 
Uncct Window, Hereford Cathe- 

dral . 

827. East End of Lincoln Cathedral .. 3 

828. ^urth TiBosept Window, Lincoln 3 
828. WindowinChapter-houM atTork, 

English Geometric Tracery .. 3 

830. Window in St. Anaelm'a Chapel, 

Canterbury 3 

831. East Window of Carlisle Cathe- 

dral a 

832. South Transept Window, Lincoln 3 

833. l'eri>endiciilar Tracery, Win- 

cheiler Ulhedml 8 

834. Saljibnry Cathedral, from the 

N.E. a 

835. View of Lichfield Cathedral .. 3 

836. Lincoln Cathedral a 

6ii. View of the Angel Tower and 

Chapter-house, Canterbury .. 3 
838. West Front of Peterborough 


840. Chipter-houit, SalUbnry .. .. 3 

Ml. Chnpter-hoUH,W«lL) 3 

8*3. Chapt«-hou.f, York 3 

843. lDlfnLBlEleriitiDiiDfSt.Stcph«i'i 

Chapel, WeMminsttr .. .. 3 

844. PUo or SU. Cbapell«, PiHi .. 3 

845. Plu of St. Sttphcn'i, Wnt- 

' raisitct 3 

-M6. iDterior Vi«r of Kiag'i Colleg* 

Chapel, Cam bhJge 3 

647. Flan of Circakr Chnrcfa at Uttit 

MaplHWnd 3 

84B. Spire of OnM Lcigbi Charch, 

Euu 3 

S49. Tonr of Ijtcle Saxham Church, 

Suffolk 3 

850. Roofal TrunchChurch .. .. 4 

851. Rwfof Aislf iDKewWalsiugham 

Church 4 

852. Plan of Church of Walpols St. 

Pcter'i, Norfolk 4 

8.'>3. SUircua at Canterbur]' Cathi- 

dnl 4 

S54. Norman GiUvaj , College Green, 

Briitol 4 

855. Capital!, tic, of Doorway leading 

to the Choir Aiile», Lincoln .. 4 

856. Wat DooTiraj, Lichfield Cathe- 

drel 4 

857. Tomb of Blthop Uanhall, Eietar 

Ciilbedrnl 4 

858. The Triple Canopy in HeckingtoD 

Church, LincolTiabira .. .. 4 

859. Prior d'Estrias Scredu, Canter- 

bury Cathedral .. ..4 

850. Doorway of Chapter-houJe, Ro- 

cheatet Cathedral .. .. 4 

851. TomboftheBlackPrioce.Canter- 

bury Calhedrd 4 

862. Tomb of Edward III. in Wett- 

miniter Abbey 4 

863. Tomb of Edward II. in Glouce»Iet 

Catbelral 4 

884. Tomb of Bishop Redman in Ely 
Calhedral 4 

865. WslthuiiCrou(reatored).. .. 4 

866. Plan of Weitminiter Hall.. .. 4 

867. Section of Weatminiter Hall ,. 4 

868. Hall of Palace at Eltham .. .. 4 

869. WindoK, Leuchan 4 

870. Pier-Arcb, Jedburgh 4 

871. Archea In KelM Abbey .. .. 4 

872. Plan and three Bayi of Choir 

Kirkwall Cathedral .. .. 4 

873. North Side of the Cathndral at 

Kirkwall 4 

874. I. Plan of Glaagow Cathedral. 
, a. Plan of Crypt, GlaJigow Cathe- 

i. View in Crypt of Glatgow 

Cathedral 4 

>. Crypt of Cathedral at Glaagow 4 
'. Clereatory Window, Glaagow 

Cathedral 4 

I. Eaat EndoTOlaegowCatbedral.. 4 
I. Eaat End, Elgin Cathedral.. .. 4 
sept, Elgin Cathedral 4 

of Dooi 


1. Plan of Elgin Oatiiet 

I. Aial* in Melrose Abbey .. .. 

I. Ea.1 Window, Melrose .. .. 

K Chapel at ftosljn 

I r Chapel, Roily n .. .. 
L Stone Roof of B.,lhwell Church 
). Exterior of Roof of Bothwtll 


9, &W. Ornamental Areadea, from 


1. Interior of Porch, Dunfermline.. 

I. Window at Dunkeld 

}, Doorway, Linlithgow 

I. Doorway, St. Gilei'i, Edinburgh 
i. Doorway, Pluicardine Abbey ., 

r in T..« 

r, Ion 

'. Aisk. in Trinity CollegeChurcb, 

F.Jinburfh * 

I. Cloiater, Kilconnel Abbey .. .. 4 
). Oratory, Innlsfallen, Killamcy.. 4 
I. Cormac'i Chapel, Cashel . .. 4 
,. Seetion of Chapel, Killaloe .. 4 
I. St. Geciu'i Kitchen, GlendaloLigh 4 
I. Doorway In Tower at Um Raia* 4 
r! Chancel Arch 



i. Doorway in Tower, Kildare 
i. Doorwa; in Tower, Donoughmo: 


r. Doorway in Tower, Antrim 

I. Tower, Dereniih 

). Tower, Kilree, Kilkenny .. 
). Tower, Einneth, Cork 

l. Tower, Ardmore 

!. Kluor In Tower Kinneth .. 
). Doorway, Honaiterboice .. 
L Doorway, Kilcnllen, Kildare 
i. Windows in Round Towen 
i. Window, Qlendalongh 
r. Oratory cfGalieru. . ., 
i. Tower, Jerpoint Abbey 

t. Eanae, Galway 

). Ballj-rnmney Court, Cork .. 

1. CnMBtKell* 

i. View of Chon* at Naranco 
). Plan of Church at Karanco 


PlinofS. Piblo 


96g. PUn of the Church at Batalha .. 

Detul of S. Pablo 


969. Portal at Belem 



970. Plan of the Hoaque el-Akuh at 

Putani of St. liidoro, Leon .. 


Flu of 5*ati«go di (Jjmposlellii 


971. View in the Hoaqae el-Akuh .. 

Santisgo Cathedral. Interior of 

973. Plan of the Dome of the Rock . . 

South Transept, looking North- 




973. View inAi.leoffclmc .. .. 

Interior of 3. Uldoro, Leon 


974. Caiiital in Dome of the Rock . . 

975. Order of the Dome of the Rock 

Col lagiatt Church at Tore .. 
liriiU Old Dithedrat. Door o 


976. Plan of Mcquejit DamaKu. . 

977. PlanarMo*queorAmru,01dCairo 

South Torch 


978. Arches in the Moiquu of Amru 

San VinccDie, Aiila, Interior o 

979. Mosque of IbnTooloon at Cairo 

W^tern Porch 


980. Window in M.*iL.e „f same 

EitCTtor of Unttrn, Sotimanca 

981. Planof Mo»iueofSulUn Hawin, 

Old Cathedral 




983. Section of same 

Plan of St. Milan, Segovia 
Tarragona Cothedral. Vieoacrou 

47 ti 

983. Plan of Mosque and Tombs of 

Sultan Berhook, Cairo .. .. 


984. Section of Mosque of Berkook .. 

Chnrch of the Tomptara at 

985. Mosque of Kaithey 



986. PUn of Great Mosque at Mecca 

PUn of Cathedral at Toledo .. 


987. Plan of Great Mosque of Kerouan 

View in the Choir of the Cathe 

988. Main Entrance in Court of same 

dralat Toledo 


989. Minaret at Tunis 

Tlan of Ilurg"" Cilhcdrai .. .. 


990. Plan of Mosque of Cordoba , . 



991. Interior „f .S^ncluarv at Cordoha 

Plan of Leon CatheJTit ,. .. 


9S2. Eiterior of the Saactuarj, Cor- 

BajofChoir.Uon Cathedral .. 


doba .. .. 

Compartment of Kare, Burgos 

993. Screen of the Chapel of Villa Vi- 



ciosa, Mosque of Cordoba 

Plan of Cathedral at Barcelona 


994. Church of San Ctisto de la Lnz, 

Sta. Maria del Mar, Barcelona . . 



Sta. Maria del Pi, Barcelona .. 


995. The Giralda at Seville .. .. 

Interior of Collegiate Church, .. 


997. Plan of Suleimanie Mosque .. 

PUnofCftlhedraUtaerona .. 


998. Section of Suleimanie Mosque .. 

Interior of Cit he J ral at Gerona, 

999. View of Suleimanie Mosque .. 

looking l^aat 


1000. Plan of Abmedjie M-i.-^oe 

Ciu>borio«r Catheilral at Valencia 


1001. PlanofTombofZol.eiii*,BagJa<l 

Plan of Cathedral at Seville 


1003. ViewofTombofZobeidfi 

Pl«i of Cathedral at Segovia .. 


1003. Tomb of Eiekiel, near Bagdad 

Section of Church at Villena .. 


1004. Imaret of Oulou Diami at Erie- 

Plan of Sta. Maria la Bianca .. 



Interior of StL Maria la Bisnca 


1005. Plan of HoM|ue of Tabreei 


1006. View of Ruined Moique at Tab- 

Tower at Ilescae 



1007. Tomb of Sultan KhodabenJah at 

St. Panl, Saragoia 



Doorway from Valencia .. .. 


1008. Section of the Tomb at SulUuieh 

Cloister of the Hnelgai, near 

1009. View of the Tomb at Sultanieh 



1010. Plan of Oreat Mosque at Ispahan 

aoiiter, Taraiona 


1011, Madrisea of Sultan Hniein at 

The Co Lonja, Valencia.. .. 



Cattle of a)C09,Ca)tille .. .. 


1013, Throne-room at Teheran.. .. 




1013. Palace at Ispahan 580 

1014. PaTilion in the Khan's Palace at 

Khiva 581 

1015. Pyramid of Oajaca,Tehaantepec 590 

1016. Plan of the Temple at Mitla .. 591 

1017. View of the Palace at Mitla .. 592 

1018. EleyationofTeocalliatPalenqne 594 

1019. Plan of Temple 594 

1020. Eleration of Boilding at Chnn- 

jaja 596 

1021. Elevation of part of Palace at 

Zayi 596 

1022. Plan of Palace at Zayi .. ..597 

1023. Casa de las Monjas, Uxmal .. 597 

Ma PAon 

1024. Interior cfa Chamber, Uxmal.. 598 

1025. Apartment at Chichen Itza .. 599 

1026. Diagram of Mexican construction 599 

1027. Rained Gateway at Tia Huanacn 601 

1028. Gateway at Tia Hnanacn .. 602 

1029. Tombs at Sillustani 603 

1030. Rains of Hoase of Manco Capac 

inCazco 604 

1031. Hoase of the Virgins of the Sun 605 

1032. Peruvian Tombs 606 

1033. ElevaUonof WallofTambos .. 606 

1034. Sketch PUds of the Walls of 

Cuzco 607 

1035. View of Walls of Cazco .. ..607 








ITALY.— ContUuU 

Ciranlar cbmcbet — Towcra at Prolo and Florcooc — Porches— Ci' 
Towa-balla — Venice — Dorb'h palace — Ci d'Oro — Coudiia 

Circular Buildings. 

I Tbbrk are very few Bpecimens in Italy of circular or polygonal 
buildings of any claas belonging to the Gothic nge. As churches, 
none arc to be expected. £aptiateriea had passed out of fikshion. One 
such building, at Panna, commenced in 1196, deserves to be quoted, 
not certainty for its beauty, but as illustrating those false principles 
of design shown ia every part <rf every building of this age in Italy. 
Externally tbe building is an octagon, six storeys in height, the four 
gpper ones being merely used to conceal a dome, which is covered by a 
low-pitched wooden roof. The lowest and the highest storeys aro 
solid, the otiierB are galleries supported by little ill-shaped columns. 
It is probable that this waa not the original deeign of the architect, 
AnteJanu. ITo doubt he intended to conceal the dome, or at all 
erenta to cover it, as was the universal practice in Italy ; but instead of 
a more perpendicolar wall, as here used, the external outline should aasomed a ccmical fono, which might have rendered it as pleasing 




as it is now avkvard. We have no iostance of a circular bnOding 
carried out by Italian architects according to th^ own principlea 

sufficiently far to enable ub to 

judge what they were capable of 
in thia style, unless perhaps It he 
the totnba d the Scaligers at 
Verona. These take the circular 
or polygonal form appropriate to 
tombs, but are on so small a scale 
that tb^ might ratlier be called 
crosses than mausolea ; and though 
illustrating all the best principles 
of Italian design, and evincing an 
exuberance of exquisite ornament, 
they can hardly be regarded as 
H-peni *>TfTHA5>C^B ll ""port*^* o^^jecta oi high art. It 
'rJirJ 1 .i!''i'itSjBBM ia ^^J from small buildings like 
these that we may recover the 
principles of this art as practised 
in Italy. Kot being, like the 
Northern styles, a progressive 
national effort, but generally an 
individual exerticm, if the first 
architect died during the progress 
of a larger building, no one knew 
exactly how he hod intended to 
finish it, and its completion was 
entrusted to the caprice and fancy 
of some other man, which he gene- 
rally indulged, wholly regardless of its incongruity with the work of 
his predecessor. 


The Italians in the age of pointed architecture were hardly more 
successful in their towers than in their other buildings, except that 
a tower, from its height, must always be a striking object, and, if 
both massive and high, cannot fail to have a certain imposing appear- 
ance, of which no clumsiness on the part of the architect can deprive 
it. Such towers as the Asinelli and Garisenda at Bologna possess no 
more architectural merit than the chimneys of our factories. Most of 
tiiose subsequently erected were better than these, but still the Italians 
never caught the true idea of a spire. 

Throughout the whole of the Middle Ages they retained their 
affection for the wigiaol rectangular form, making their towers as 

Bk. II. Ch. VII. 


broad at the gnnunit u at the base. With veiy few exceptions, they 
are without buttFeases, or any projection on the angles, to aid in giving 
them even an appearance of support. In consequence, when a spire 
was placed on such an edifice it always fitted awkwardly. The art by 
which a tower waa prepared for its termination, first by the graduated 
buttresses at its base, then by the strongly marked vertical lines of its 
upper portion, and above all by the circle of spirelets at the top, out of 
which the central spire shot up as an absolute necessity of the com- 
position — this art, so dear and ao familiar to the Northern builders, 
was never understood by the Italians. If they, on the contrary, placed 

ofOKDiuiiuitl'nlo. (Prom WlcbcUnE,} 

an octagon on their square towers, it looked like an accident for which 
nothing was prepared, and the spire waa separated from it only by bold 
h<Mizontal cornices, instead of by vertical lines, as true taste dictated. 

In fact, the Italians seem to have benefited leas by the experience 
or instruction of their Northern neighbours in tower-building than in 
any other feature of the style, and to have retained their old forms in 
these after they had abandoned them in other parts of their churches. 

The typical tower of its class is the Toraccio of Cremona. It is a 
monumental tower commenced in 1296 to commemorate a peace maUu 
between Cremona and the neighbouring states after a long and tedious 

It i 


Part II. 

contest for suprranacj. It 
is not an ecclesiastical 
edifice, bnt partakes, 
therefore, tike those of 
St. Mark, Venice, and of 
Modena, more of the 
character of a civic belfry 
thaa of a church tower, 
such as those previously 
mentioned. It is the high- 
est and largest, and con- 
sequently, according to 
the usual acceptation of 
the term the finest of, 
Italian towers. Its whole 
height is 396 ft., about 
two-thirds of which is a 
square ungainly mass, 
without either design or 
ornament of any import- 
ance. On this is placed 
an octagon and spire, 
which, though in them- 
selves perhaps the best 
specimens of their class 
in Italy, have too littlo 
connection cither in design 
or dimensions with the 
tower on which they stand. 
The celebrated tower 
of the Ghirlandina at 
Modena is, perhaps, on© 
of the best to enable us 
to compare these Italian 
towers with the Cis- 
Alpine ones, since it 
possesses a well-propor- 
tioned spire, which is 
found in few of the 
others. From its date it 
belongs to the second 
division of the subject, 
having been commenced 
in the 1 3th and finished in 
the 14th century ; but, as 

bk. n. ch. vn. 


before remarked, there U no line of distinction between the round-arched 
and pointed-arched styles in Italy, and though this campanile seenis 
to be wholly with- 
out any pointed 
forms, we may de- 
scribe it here. 

Its whole height 
is abont 315 ft., of 
which less than 200 
&re taken up in the 
square port — which 
thus bears a less 
predominant pro- 
portion to the spire 
than any other 
Italian example. 
It is evidently 
meant to rival the 
famous German 
spires wh cfa bod 
become such favour 
ites in the ^e n 
which t was bnilt 
and although t 
avoids many of the 
errors into which 
the excess e Iov« 
of decoraton and 
of tour* deform led 
the Germans still 
the result is far 
from satisfactory 
The change from 
the square to the 
octagon 18 abrupt 
and unpleosing and 
the spire itself looks 
too thick for the 
octagon. Every 
where there is a 
want of those 
buttresses and pm 
nacles with which the Gothic architects knew so well how to prepare 
for a transition of form and to satisfy the mind that the composition 
was not <H>ly artistically but mechaucally correct The Italians never 

Cuopu PiluKi Srml geri, I0D4. (FnmStmt.) 


CuDpulle. S, ADdna, HuiKia. (FnaStittL) 

Part II. 

comprehended tbe 
aspiring principle of 
tbe Gothic styles, 
and consequently, 
though they bod far 
more elegance of 
taate and used 
better details, their 
works hardly satisfy 
the mind to a 
greater extent than 
a modem classical 
church or museum. 

The same remarks 
apply to the towers 
of Siena, Lucca, 
Pistoja, and indeed 
to all in the North 
of Italy : all have 
some pleasing points, 
but none are en- 
'f^ tirely satisfactory , 
None have sufficient 
ornament, or display 
enough design, to 
render them satis- 
factory in detail, nor 
have they sufficient 
mass to enable them 
to dispense with the 
evidence of thought, 
and to impress l^ 
the simple grandeur 
of their dimensions. 
The towers oi 
Asti (1266) and 
Siena (rebuilt in 
1389) arc illustrated 
in Woodcuts Noa. 
493 and 498. Th^ 
certainly display but 
little art. A more 
pleasing specimen is 
the tower (Woodcnt 
No. 515) attached 

Bk. il Ch. vn. 



to tbe Dnomo at Frato (about 1312), which may be considered w 

a specimea of the very best class of Italian tower-design of the 

age, although in fact ita only merit consists in the increase in the 

eize of the openings in every storey upwards, so as to give a certain 

d^ree of lightness to the upper part. On this 

side of the Alps the same effect was getkerally 

attained by diminishing the diameter. When a 

spire is to be added, that is the only admissible 

mode ; but when the building is to be crowned 

t^ a cornice, as at Frato, the mode there 

adc^tted is perhaps preferable. 

The tower which is attached to the palace of 
the Scaligeri at Verona (Woodcut No. 517) is 
perhaps as graceful as any other, and as charac- 
teristic of the Italian principles of tower- 
building. The lower part is absolutely plain 
and solid, the upper storey alone being pierced 
with one splendid three-light window in each 
face, with a boldly projecting coroice over it 
marking the root On this is placed an 
octagonal lantern two storeys in height. Had 
the lower portion of the lantern been broken by 
turrets or pinnacles at the angles, the elTect 
would have been greatly improved. As it is, it 
seems only a makeshift to eke out the height of 
the whole ; though the octagon with its boldly 
projecting cornice is as graceful as anything of 
the kind in Italian architecture. 

The campanile attached to the church of 
St. Andrea at Mantua (Woodcut No. 518) is 
more nearly Gothic both in design and details. 
Its vertical lines are strongly marked, and the 
stnng^conrses and cornices are of moulded brick- 
w»k, which is a pleasing and characteristic 
feature in the architecture of Lombardy. 

The worst part of this design is the smallneas 
of the octagon and spire, and the unconnected 
mode in which they are placed on the roof of 
tne lower. (FfiumOiiiiubiud.) 

The typical example of the Italian towers is **'■ •«'*■'" i •■■ 

that erected close to the Duomo at Florence from designs by Qiotto, 
otxnmenced in 1324, and considerably advanced, if not nearly finished, 
at the time of his death, two years afterwords. 

Though hardly worthy of the praise which has been lavished on 
H, it is certainly a very beautiful building. Being covered with 


ornament from the base to the summit, it nas not that nakedness 
which is the reproach of so many others, and the octagonal projections 
at the angles give it considerable relief. Besides this, the openings 
are very pleasingly graduated. It is virtually solid for about one- 
third of its height. The middle division consists of two storeys, 
each with two windows, while the upper part is lighted by one bold 
opening on each face, as at Prato. All this is good. One great defect 
of the composition is its parallelism. The slightest expansion of the 
base would have given it great apparent stability, which its height 
requires. Another fault is its being divided by too strongly marked 
horizontal courses into ^distinct storeys, instead of one division falling by 
imperceptible degrees into the other, as in the Northern towers. It has 
yet another defect in common with the Duomo, to which it belongs, 
namely, the false character of its ornamentation, which chiefly 
consists of a veneer of party-coloured slabs of marble, — beautiful 
in itself, but objectionable as not forming a part of the apparent 

The tower now rises to a height of 2G9 ft., and it was intended to 
have added a spire of about 90 ft. to this ; but unless it had been more 
gracefully managed than is usual in Italy, the tower is certainly better 
without it. There is nothing to suggest a spire in the part already 
executed, nor have we any reason to believe that Giotto understood the 
true principles of spire-building bettor than his contemporaries. 


Another feature very characteristic of the Gothic style in Italy 
is to be found in the porches attached to the churches. Generally 
they are placed on the flanks, and form side-entrances, and in most 
instances they were added after the completion of the body of the 
building, and consequently seldom accord in style with it. One has 
already been illustrated as attached to the church at Asti (Woodcut 
No. 493); another (Woodcut No. 501), belonging to the church of 
Sta. Maria dei Fieri at Florence, is an integral and beautiful part of 
the design. 

One of the most characteristic specimens of the class in all Italy is 
that attached to the northern flank of the church of Sta. Maria Mag- 
giore at Bergamo (Woodcut No. 520). The principal archway and the 
doorway within it are circular in form, although built in the middle 
of the 14th century, and are ornamented with trefoils and other details 
of the age. Above this are three trcfoiled arches, the central one 
containing an equestrian statue of a certain Duke Lupus, at whose 
expense the porch was probably built, and above these is a little 
pagoda-like pavilion containing statues of the Virgin and Child. 

The whole design is so unconstructivo that it depends more on the 
iron ties that are everywhere inserted to hold it together thatx on any 

Bystem of thrusts or counterpoises, which a true Gothic architect would 
certainly have supplied. 


The two mjun pillars rest on lioos^ as b oniTosallj the cmae in 
these porches throogfaoiit Italr, though rmnlj ioand eLsewhcre. 

Like most oc dwse Italian porches, this one will tux stand criticism 
as a purelj archicecmral object ; bvt its details are io bcaatifal and 
its cqIohts so fascinating that it pleases in ^ite of all its defects ol 
design, and is more characteristic of the tmlj native feeling shown in 
the treatment ol the poinced style c£ architectnre than the more 
ambit ions examples which were erected under direct foreign indnence. 

Cmc BriLDn(G& 

The free towns of Italy reqtdred ciric buildings almost to the same 
extent as the contemporary cities in Belgium, thoagh not quite of the 
same class. Their conmierce, for instance, did not require trade halls, 
but no town was without its town-hall, or palazzo pmbbiicOy and belfry. 
The intrinsic di£culty of the designing of buildings of this class, as 
compared with churches, has already been pointed out. It cannot 
therefore be expected that the Italians, who failed in the easier task, 
should have succeeded in the harder. The town-hall at Siena is 
perhaps the best existing example, most of the others having been so 
altered that it is difficult to judge of their original effect. This must 
be pronounced to be a very poor architectural performance, flat and 
unmeaning, and without any lines or style of ornament to group the 
windows together into one composition, so that they are mere scattered 
openings in the walL 

That at Perugia seems originally to have been better, though now 
greatly disfigured. At Florence the Palazzo Yecchio is more ol a 
feudal fortalice (required, it must be confessed, to keep the turbulent 
citizens in order) than the municipal palace of a peaceful community. 
In Ferrara and other cities the paiazzo pubblxco is really and virtually 
a fortress and nothing else. 

At Piacenza it consists of a range of bold pointed stone arches, 
supporting an upper storey of brick, adorned with a range of circular- 
headed windows, richly ornamented, and a pleasing specimen ol the 
mode in which the Italians avoided the difficulty of filling the upper 
parts of their windows with tracery (which they never liked) and at the 
same time rendered them ornamental externally. 

At Padua and Vicenza are two great halls supported on arcades, 
in intention like that of Piacenza, but far from possessing its beauty. 
That at Padua remains in all its pristine ugliness, as hideous an 
erection as any perpetrated in the Middle Ages. The hall is one of 
the largest in Europe, measuring 240 ft. in length by 84 in width 
(Westminster Hall is 238x67), but wholly without ornament or 
beauty of proportion. Externally the arcades that are stuck to its 

Be. n. Ch. VIL 



sides do DOt relieve its mass, and are not beautiful in themselves. 
That at Vicenza, though originally very similar, has been fortunate in 
having its outside clothed in one of PalJadio's most successful designs, 
— perhaps the only instance in which an addition of that age and style 
has improved a building of the Gothic period. Comparing this hall as 
it stands with that at Padua, it must be admitted that the Italians 

Crtmom. (Fmin Stna.) 

were perfectly correct in abandoning their Gothic for the revived 
classical style, the improvement being apparent on the most cursory 

A number oi the town-halls or Brolettos in the smaller towns still 
remain unaltered, or nearly so, and retain all the peculiarities of their 
miginal design. The Palace of the Jurisconsults at Cremona for 
instance (Woodcut No. 521) only requires its lower arcades to be again 
t^oed to present all its original features, which resemble in almost 



Part II. 

every respect those of the palazzo at Fiacenza above meDtloncd, exc^ 
that the latter has five arches below and six windows above, instead of 
two and three as here shown. This building is wholly of brick, like 
moat other civic buildings in the North c^ Italy. Sometimes, aa at 

Fiacenza, they are of stone below and brick in the tipper storeys. 
Sometimes, though rarely, they are entirely faced with party-coloured 
marbles like the Broletto at Como (Woodcut No. 522), which, though 
not extensive, is a very beautiful specimen of the best form of civie 

bk. n. ch. til 



architecture of the best age in the North of Italy, and standing aa it 
does between the cathedral on the one hand and its own rude old 
belfry on the other, makes up an extremely plensing group).* 

One of the most important buildings <£ this style is the Great 
Hospital, Milan. It was founded in the year 1456, and consequently 
belongs to an age when the style was dying out. It still retains more 
of the pointed style and of Gothic feeling th&n could have been, found 
in any city farther south, or in any one less impregnated, aa it were, 
vith 0«muui blood and feeling. 

Almost all the windows in the part originally erected are pointed 
in form tmd divided by mullions. Their principal omametit consists of 
garlands of flowers interspersed with busts and masks and figures of 
Caindfl, which surround the windows, or run along the string-courses. 

Hie whole of these are ia terra-cotta, aad make up a stylo of orna- 
mentation as original as it is beautiful. It is besides purely local, and 
far nq>erior to the best copi»3S of Northern details, or to the misapplied 
forms of Gothic architecture which are so common in Italy. 

^lere is perhaps nothing in the North of Italy so worthy of admi- 
ration and study, as the way in which moulded bricks of various kinds 
■ra used for decoration, especially in the civic buildings, and also 
oocaaionally in the churches. Sublimity is not perhaps to bo attained 
in Inrickwork ; the parts are too small ; and if splendour is aimed at, it 
may require some larger and more costly material to produce the 
desired effect ; but there ia no beauty of detail or of design on a small 

' Similar bnildingii at B«rt;itino, j SR^Iiitcctiiro of Ibo North of Italy, from 
BrMcia. and Monza are illmtnitod in whirh tho twu liut 
Mr. Stroet'a heanUftd wutk od tLo I liomiwcd. 



Paet II. 

scale that may not be obtained by the use of moulded bricks, which 
are in themselyea for more durable, and, if carefully burnt, retain their 
Bharpness of outline longer, than most kinds of stone. 

The most common way in which the Italians used this material 
was by repeating around their openings or along their cornices small 
copies of Gothic details, as in this example from a circular window in 
the Broletto at Brescia (Woodcut No. 523). Where the details are 
small and designed with taste, the effect is almost equal to stone ; but 
where the details are themselves on a large scale, as is sometimes the 
cose, the smallness of the 
materials becomes apparent. 
Even in this example the 
semi.c|uatrefoils of the prin- 
cipal band are too large for 
the other details, though not 
sufGciently so to be ofiensive. 
Though not so rich, the 
' effect is almost equally pleaa- 
L ing where the brick is merely 
lulded on its edge, without 
any very direct repetition of 
Gothic details, as in the 
upper part of the windowr 
shown in Woodcut No. 524, 
from the cathedral of Monza. 
Where great depth is given 
so as to obtain shadow, and 
long tiles are used for the 
upper arch, as was done by 
the Romans, an appearance 
of strength and solidity is 
given to the construction 
unsurpassed by that obtained 
in any other material. 
Perhaps the most pleasing application of terra^cotta ornaments is 
where bricks of diHerent colours are used so as to produce by variety 
of pattern that relief which cannot so well be given by depth of 
shadow — a perfectly legitimate mode of ornament when so small a 
material Is used, and when beauty only, not sublimity, is aimed at. 

This is sometimes produced in Italy by introducing stone of a 
different colour among the bricks, as in the two examples from Verona 
{Woodcuts Nos. 525, 526) ; and where this mode of ornamentation 
is carried throughout the building, the eSect is very pleasing. It is 
difficult, however, so to propcartion the two materials as to produce 
exactly the eScct aimed at, and seldom that the objection does not 

bk. n. ch. yn. civic buildings. 15 

present itself of too much or too little stone being nsed. The want 
of shitdow in brick architecture is most felt in the cornices, where 
mfficient projection cannot be obtained. The defect might be easily 
ftad intimately got orer by the employment of stone in the upper 
members <tf the cornice, but this expedient seems never to have been 
resorted ta 

There are few <d these brick buildings of the Horth of Italy which 

Inm Vmom. (From Street.) 

are not open to just criticism for defects of design or detail, but this 
may arise from the circumataaCB that they all belong to an age when 
Ute Italians were using a style which was not their own, and em- 
ploying ornaments of which they understood neither the origin nor 
the apphcation. The defects certainly do not appear to be at all 
inherent in the material, and, judging from the experience of the 
IlaUans, were we to make the attempt in a proper spirit, we might 
create with it a style far surpassing anything we now practise. 

Tbe most beautiful specimens of the civil and domestic architecture 
u Italy in the Gothic period are probably to be found in Venice, the 
"tlieBt and moat peaceful of Italian cities during the Middle Ages, It 
u necessary to speak of the buildings of Venice, or more correctly, 
« the Venetian Province, by themselves, since its architecture ia quite 
'**iart both in origin and character from any other found in Northern 
^Wj. It was not derived from the old Ijombard Round Gothic, but 
"°Q the richer and more graceful Byzantine. True to its parentage, 
" psrtook in after ages far more of the Southern Saracenic style than 
"' Uie Northern Gothic ; still it cannot be classed as either Byzantine 
" Buacenic, but tmly as Gothic treated with an Eastern feeling, and 
oiriched with many detuls borrowed from Eastern styles. 



Pabt II. 

The largest and most promiaent civic example of Venetitm Oothio 
is the Doge's Palace (Woodcut No. 527), first built in the com- 
mencement of the 9th century, burnt down in 976 and 1106, 
rebuilt 1116, and restored and enlarged by Ziani, whose work was 
gradually pulled down between 1300 and 1424 to make way for the 
existing Palace (or at least the Gothic portion of it facing the sea and 
the Piazzetta). The earliest portion is the S.E. angle. The S.W. angle 

efIitr»ir«rtofUie Kipidaotthf lloge'iPaUw, Vcolct. (Prom Clcogmm.) 

was built about 1340, down to the tenth column (ground storey) ; the 
remainder, including the Porta dclla Carta (about 1424), was erected by 
Bartolomeo Bon and his son, the architects of the C^ d'Oro. Though 
many people are inclined to consider its general etfect unsatisfactory, 
an attempt has recently been made to exalt it above the Parthenon, and 
all that was gi-eat and beautiful in Greece, Egypt, or Gothic Europe- 
There are indeed few buildings of which it is so difficult to judge 

Bk. n. Ch. VU. VENICE. 17 

't^lmlj, situated as it is, attached to the basilica of St. Mark, facing 

the beautiful library of Sansovino, and looking on the one hand into 

the piazza of St. Mark's, and on the other across the water to the 

churches and palaces that cover the islands. It is, in fact, the centre 

of the most beautiful architectural group that adorns any city of 

Europe, or of the world — richer than almost any other building in 

historical associations, and in a locality hallowed, especially to an 

Englishmcui, by the poetry of Shakespeare. All this spreads a halo 

around and over the building, which* may furnish ample excuse for 

those who blindly praise even its deformities. But the soberer 

judgment of the critic must not be led astray by such feelings, and 

whOe giving credit for the picturesque situation of this building and a 

certain grandeur in its design, he is compelled wholly to condemn its 

execution. The two arcades which constitute the base are, from their 

extent and the beauty of their details, as fine as anything of their 

class executed during the Middle Ages. There is also a just and 

pleasing proportion between the simple solidity of the lower, and the 

airy — ^perhaps slightly fantastic — lightness of the upper of these 

arcades. Had what appears to have been the original design been 

carried out, the building would rank high with the Alhambra and the 

palaces of Persia and India; but in an evil hour, in 1480, it was 

disoovered that larger rooms were required than had been originally 

contemplated, and the upper wall, which was intended to stand on the 

back wall of the arcades, was brought forward level with the front, 

overpowering the part below by its ill-proportioned mass.^ This upper 

storey too is far*from being beautiful in itself : the windows in it are 

not only far too few, but they are badly spaced, squat, and ungraceful ; 

while the introduction of smaller windows and circles mars its pre- 

t^isions to simplicity without relieving its plainness. Its principal 

ornaments are two great windows, one in the centre of each face, 

which appear to have assumed their present form after the fire in 1578. 

These are not graceful objects in themselves, and having nothing in 

common with the others, they look too like insertions to produce an 

entirely satisfactory effect. The pierced p>arapet, too, Ls poor and fiimsy 

when seen against the sky. Had it crowned the upper arcade, and 

been backed by the third storey, it would have been as pleasing as it is 

now poor. Had the upper storey been set back, as was probably 

originally designed, or had it been placed on the ground and the 

arcades over it ; had, in short, any arrangement of the parts been 

> In the Bodleianj in Oxford \» a MS. 
of the I4th centary coDtaining a view of 
the Piazzetta, eDgraved in Yule's ' Miirco 

This would suggest either that in 
Ziani*s building the upper wall was set 
back or that some subsequent changes 

Polo,* Introduction, p. xlviii., in which i were made in the two parts, of which, 
the outer wall of the building is shown ! however, there is no record. 
retting on the inner wall of the arcade. , 



adopted but the one that ezista, this might hare been a far more 
beautiful building than it is. One thing in this palace ia worth re- 
marking before leaving it^that almost all the beauty ascribed to its 
upper storey arises from the polychromatic mode of decoration intro- 
duced by disposing pieces of different coloured marbles in diaper 
patterns. This is better done here than in Florence ; inasmuch as the 
slabs are built in, not stuck on. The admiration which it excites is 
one more testimony to the fact that when a building is coloured, 
ninety-nine people in a hundred are willing to orerlook all its faults. 

and to extol that as beautiful, which without the adjunct of colour 
they would have unanimously agreed in condemning. 

A better spccirocn of the style, because erected as designed, and 
remaining nearly as erected, is the Ca d'Oro (Woodcut No, 528),' 
buUt in the first years of the 15th century, contemporary with the 
piazzetta part of the ducal palace. It has no trace of the high roofs or 
aspiring tendencies of the Northern buildings of the same age, no 
boldly^marked buttrea.scs in strong vertical lines, but, on the contrary 
flat sky lines and horizontal dirisions pervade the design, and every 

■ So culled Uom iti Laving I 
according; to Signor BrjD 

bk. n. ch. vil venick 19 

part IS oruameated with a fanciful nchneaa far more characteristic of 
the laxnnons refiaement of the East than of the manlier appreciati<m 
of the higher qual 
ities of art which 
distinguished the 
contempwary erec- 
tions on this Bide of 
the Alps. 

The blank space 
between the battle- 
ments (which beltMig 
to the first bnildmg) 
and the stnng-courae 
would seem to have 
been decorated with 
s senes of tveaty six 
caq>ed arches form 
mg niches (shown m 
« m^zotint draw 
ing dated 1800) ^ and 
rarmounted by an 
opper slaittg-conrse 
projecting in front 
of the battlements 
thus crowning the 
building in a more 
satisfactory way than 
at present The 
house was bmlt for 
Signor Manno Con 
taniu. Procurator of 
Venice its onginal 
title being the Falace 
of Sta. Sophia. 

The palaces known 
as the FoBcan and 
Pisani are very suni- 

Ai^la Window U Voilu. (Fmn StnM). 

lar in design to that of C& d'Oro, though less rich and leas happy in 
the distribution of the parts ; but time has restored to them that colour 
which was an inherent part of the older design, and they are so 

' The •unedimwiTig ihowa that a calle 
or RniiU itreet exut«d on the west, or 
left-hand lide, u well aa on the east, 
aad the eniiebed work carved by 
Dievanni Ben, ■toneetitter (the ucbi- 

tect of the Porta dellc GarU of the 
Ducal Palace), was to eitrnd along the 
whole front fouinf; the Grand Canal and 
ten feet at each end- dotrn the two 



faet n. 

beantifal and so interesting that t is hard to cr t cise even the r too 
appftrent defects as works of art Most of the faults that stnke ub 
in the buildings of Yenice arise from the defective knowledge which 
they betra; of constroctive principles The Venet an architects had 

FmdlKh Vmlcs. (From Stngt.) 

not been brought up in the hard school of practical exporieace, nor 
thoroughly grounded in construction, as the Northern architects were 
bj the necesiities of the large buildings which they erected. On the con* 
trary, they merely adopted details because they were pretty, and used 

Bk. n. Ch. VII. VENICE. 21 

them so as to be picturesque in domestic edifices, where conTenience 
was everything, and construction but a secondary consideration. For 
instance, the window here shown (Woodcut No. 529) cannot fail to 
give the building in which it occurs an appearance of weakness and 
insecurity quite inexcusable in spite of its external picturesqueness or 
its internal convenience. 

The same remark applies to the screen (Woodcut No. 530) above 
the Ponte del Paradiso, which, though useless and unconstructive to 
the last degree, by its picturesque design and elegant details arrests all 
travellers. Indeed it is impossible to see it without admiring it, 
though, if imitated elsewhere, it could hardly be saved from being 

Both these examples are surrounded by a curious dentil moulding 
which is found throughout St. Mark's, and the origin of which must be 
sought for in St. Sophia at Constantinople, though it is better known 
as the Venetian dentil 

There are, besides these, many smaller palaces and houses of the 
Gothic age, all more or less beautiful, and all presenting some detail or 
some happy arrangement well worthy of study, and usually more 
refined and more beautiful than those of the rude but picturesque 
dwelliogs of the burghers of Bruges or Nuremberg. 

The mixed Gk)thic style which we have been describing appears to 
have exerted a considerable effect on the subsequent palatial archi- 
tecture of Venice, even after classical details had become generally 
fashionable. The arrangement of the facades remained nearly the 
same down to a very late period ; and even when the so-called return 
to classical forms took place, many details of the previous style were 
here retained, which was not the case in any other part of Europe. 

Domestic work of similar character to that of Venice is found in 
some d the Dalmatian towns, and in the Islands of Quarnero. At 
Ragasa> in Dalmatia, is a palace built in 1430, according to Mr. 
Jackson, from the designs of Master Onofrio Giordani de la Cava, a 
Neapolitan, but altered and rebuilt by Michelozzo in 1464, after the 
fire and explosion in 1462. The arcade of the ground storey had 
originally pointed arches, but in the rebuilding these were replaced by 
drciilar arches, some of the earlier capitals being utilised in the later 
stmcture. Drawings are given in Mr. Jackson's work. The court- 
yards of this palace and of the Sponza in the same town are interesting 
examples of domestic work. 




Population of Sicily — The Saracens— Buildings at Palermo — Cathedral of 

Monrealc Ccfalu — ^The Pointed Arch. 

Thbrb are few chapters of architectural history — at least among the 
shorter ones — ^more interesting, in various ways, than that which treats 
of the introduction of the pointed-arched style into Sicily, and its 
peculiar development there. The whole history is so easily understood, 
the style itself so distinct from any other, and at the same time so 
intrinsically beautiful, that it is of all the divisions of the subject the 
one best suited for a monograph, and so it seems to have been 
considered by many — Hittorfl* and Zanth,^ the Duke of Serra di Falco,* 
and our own Gaily Knight,^ having chosen it for special illustration, so 
that in fact there are few European styles of which we have more 
complete information. Many of the points of its history are never- 
theless still subjects of controversy, not from any inherent obscurity in 
the subject, but because it has been attempted to apply to it the rules 
and theories derived from the history of Northern art. 

The map of Sicily tells its whole history; its position and form 
reveal nearly all that is required to be known of the races that 
inhabited it, and of their fate. Situated in the centre of the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, of a nearly regular triangular form, and presenting one 
side to Greece, another to Africa, and a third to Italy, the length of 
these coasts, and their relative distance from the opposite shores, are 
nearly correct indexes of the influence each has had on the civilisation 
of the island. 

In a former chapter ^ it was shown how strong was the influence of 
Dorian Greece in Sicily. Almost all the ancient architectural remains 
belong to that people. The Carthaginians, who succeeded the Greeks, 
left but slight traces of humanising influence ; and the rule of the 

' ' Architecture Modeme de la Sicile,* I ' * Normans in Sicily,' 8vo. text, fol. 
fol. Paris, 1826-30. plates, London, 1838. 

« *Del Duomo di Monreale e di altre | * Part I. Bk. III. ch. 2. 
Chiese Siculu-Normane,' fol. Palermo, | 

Bk. IL Ch. VIU. the SARACENS. 23 

Romans was that of conquerors, oppressive and destructive of the 
civilisation of the people. After the Christian era, a very similar 
succession of influences took place. First and most powerful was the 
Byzantine element, which forms the groundwork and main ingredient 
in all that foUows. To this succeeded the Saracenic epoch : bright, 
brilliant, but evanescent. In the 11th century the Italian element 
resumed its sway under the banner of a few Norman adventurers, and 
in the guise of a Norman conquest sacerdotal Rome regained the 
inheritance of her imperial predecessor. In the Christian period, 
however, the elements were far from being so distinct as in those 
preceding it, for reasons easily understood. Every fresh race of 
masters found the island already occupied by a very numerous popula- 
tion of extremely various origin. The new-comers could do no more 
than add their own forms of art to those previously in use ; the 
consequence being in every case a mixed style, containing elements 
derived from every portion of the inhabitants. 

We have no means of knowing the exact form of the Byzantine 
churches of Sicily before the Arab invasion. All have either perished 
or are undescribed. The Saracenic remaiiLS, too, have all disappeared, 
the buildings generally supposed to be relics of their rule being now 
proved to have been erected by Mahometan workmen for their 
Christian masters. With the Norman sway a style arose which goes 
far to supply all these deficiencies, being Greek in essence, Roman in 
form, and Saracenic in decoration ; and these elements mixed in exactly 
those proportions which we should expect. Nowhere do we find tha 
square-domed plans of the Greek Church, nor any form suited to the 
Greek ritual. These have given place to the Roman basilica, and to 
an arrangement adapted to the rites of the Romish Church ; but all the 
work was performed by Greek artists, and the Roman outline was 
filled up and decorated to suit the taste and conciliate the feelings of 
the worshippers, who were conquered Greeks or converted Moors. 
Their fancy, too — richer and happier than that of the ruder races of 
the West — ^was allowed full play. An Eastern exuberance in design- 
ing details and employing colours is here exhibited, cramped a little, 
it must be confessed, by the architectural forms and the ritual arrange- 
ments to which it is applied, but still a ruling and beautifying 
principle throughout. 

Among all these elements, those who are familiar with architectural 
history will hardly look for anything indicative of purely Norman taste 
or feelings. A mere handful of military adventurers, they conquered 
as soldiers of Rome and for her aggrandisement, and held the fief for 
her advantage : they could have brought no arts even if their country 
had then possessed any. They were content that their newly-acquired 
subjects should erect for them palaces after the beautiful fashion of the 
country, and that Roman priests should direct the building of churches 


suited to their forms, but built as the Sicilians had been accustomed to 
build, and decorated as they could decorate them, better than their 
masters and conquerors. 

All this, when properly understood, lends an interest to the history 
of this little branch of architecture, wholly independent of its artistic 
merit ; but the art itself is so beautiful and so instructive, from its 
being one of the styles where polychromy was universally employed 
and is still preserved, that notwithstanding all that has been done, it 
still merits more attention. 

It is extremely difficult, in a limited space, to give a clear account 
of the Sicilian pointed style, owing to the fusion of the three styles of 
which it is composed being far from complete or simultaneous over the 
whole island, and there being no one edi£ce in which all three are 
mixed in anything like equal proportions. Each division of the island, 
in fact, retains a predilection for that style which characterised the 
majority of its inhabitants. Thus Messina and the northern coast as 
far as Cefalu remained Italian in the main, and the churches there 
have only the smallest possible admixture of either Greek or Saracenic 
work. The old parts of the Nunziatella at Messina might be found at 
Pisa, while the cathedral there and at Cefalu would hardly be out of 
place in Apulia, except indeed that Cefalu displays a certain early 
predilection for pointed arches, and something of Greek feeling in the 
decoration of the choir. 

In like manner in Syracuse and the southern angle of the island 
the Greek feeling prevails almost to the exclusion of the other two. 
In Palermo, on the other hand, and the western parts, the architecture 
is so strongly Saracenic that hardly any antiquary has yet been able 
to admit the possibility of such buildings as the Cuba and Ziza having 
been erected by the Norman kings. There is, however, little or no 
doubt that the latter was built by William I. (1154-1169), and the 
other about the same time, though by whom is not so clear. Both 
these buildings were erected after a century of Norman dominion in 
the island : still the Saracenic influence, so predominant in them, need 
not astonish us, when we consider the immeasurable superiority of the 
Saracens in art and civilisation, not only to their new rulers, but to all 
the other inhabitants. It was therefore only natural that they should 
be employed to provide for the Norman Counts such buildings as they 
alone had the heart to erect and adorn. 

A still more remarkable instance of the prevalence of Saracenic 
ideas is represented in Woodcut No. 531, being the Church of San 
Giovanni degli Eremiti at Palermo. Here we find a building erected 
beyond all doubt as late as the year 1132, by King Roger, for the pur- 
poses of Christian worship, which would in no respect, except the form 
of its tower, be out of place as a mosque in the streets of Delhi or 
Cairo. In fact, were we guided by architectural considerations alone, 

Bk. 11. Cb. VIII. 


this church would have more properly beea described under the head 
of Saracenic thftn of ChriatUn architecture. 

There are three other churches of Palermo which exhibit the new 
mixed style in all its completeness. These are the Martorana (1113- 
1113), in which the Byzantine element prevails somewhat to the 
exclusion of the other two ; the Gapella Palatina in the Palace, bnilt 
in 1132 ; and the more magnificent church of Monreale, near Palermo 
(Woodcut No. 532), begun in 11 74, and certainly the finest and most 
beautiful of all the buildings erected by the Normans in this country. 

ID. (FnmOtUr Knight's, 'Hormwu In SkU]'.') 

This church is 315 ft. ia its extreme length ; while the beautiful gem- 
like Capella of the royal palace is much smaller, being only 125 ft. 
long, and consequently inferior in grandeur, though in the relative pro- 
portions of its parts, and in all other essential points, very similar. 

In arrangement and dimensions the cathedral of Monreale very much 
resembles that at Messina, showing the same general influence in both ; 
but all the details of the Palermitan example betray that admixture of 
Ureek and Saracenic feeling which ia the peculiarity of Sicilian archi- 
tecture. There is scarcely a single form or detail in the whole building 
which can strictly be called Gothic, or which points to any connection 
with Northern arts or races. The plan of this, as of all the Sicilian 
churches, is that of a Roman basilica, for more than of a Gothic church. 



Part IT. 

In none of them was any vault ever either built or intended. The 
central is divided from the side-aisles by pillars of a single stone, 
generally borrowed from ancient temples, but (in this instance at least) 
with capitals of great beauty, suited to their position and to the load 
they have to support. The pier-arches are pointed, but not Gothic, 
having no successive planes of decoration, but being merely square 
masses of masonry of simple but stilted forms. The windows, too, 
though pointed, are undivided, and evidently never meant for painted 
glass. The roofs of the naves are generally of open framing, like those 
of the basilicas, and ornamented in Saracenic taste. The aisles, the 
intersection of the transepts and nave, and the first division of the 

sanctuary are generally richer, and con- 
sequently more truly Moorish. The apse 
again is Roman. Taken altogether, it is 
only the accident of the pointed arch 
having been borrowed from the Moors 
that has led to the idea of Gothic feeling 
existing in these edifices. It does exist at 
Messina and Cefalu, but in Palermo is 
almost wholly wanting. 

It is evident that the architectural 
features in the buildings of which the 
cathedral of Monreale is the type, were 
subordinate, in the eyes of their builders, 
to the mosaic decorations which cover 
every part of the interior, and are, in fact, 
the glory and pride of the edifice, by 
which alone it is entitled to rank among 
the finest of Media3val churches. All the 
principal personages of the Bible are 
represented in the stiff but grand style of 
352. Plan of Church at Monreaie. (From Greek art, somctimcs with Greek inscrip- 

HlttorffandZanth.) Scaleiouft. to 1 in. -n 

tions, and acconipamed by scenes illustrat- 
ing the Old and New Testaments. They are separated by and 
intermixed with arabesques and ornaments in colour and gold, making 
up a decoration unrivalled in its class by anything — except, perhaps, 
St. Mark's — the Middle Ages have produced. The church at Assisi 
is neither so rich nor so splendid. The Certosa is infamous in taste 
as compared with this Sicilian cathedral. No specimen of opaque 
painting of its class, on this side of the Alps, can compete with it in 
any way. Perhaps the painted glass of some of our cathedrals may 
have surpassed it, but that is gone. In this respect the mosaic has the 
advantage. It is to be regretted that we have no direct means of 
comparing the efiect of these two modes of decoration. In both the 
internal architecture was subordinate to the colour — more so, perhaps. 


as a general rule, in 
the Sicilian examples 
than in the North. 
In fact, the archi- 
tecture was merely 
a vehicle for the dis- 
play of painting in 
its highest and most 
gorgeous forms 

Besides the mosa 
pictures which adorn 
the upper part of 
the wails of the e 
Palennitan churches 
they possess another 
kind of decoration 
almost equally effec- 
tive, the whole of 
the lower part of the 
walla being re voted 
with slabs of marble 
or porphyry disposed 
in the most beautiful 
patterns The Mar 
torana depends 

wholly for its effect — ; . 
on this species of 
decoration- In the 
Capella Falatma and 
the church at Mon 
reale, it occupies the 
lower part of the 
walls only and serves 
as a base for the 
storied decorations 
above; but whether 
used separately or 
in combination, the 
result is perfect and 
such as is hardly 
attained in any other 
chorches in any part 
of Europe. 

Externally the 
Gothic architects had ^^^ 


Past II. 

immensely the advantage. They never tiUowed their coloured decora- 
tions to interfere with their architectural effects. On the contrary, 
they BO used them as to make the windows externally as well as 
internally their most beautiful and attractive features. 

The cathedral of Palermo, the principal entrance of which is shown 
in Woodcut No. 534, ia a building of much later date, that which w« 
now see being principally of the 14th century. Although possessing 
no dignity of outline or grace of form, it is more richly omam^ted 


externally with intersecting arches and mosaic decorations than almost 
any other church of its class. It is richer perhaps and better th&n 
the cathedral of Florence, inasmuch as the decorations follow the 
construction, and are not — as there — a mere unmeaning panelling 
that might be applied anywhere. All this is more apparent in the 
apse (Woodcut So. 535) than on the lateral elevation. It converts 
what would be only a very plain exterior into a very rich and orna- 
mental composition ; not quite suited to Northern taste, but very 
effective in the sunny South. Still the effect of the whole is rather 
pretty than grand, and as an architectural display falls far short of 
the bolder masonic expression of the Northern Gothic churches. 



After these, one of the most important churches of that age in the 
island is the cathedral of Cefalu, already alluded to. It was com- 
menced b; £ing Roger 1131. It is 230 ft. long by 90 ft. wide. The 
choir and transepts are vaulted and groined ; the nave has a wooden 
roc^ ; all the arches are pointed ; and with its two western towers it 
displays more Gothic feeling than any other church in SicUy. 

The cathedral at Messina, though closely resembling that at 
Monreole in plan, has been so altered and rebuilt as to retain very 


imo. (Prom R«tngineiL) 

little of its original architecture. The other churches In the island 
are either small and insignificant, or, like that at Messina, have been 
•o altered that their features are obliterated. 

Besides the Saracenic castles or palaces above mentioned, there 
are no important civil buildings of Mediieval style in Sicily. There 
are two cloisters — one at Monreale and the other at Cefalu— both in 
the style universal in all the countries bordering on the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, and already described in speaking of those of EIne, Fonti- 
frtnde, Aries, &c., as well as those of St. John Lateran at Rome. 
Their general arrangement consists of small but elegant pillars of 
Corinthian design, in pairs, supporting pointed arches of great beauty 


of form. In many respects this is a more beautiful mode of producing 
a cloistered arcade than the series of unglazed windows universally 
adopted in the North. The Southern method presupposes a wooden 
or at most a tunnel-vaulted roof, as at Aries, whereas all our best 
examples have intersecting vaults of great beauty, which indeed is 
the excuse for the windowed arrangement assumed by them. An 
intermediate course, like that adopted at Zurich (Woodcut No. 722), 
would perhaps best reconcile the difliculty ; but this was only used 
during the period of transition from one style to the other. The effect, 
however, of the cloister at Monreale, with the fountain in one of its 
divisions, and a certain air of Eastern elegance and richness pervading 
the whole, is not surpassed by any of the examples on the Continent 
of its own size, though its dimensions do not allow it to compete with 
some of the larger examples of France, and especially of Spain. 

As the employment of the pointed arch so early in Sicily has been 
much quoted in the controversy regarding the invention of that 
feature, it may be convenient to state here that the pointed arch was 
used in the South of France — at Vaison, for instance — at least as early 
as the 10th century, but only as a vaulting expedient. During the 
11th it was currently used in the south, and as far north as Burgundy ; 
and in the 12th it was boldly adopted in the north as a vaulting, 
constructive and decorative feature, giving rise to the invention of a 
totally new style of architectural art. 

It is by no means impossible that the pointed arch was used by 
the Greek or Pelasgic colonists about Marseilles at a far earlier date, 
but this can only have been in arches or domes constructed hori- 
zontally. These may have suggested its use in radiating vaults, but 
can hardly be said to have influenced its ailoption. Had it not been 
for the constructive advantages of pointed arches, the Roman circular 
form would certainly have retained its sway. It is possible, however, 
that the northern Franks would never have adopted it so completely 
as they did had they not become familiar with it either in Sicily or 
the East. When once they had so taken it up, they made it their 
own by employing it only as a modification of the round-arched forms 
previously introduced and perfected. 

In Sicily the case is dilTerent ; the pointed arch there never was 
either a vaulting or constructive expedient — it was simply a mode of 
eking out, by its own taller form and by stilting, the limited height 
of the Roman pillars, which they found and used so freely. It is the 
same description of arch as that used in the construction of the mosque 
El-Aksah at Jerusalem in the 8th century ; at Cairo in rebuilding 
that of Amrou in the 9th or 10th and in El-Azhar and other 
mosfjues of that city. As such it was used currently in Sicily by the 
Saracens, and in Palermo and elsewhere became so essential a part of 
the architecture of the day that it was employed as a matter of course 

Bk. n. ch. vm MOSAIC decoration. 31 

in the churches ; but it was not introduced by the Normans, nor was it 
carried by them from Sicily into France, and, except so far as abeady 
stated, it had no influence on the arts of France. In fact there is no 
connection, either ethnographically or architecturally, between the 
Sicilian pointed arch and the French ; and beyond the accident of the 
broken centre they have nothing in common. 

Although, therefore, it can hardly again be used as evidence in 
the question of the invention of the pointed arch, the architecture of 
Sicily deserves a better monography than it has yet been made the 
subject of. It must, however, be written by some one intimately 
familiar with the Byzantine, Saracenic, and Romanesque styles. To 
any one so qualified, Sicily would afford the best field in Europe for 
tracing the influence of race and climate on architecture : for nowhere, 
owing in a great measure to its insular position, can the facts be more 
easily traced, or the results more easily observed. 

In one other point of view also the style deserves attention, for 
from it alone can we fairly weigh the merit of the two systems 
of internal decoration employed during the ^Middle Ages. By com- 
paring, for instance, the cathedral at Monreale, with such a building as 
the Sainte Chapelle at Paris, we may judge whether polychroniy by 
opaque pictures in mosaic, or by translucent pictures on glass, is the 
more beautiful mode of decorating the interior of a building. The 
former have undoubtedly the advantage of durability, and interfere less 
with the architectural eflect, but for beauty and brilliancy of effect I 
have little doubt that the general verdict would be that the latter have 
at least hitherto been the most successful niodo. On the whole, how- 
ever, it seems that a higher and purer class of art may be developed 
out of opaque painting than can ever be obtained from transparencies, 
and if this is so there can be little doubt as to which we ought now to 
seek to cultivate. The question has never yet been fairly discussed ; and 
examples sufficiently approximating to one another, either in age or 
style, are so rare that its determination is not easy. For that very 
reason it is the more desirable that we should make the most of those 
we have, and try if from them we can settle one of the most im- 
portant questions which architectural history has left to be determined 
with reference to our future progress in the art. 




Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem — Churches at Ab(i Oosb aud Ljdda — 

Mosque at Hebron. 



Jervsalein t&ken by the Crusaders . . a.i>. 1099 

Raudouinl llOO 

Raudouin II 1118 

Foulqnes, Count of Anjou 1131 

SalAdin retakes Jerasalcm 1187 


Third Cruudc. Richard II a.d. IIM 

Frederick II. reenters Jerusalem . . . l]3t 
Re-taken by Sultan of Damascos .... ISSt 
Final overthrow cf Christians 1344 

It may at first sight appear strange that any form of architecture in 
Syria should be treated as a part of that of Italy, but the circum- 
stances of the case are so exceptional that there can be little doubt of 
the correctness of so doing. Gothic architecture was not a natural 
growth in Palestine, but distinctly an importation of the Crusaders, 
transplanted by them to a soil where it took no root, and from which 
it died out when the fostering care of Western protection was remoYed. 
In this it is only too true a reflex of the movement to which it owed 
its origin. The Crusades furnish one of those instances in the history 
of the world where the conquerors of a nation have been so numerous 
as entirely to supplant, for a time, the native population and the indi- 
genous institutions of the country. For nearly a century Jerusalem 
was subject to kings and barons of a foreign race. The feudal system 
was imported entire, with its orders of knighthood, its " Assises,"' and 
all the concomitant institutions which had grown up with the feudal 
system in Western Europe. With them, as a matter of course, came 
the hierarchy of the Roman Church, and with it the one style of 
architecture which they then knew, or which was appropriate to their 
form of worship. 

The one point which is not at first sight obvious is, why the 
Gothic style in Palestine should be so essentially Italian, with so little 
admixture of the styles prevalent on the northern side of the Alps. 
It may have been that then, as now, the Italians settled loosely in the 
land. We know that the trade of the Levant was at that time in the 
hands of Venice and other Italian cities, and it is clear that it wag 

Bk. n. Ch. IX. HOLY SEPULCHRE. 33 

easier to send to Italy for artists and workmen, than to France and 
Grermany, and much more likely that an Italian would undertake the 
erection of buildings in the East than a Northern architect, whose 
ideas of Palestine and its ways must have been extremely indistinct. 
Be this as it may, there is little in the Gothic architecture of Palestine 
either as regards arrangement or details — except the plan of the 
church of the Holy Sepulchre — which would excite attention as 
singular if found in the South of Italy or Sicily ; and as little that 
would not seem out of place if found on our side of the Alps. 

Holy Sepulchre. 

The principal buildings erected by the Crusaders in Palestine were, 
as might be expected, the extensive additions made to the church or 
rather to the group of churches near the Holy Sepulchre — the deliver- 
ance of which from the hands of the infidels was the object of that 
wonderful burst of national enthusiasm.^ 

The buildings on the site have been so repeatedly ruined and 
rebuilt, and so little remains now of their original features prior to the 
Crusaders' work, that it is only necessary here to state the generally 
accepted belief that the rotunda (A) shown on the upper part of the plan 
(Woodcut No. 536) represents the position of the great apse erected by 
Constant ine, round what he considered to be the sepulchre of Christ 
(marked B on plan). The great basilica which is described by Eusebius,'* 
was erected on the east side of this. This and other buildings were 
destroyed by Chosroes the Persian in 614, and portions only (those round 
the Holy Sepulchre) were restored by Modestus in 629. In 1010, the 
mad Khalif Hakem destroyed Modestus s work, and the rotunda, as 
shown in Woodcut, was built by the Emperor Constantine Monomachus 
thirty years later. 

When the Crusaders reached Jerusalem, 1099 a.d., the sepulchre 
appears to have stood in a court open to the sky,^ but " covered over lest 
rain should fall upon it," surrounded with an aisle and with five chapels 
(C.D.E.F.G.) attached to it. These the Crusaders incorporated * with 

* For a complete description of the | ' Ssewulf, * Peregrinatio,* &c. (a.d. 
ttme, aee *The Architectural History of 1102-3), p. 83. 

^ Chorch of the Holy Sepulchre at ' * A section of the church is given in 
Jerualem,' by Prof. Willis, 1849, the I Prof. Willis's work compUed partly from 
poblications of the Palestine Exploration i Bernardino's work(*Trattatodelle Pianto 

pQ&d, and the 'Holy Places of Jerusalem,' al Imagini de sacri Edlfizi di Terra 

•9 Prof. Hayter Lewis. Sancta,' 1620), corrected by dimension 

' Eosebitis, 'Vita Constant! ui,' lib. iii. ' taken by Mr. J. J. Scoles and partly 

^ Uviii. fi'om models in the British Museum and 

I elsewhere. 




Past U. 

their additions and alteratioiu, which amoimted ahnost to a rebuilding 
of the church. The pl&n (Woodcnt Ko. 536) indicates in black those 
portions foand by the Cmaaders ; in bsJf tone, those which were built 
by them, and in outline only the sabseqaent additions made before and 
after the great fire of 1608.^ Though entirely at variance with the 
arrangement of the basilica and independent tomb-house as adopted 
by Constantine some seven centuries earlier, it would seem that the 
object of the Crusader was to preserve intact the Botonda and the 

FUUDfltioCtiurcliorUiBllolrSepiilclin. Sole 

Holy Sepulchre. The principal entrance led into what was virtually 
the main transept, with the Rotunda on the west side and the choir 
ami apse on the oast. At a later period the space within the crossing 
was enclosed for the Greek Church, so that the Rotunda now appoara 
to be the nave, and it is in that sense that the church has been so 
often copied. The plan was commonly employed in the North of 
Europe (Woodcuts Nos. 790 to 795), and bloomed into perfection at 
Cologne in the church <rf St. Gereon (Woodcut No, 741). It is also 

' This plaiihs* Iiccd workuci out f:cin) { SirCh.WilBnnsmirroinrrofetsorWUlu's 
the otdnauw surTFy nude in 18G1-6S bj ) plan m pubjiahed in bis work. 

Bk. IL Ch. IX. 



fonnd at Little KUpIeatead (Woodcut No. 847), Zora (Woodcut 
Ko. 486), m the churches of the Temple in Londou, oj St. Sepulchre 
at Cambridge, and elsewhere. In all these instances it consists of a 
circular nare leading to a. recttuigular choir terminated hy an apse. 
Though primarily sepulchral in its origin, it is used in all these 
places without any reference to its original destination, and had 
become a recognised form of Christian church for the ordinary porpoees 
of worship. 

Though containing so many objects of interest, the church itself is 
not large, measuring 245 ft. long internally, exclusive of the crypt and 
chapel of the cross, which 
being at a much lower level 
must have formed a crypt 
under the nave and usles of 
the basilica. 

So far aa can be judged 
fnnn the information which 
remains to us, the style 
(before the fire of 1808, after 
which the Rotunda was 
entirely rebuilt) was tolerably 
homogeneous throughout. 
The transept, now converted 
into a choir, and the apse, 
which, though commenced in 
1103, were not completed 
before 1169, show progress in 
atyle. All the (^instructive 
arches in this part of the 
building are pointed — but 
the decorative portions still 
retain the circular form. d 

Owing to its situation, 
and its being so much encumbered by other buildings, the only part 
of the exterior which makes any pretension to architectural magni- 
ficence is the Southern double portal, erected apparently between 
the years 1140 and 1160. This is a rich and elegant example of 
the style of ornamentation prevalent in Sicily and Southern Italy 
in the 13th century, but among its most elaborate decoration, are 
two rich cornices of classical date, built in unsymmetncally as string- 
oourses, amongst details belonging to the time of the Crusades. 
From their style these cornices undoubtedly belong to the age of 
Constantine, and are probably fragments of some ancient buildings. 
At aD earli^ age sncb fragments would probably have been more 
extensively used np; but in the 12th century the arcbilects had 



Fast II. 

acquired confidence in themaelvea and their own style, and despised 
classical arrangemeats both in plan and in detail. 

The sepulchre itself seems to have been rebuilt, about the year 
1666,' or at least so thoroaghly repaired that it is difficult to say 
what its exact original form may have been. Probably it did not 
di£fer materially from that shown in the woodcut, since that resembles 
the style of the 12th much more than that of the 16th century. 

Although the church of the Holy Sepulchre was, naturally, by far 
the greatest work undertaken by the Crusaders, there are some six or 
seven other churches in Jerusalem," or its immediate vicinity, which 
were erected during the 12th century. The most complete ni these 
at the present day is that of St. Anne — now in course of thorough 
repair by the French Government. 
It is a small church, 112 ft. long 
by 66 ft, wide internally, divided 
into three aisles, each terminating 
in an apse, and covered with inter- 
secting vaults, showing strongly- 
marked transverse ribs of the usual 
Italian pattern. It has also a small 
dome on the intersection between the 
nave and transept. The windows are 
small and without tracery. It ia, 
in fact, a counterpart of the usual 
Italian church of the age. The same 
remarks apply to Ste. Marie la 
Grande, Ste. Marie Latine, the 
Madeleine, and other churches which 
the Christians built in their quarter 
of the town during their occupation, 
to replace those of which the Moslema 
had deprived them. 

One of the most perfect churches 

of this age, out of Jerusalem, is that 

at Abil Gosh — the ancient Kirjath- 

Jearim (Woodcuts Nos. 538, 539). 

(v-KHaDtVofai.) i<.xternally it is a rectangle, 86 ft. 

by 57 ft., with three apses which 

do not appear externally. Under the whole b an extensive crypt. 

Though small, it is so complete, and so elegant in all its details, 

' QuaresirnDs, ' Elucidatio,' ii. p. 3S6. | beautiful work eoUtled, * Lei Eglist 
' All thege are oarefullr de8crib«d and la Teire Suiote,' Paris, 1860. 
delineBled by Co'iai de VugUc, id bis I 



that it would be difficult to find anywhere a more perfect example of 
the style. As it now stands it is very much simpler and plainer than 
any 2f orthern example of the same age would be ; but it originally 
depended on painting for its decoration, and traces of this may still be 
seen on its desecrated walls. It is now used as a cattle«hed. The 
church at Ramleh is 
one of the largest, and 
must originally hare 
been one of the finest, 
of these Syrian churches. 
It is now used as a 
moeque, and the con- 
sequent alteratioa of 
its arrangement, with 
plaster and whitewash, 
have done much to 
destroy its architectural 

At Sebaste there is 
one as large as that at 
Ramleh — 160 ft. by ^^ ^ 
80 ft. — and showing a 

more completely developed Gothic style than those at Jerusalem. At 
Lydda there is another very similar in detail to that last mentioned. 
Though now only a fragment, it is one of singular elegance, and shows 
a purity of detail and arrangement not usual in Korthern churches of 
that age. Do Vogue is of opinion that both the last-named churches 
must have been completed before the year 1 187 It is hard however, 
to believe that an Italian Gothic style 
could have attained that degree of 
perfection so early, and if the date 
assigned is correct, it is evident that 
the pointed style was developed earlier 
in the East than in the West, a cir- 
cumstance which, from our knowledge 
of what had happened in Armenia and 
elsewhere, is by no means improbable. 

The date assigned to these churches is rendered more probable by 
the existence of a Gothic building, certainly as advanced as any of 
those meationed, within the encloenre of the mosque at Hebron. If 
this was a work of the Crusaders it must have been built before 1187, 
aince the Christians never had access to the place after their defeat 
at l^berias. If not erected by them, we are forced to assume that 
the Moelems, after recovering possession of the sepulchres of the 
Patriarchs, employed some Christian renegades or slaves to erect a 


Paot It. 

moaqne on the spot, in their own style of Architecture. This is, how- 
ever, hy no meftiia improbable, since it is the only Christi&n chorch (if 
it be one) in Palestine which haa no apse, 
though there would have been no difficulty in 
introdacing three apsea in the auae manner as 
I at Abfl Gosh (Woodcut No. 638) had it been so 
I desired. It should also be remarked that the 
1 three aisles point southward towards Mecca, 
and that, except in style, it has all the 
appearance of a moaqne. Both Christian and 
Mahometan tradition are silent as to its 
so that the determination of the 
must depend on a more careful 
examinatioii than has yet been possible. 
Whichever way it may be decided, it is a 
curious question. It is either a Christian 
Sale 100 It lo 1 In. building without the arrangement elsewhere 

u»j>^ku>t*i.uiu»i»i»m'. uoiversally indispensable, or it is a Moslem 
mosque in a Christian style of architecture. 
If the former, the complete development of the Italian pointed style 
of architecture in the East must be fixed at not less than half a 
century anterior to that in the West. 

Bk. IIL Ch. I. 







DiTision of subject — Pointed arches — ^Provence — Chnrchea at Avignon, Aries, Alet, 
Fontifroide, Maguelonne, Vienne — Circular churches— Towers — Cloisters. 



Charlemagne a.d. 768 813 

BoUo, first Duke of Normandy . ... 911 

Ho|^ Capet 987 

William U. of Normandy, or the Con- 
queror 1055-1086 

Henry L of France 1031 

Philip I., or TAmoareux 1060 

Loais VI., or le Gros 1108 

Lonis VIl., or le Jeune 1137 

St. Bernard of Clairraoz . . . 1091-1163 

Philip II., or I'Auguate 1180 

Looia VIIL, or the Lion 1223 

Louia IX., or the Saint 1226 


Philip in., the Hardy a.d. 1270 

Philip IV., or the Fair 138S 

PhiUpVLofValoia 1338 

Battle of Crecy 134e 

John II., the Good 1360 

Charles V., the Wlae 1364 

Charles VL, the Beloved 1380 

Charles VIL, the Victorious 1422 

Joan of Arc 1413-1431 

Louis XI 1461 

Charles VIII 1483 

Louis XII 1498 

Francis 1 1516 

To those who do not look beyond the present, France appears to be 
one of the most homogeneous of all the countries of Europe — ^inhabited 
by a people speaking one language, professing one religion, governed 
by the same laws, and actuated by the same feelings and aspirations ; 
yet it certainly is not so in reality, and in the Middle Ages the 
distinctions between the various races and peoples were strongly 
iQftrked and capable of easy definition. Wars, persecutions, and 
Solutions, have done much to obliterate these, and the long habit 
^ living under a centralised despotism has produced a superficial 
^ormity which hides a great deal of actual diversity. The process 
^ fusion commenced apparently about the reign of Louis the Saint 
(^D. 1226), and has gone on steadily ever since. Before his time 
rnnce was divided into six or eight great ethnographic provinces 
wiuch might now be easily mapped out, though their boundaries 
^i^ently differed widely from the political division of the land. 


No ejBtenuktic attempt has yet been made to constmct an ethno> 
graphic map of the country from the architectural remains, thoagh it 
is easy to see how it might be done. What is wanted is that some 
competent archaeologist should do for the ethnography of France what 
Sir W. Smith did at the end of the last century for the geology of 
England. Like that early pioneer of exact knowledge in his peculiar 
department, he must be content to wander from province to proYince, 
fnnn Tillage to village, ^-isiting every church, and examining every 
architectural remain, comparing one with another, tracing their 
affinities, and finally classifying and mapping the whole. It is 
probable that the labour of one man would hardly suffice for this 
purpose. Monographs would be required to complete the task, but 
it is one of such singular interest that it is hoped it may soon be 

One of the great difficulties in attempting anything of the sort at 
present is the nomenclature. When the science is further advanced, 
such names as Silurian, Cambrian, tStC, will no doubt be invented, but 
at present we must be content with the political name which seems 
most nearly to express the ethnographical distribution ; though in 
scarcely a single uLstance will these be found strictly correct, all in 
consequence being open to adverse criticism. In France it frequently 
happened that two or more ethnographic provinces were united under 
one sceptre — eventually all were merged into one — and during the 
various changes that took place in the Middle Ages, it was only by 
accident that the political boundary exactly agreed for any great 
length of time with the ethnographical. 

In Germany, on the contrary, a single race is and was cut up into 
numerous political divinions, so that it becomes, from the opposite 
cause alone, equally difficult to apply a nomenclature which shall 
correctly represent the facts of the case. 

In such a work as this it would be manifestly absurd to attempt to 
adjust all this with anything like minute accuracy, but the principal 
features are so easily recognised that no great confusion can arise in 
the application of such names as are usually employed, and it is to 
be hoped that before long a better system of nomenclature will be 
invented and applied. 

We may rest assured of one thing, at all events, which is that the 
architectural remains in France are as sufficient for the construction 
of an ethnographic map of that country as the rocks are for the com- 
pilation of a geological survey. If the one opens out to the student 
an inmiense expanse of scientific knowledge, the other is hardly of less 
interest, though in a less extended field. There are few studies more 
pleasing than that of tracing the history of man through his works, 
and none bring the former condition of humanity so vividly back to us 
as those records which have been built into the walls of their temples 

bk. in. ch. I. 


or their palaces by those who were thus unconsciously recording their 
feelings for the instruction of their posterity. 

The first thing that strikes the student in examining architecturally 

the map c^ France is the 
remarked in that cd Italy, 

of the same phenomenon as was 
into two nearly equal halves by 

■ A miBll chart of the same sort has 
been pnblighed by H. de CanmoDt,* 
whitili, tboDgh an improvement, atill 
la»Tes moch to be desired ; bot imtil 
«Terj church is examiiied, ami every 

d'JitchllcctBn.' p. i; 

typical Bpeclmen at least published, it is 
impoaaible to mark oot more than the 
general featarea of the chart. Imperfect, 
boTever.sathey are in Uiisooe, they are 
still more namerone and more detailed 
than it will be eaay for ns to rollon and to 
Irscc out in Ihn iirailiil Bpacp of thisnorb. 



Part IL 

a boundary line running east and west. In both countries, to the 
southward of this line the land was occupied by a Romanesque people 
who, though conquered, were never colonised by the Barbarians to 
such an extent as to alter their blood or consequently the ethnographic 
relations of the people. North of the line the Goths and Lombards in 
Italy, and the Franks in Gaul, settled in such numbers as to influence 
very considerably the status of the races, in some instances almost to 
the obliteration of their leading characteristics. 

In France the boundary line follows the valley of the Loire near 
its northern edge till it passes behind Tours ; it crosses that river 
between that city and Orleans, follows a somewhat devious course to 
Lyons, and up the valley of the Rhone to Geneva. 

In the Middle Ages the two races were roughly designated as 
those speaking the Langue d'oc and the Langue d'ceil — somewhat 
more correctly those to the south were called Romance,^ those to the 
north Frankish ; but the truth is, the distinction is too broad to be 
now clearly defined, and we must descend much more into detail 
before any satisfactory conclusion can be arrived at. 

On the south of the line, one of the most beautiful as well as 
the best defined architectural provinces is that I have ventured to 
designate as Provence or Proven<^al. Its limits are very nearly 
coincident with those of Gallia Narbonensis, and " Narbonese " would 
consequently be a more correct designation, and would be adopted if 
treating of a classical style of art. It has, however, the defect of 
including Toulouse, which does not belong to the province, and 
consequently the name affects an accuracy it does not possess. It 
may, therefore, be better at present to adopt the vague name of 
the " Provence " jmr excellence^ especially as Provencal is a word 
applied by French authors to literary matters much in the sense 
it is here used to define an architectural division. The whole of 
the south coast of France from the Alps to the Pyrenees belongs 
to this province, and it extends up the valley of the Rhone as far 
as Lyons, and is generally bounded by the hills on either side of 
that river. 

Perhaps the best mode of defining the limits of the Aquitanian 
province would be to say that it includes all those towns whose 
names end with the Basque article ac, consequently indicating the 
presence at some former period of a people speaking that language 
or something very closely allied to it, or at all events differing from 

^ The use of this term is a little 
awkward at first from its having another 
meaning in Knglitth ; it has, however, 
been long used by English etymolog^ts 
to distinguish tho Romance languages, 
sucli as Italian, SiMinish, and French, 

from those of Teutonic origin, and is 
here used in precisely tho same sense as 
applied to architecture — to those styles 
derived from the Roman, but oQe degree 
more removed from it than the early 
phase of the Romanesque. 


those of the rest of France. It is only on the eastward that the 
line seems difficult to define. There are some towns, such as Barjac, 
Quissac, Gignac, in the valley of the Rhone, in situations that would 
seem to belong to Provence, and until their churches are examined it 
is impossible to say to which they belong. On the south Aquitania is 
bounded by the Pyrenees, on the west by the sea, and on the north 
by a Hne running nearly straight from the mouth of the Qaronne to 
Langeac, near to Le Puy-en-Velay. 

The third is designated that of Anjou, or the Angiovine, from its 
most distinguished province. This includes the lower part of the 
Loire, and is bounded on the north-east by the Cher. Between it and 
the sea is a strip of land, including the Angoumois, Saintonge, and 
Vendee, which it is not easy to know where to place. It may belong, 
so far as we yet know, to either Aquitania or Anjou, or possibly may 
deserve a separate title altogether ; but in the map it is annexed for 
the present to Poitou or the Angiovine province. 

In Brittany the two styles meet, and are so mixed together that it 
is impossible to separate them. In that district there is neither pure 
Romance nor pure Frankish, but a style partaking of the peculiarities 
of each without belonging to either. 

Besides these, there is the small and secluded district of Auvergne, 
having a style peculiarly its own, which, though certainly belonging 
to the southern province, is easily distinguished from any of the 
neighbouring styles, and is one of the most pleasing to be found of an 
early age in France. 

Beyond this to the eastward lies the great Burgundian province, 
having a well-defined and well-marked style of its own, influenced by 
or influencing all those around it. Its most marked characteristic is 
what may be called a mechanical mixture of the classical and mediaeval 
styles without any real fusion. Essentially and constructively the 
style is Gk)thic, but it retained the use of Corinthian pilasters and 
classical details till late in the Middle Ages : Burgundy was also in the 
Middle Ages the country of monasticism par excellence — a circumstance 
which had considerable influence on her forms of art. 

Taking, then, a more general view of the southern province, it 
will be seen that if a line were drawn from Marseilles to Brest, it 
would pass nearly through the middle of it. At the south-eastern 
extremity of such a line we should find a style almost purely 
Romanesque, passing by slow and equal gradations into a Gothic 
form at its other terminal. 

On turning to the Frankish province the case is somewhat dif- 
ferent. Paris is here the centre, from which everything radiates : 
and though the Norman invasion, and other troubles of those times, 
with the rebuilding mania of the 13th century, have swept away 
nearly all traces of the early buildings, still it is easy to see how the 


Gothic style arose in the Isle of France, and how it spread from 
thence to all the neighbouring provinces. 

In consequence, however, of the loss of its early buildings, and of 
its subsequent pre-eminence and supercession of the earlier styles, the 
description of its features naturally follows that of the subordinate 
provinces, and concludes the history of the mediaeval styles in France. 

Not to multiply divisions, we may include in the Northern province 
many varieties that will afterwards be marked as distinct in maps of 
French architecture, especially at the south-east, where the Nivemois 
and Bourbonnois, if not deserving of separate honours, at least consist 
of such a complete mixture of the Frankish and Burgundian with the 
Southern styles, that they cannot strictly be said to belong to any one 
in particular, though they partake of all. The Northern, however, is 
certainly the predominant element, and with that therefore they should 
be classed. 

To the westward lies the architectural province of Normandy, one 
of the most vigorous offshoots of the Frankish style : and from the 
power of the Norman dukes in the 11th and 12th centuries, and the 
accidental circumstance of its prosperity in those centuries when 
the rest of France was prostrate from their ravages and torn by 
internal dissensions, the Romanesque style shows itself here with a 
vigour and completeness not found elsewhere. It is, however, evidently 
only the Frankish style based remotely on Roman tradition, but which 
the Barbarians used with a freedom and boldness which soon converted 
it into a purely national form. This soon ripened into the complete 
Gothic style of the 13th century, which was so admired that it soon 
spread over the whole face of Europe, and became the type of all Gothic 

Alsace is not included in this enumeration, as it certainly belongs 
architecturally to Germany. Lorraine too is more German than 
French, and if included at all, must be so as an exceptional transitional 
province. French Flanders belonged, in the Middle Ages, to the 
Belgian provinces behind it, and may therefore also be disregarded at 
present : but even after rejecting all these, enough is still left to render 
it difficult to remember and follow all the changes in style introduced 
by these different races, and which marked not only the artistic but the 
political state of France during the Middle Ages, when the six terri- 
torial peers of France, the Counts of Toulouse, Aquitaine, Normandy, 
Burgundy, Champagne, and Flanders, represented the six principal 
provinces of the kingdom, under their suzerain, the Count or King of 
Paris. These very divisions might now be taken to represent the 
architectural distinctions, were it not that the pre-eminence of these 
great princes belongs to a later epoch than the architectural divisions 
which we have pointed out, and which we must now describe some- 
what more at length. 

Bk. m. Ch. I. POINTED ARCHES. 45 

Pointed Abches. 

Before proceeding to describe these various styles in detail, it may 
add to the clearness of what follows if the mode in which the pointed 
arch was first introduced into Christian architecture is previously 
explained. It has already been shown that the pointed arch with 
radiating voussoirs was used by the Assyrians as early as the time of 
Sargon in the 8th century B.C., and by the Ethiopians as early as that 
of Tirhakah. The Etrurians and Pelasgi used the form probably 
twelve centuries before the Christian era, but constructed it with 
horizontal courses. To come nearer, however, to our own time, the 
Saracens certainly adopted it at Cairo in the first century of the 
H^ira,^ and employed it generally if not universally, and never 
apparently used a round arch after the erection of the mosque of Ebn 
Tuliin, A.D. 879. 

The Romanesque traditions, however, prevented the Christians 
from adopting it in Europe till forced to do it from constructive 
necessities ; and the mode of its introduction into the early churches in 
Provence renders them singularly important in enabling us to arrive at 
a correct solution of this much mooted question. ^ 

It is hardly worth while discussing whether the form was borrowed 
from the Ectst, where it had been used so long before it was known — or 
at least before we are aware of its being known — in Europe, It may 
be that the Pelasgic Greeks left examples of it in Provence, or that 
persons trading to the Levant from Marseilles became familiar with its 
uses ; or it may be, though very unlikely, that it was really re-invented 
for the purposes to which it was applied. 

In whatever way it was introduced, it at least seems certain that 
ail the churches of Provence, from the age of Charlemagne to that of 
St. Louis, were vaulted, and have their vaults constructed on the 
principle of the pointed arch. It has nevertheless long been a received 
dogma with the antiquaries of France, as well as with those of England, 
that the pointed arch was first introduced in the 12th century — the 
first example being assumed to be the work of Abbot Suger at St. 
Denis (1144-52), the result of which is that all who have written on 
the subject of Provencal architecture have felt themselves forced to 

' There seems to be some doubt about 
iho age of the pointed arches in the 
motqne of Amrii; the earliest authen- 
tieated archen of that form are found in 
the Kilometer in the island of Roda 
which is fixed by Mr. Lane as 861 a.d., 
eighteen yean older than that of 

' For the detail of the argument I 
must refer the reader to a paper read by 
me to the Institute of British Architects 
on June 18th, 1849, and published in the 
' Builder,* and other papers of the time. 
See also a paper read in the same place 
in the following month (July, 1849), by 

TulOn. — £n. Sir Gardner Wilkinson. 



Pabt IL 

ascribe the age of the churches in question, or at least of their roofs, 
a date subsequent to this period. 

The use to which the Provencal architects applied the pointed arch 
will be evident from the annexed diagram, the left-hand portion of 
which is a section of the roof of one of the churches at Yaison. The 
object evidently was to lay the roof or roofing-tiles directly on the 
vault, as the Romans had done on their domes, and also, so far as we 
know, on those of their thermas. Had they used a circular vault for 
this purpose, it is evident, from the right-hand side of the diagram, 
that to obtain a straight-lined roof externally, and the necessary water- 
shed, it would have been requisite to load the centre of the vault to a 
most dangerous extent, as at A ; whereas with the pointed arch it only 
required the small amount of filling up shown at B, and even that 
might have been avoided by a little conti ivance if thought necessary. 


Diagram of Vaulting. South of France. 

By adopting the pointed form the weights are so distributed as to 
ensure stability and to render the vault self-supporting. It has already 
l>een observed that the Gothic architects everywhere treated their 
vaults as mere false ceilings, covering them with a roof of wood — an 
expedient highly objectionable in itself, and the cause of the destruc- 
tion, by fire or from neglect, of almost all the churches we now find in 
ruins all over Europe ; whereas, had they adhered either to the Roman 
or Romance style of roofing, the constant upholding hand of man would 
not have been required to protect their buildings from decay. 

The one obstacle in the way of the general adoption of this mode 
of roofing was the difficulty of applying it to intersecting vaults. The 
Romans, it is true, had conquered the difficulty ; so had the Byzantine 
architects, as we have already seen, displaying the ends of the vaults 
as ornaments ; and even at St. Mark's, Venice, this system is adopted, 
and with the additional advantage of the pointed arch might have 
been carried further. Still ic must be confessed that it was not easy — 
that it required more skill iu construction and a better class of masonry 

bk. m. ch. l 



than was then available to do this efficiently and well. The con- 
sequence is, that all the Romance pointed vaults are simple tunnel- 
vaults without intersections, and that the Gothic architects, when they 
adopted the form, slurred over the difficulty by hiding the upper sides 
of their vaults beneath a temporary wooden roof, which protected them 
from the injuries of the weather. This certainly was one of the 
greatest mistakes they made : had they carefully profiled and orna- 
mented the exterior of the stone roofs in the same manner as they 
ornamented the inside, their buildings would have been not only much 
more beautiful, but much more permanent, and the style would have 
been saved from the principal falsity that now deforms it. Even as it 
is, if we wished intelligently to adapt the Gothic to our purposes, 
instead of merely copying it, this is one of the points to which we 
ought first to turn our attention. 

Another circumstance which may be alluded to here, when speak- 
ing on this subject, which led to the adoption of the pointed arch at 
an early age in the southern provinces of Franco, was the use of domes 
as a roofing expedient. These, it is true, arc not found in Provence, 


Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3. 

but they are common in Aquitaine and Anjou — some of thom certainly 
of the 11th century ; and there can bo little doubt but that these ai'o 
not the earliest, though their predecessors have perished or have not 
yet been brought to light. 

There is no one who has studied the subject who is not aware how 
excellent, as a constructive expedient, the pointed arch is as applied to 
intersecting vaults, but it is not so generally understood why it was 
equally necessary in the construction of domes. So long as these 
rested on drums rising from the ground the circular form sufficed ; but 
when it became necessary to rest them on pendentives in the angles 
of square or octagonal buildings, the case was widely different. The 
early Byzantine architects — in Sta. Sophia, for instance — did fit pen- 
dentives to circular arches, but it was with extreme difficulty, and 
required very great skill both in settiag out and in execution. But 
the superiority of the pointed form was perceived at an early date ; 
and the Saracens, who were trammelled by no traditions, adopted 
it at once as a doming expedient and adhered to it as exclusively 
as the Gothic architects did in the construction of their vaults — 
and for the same reason — simply because it was the best mode of 



Pabt 11. 

It is easy to explain why thb should be so. In the diagram on the 
preceding page, fig. I represents the pendentives of a dome resting on 
circular arches. At A they become evanescent, and for some distance 
from the centre are so weak that it is only by concealed constmctitm 
that they can be made to do their work. When the pointed arch is 
introduced, as in fig. 2, not only is great freedom obtained in spacing, 
but the whole becomes constructively correct ; when, as in fig. 3, an 
octagonal arrangement ia adopted, the whole becomes still more simple 
and easy, and very little adjustment ia required to fit a dome to an 
octagon ; and if the angles are again cut off, so as to form a polygon of 
16 sides, all the exigencies of construction are satisfied. 

At St. Front, Ferigueux, at Moiasac, and at Loches, we find the 
pointed arch, introduced evidently for this purpose, and forming a class 

of roofs more like those of mosques in Cairo than any other buildings in 
Europe. It is true they now look bare and formal — their decorations 
having been originally painted on stucco, which has pealed off; but 
still the variety of form and perspective they afford internally, and the 
character and truthfulness they give to the roof as seen from without, 
are such advantages that we cannot but regret that these two expe- 
dients of stone external roofs and domes were not adopted in Gothic. 
Had the great architects of that style in the 13th century carried oat 
these with their characteristic zeal and earnestness, they might hare 
left us a style in every respect infinitely more perfect and more beau- 
tiful than the one they invented, and which we are copying so servilely, 
instead of trying, with our knowledge and means of construction, to 
repair the errors and omissions of our forefathers, and out of the 
inheritance they have left us to work out something more beautiful 

bk. iil ch. l pointed arches. 49 

and more worthy of our greater refinement and more advanced 

The practice of the Greeks in respect to their roofis was a curious 
contrast to that of the mediaeval architects. Their architecture, as 
before remarked, being essentially external, while that of the Middle 
Ages was internal, they placed the stone of their roofs on the outside, 
and took the utmost pains to arrange the covering ornamentally ; but 
they supported aU this on a framework of wood, which in every 
instance has perished. It is difficult to say which was the greater 
mistake oi the two. Both were wrong without doubt. The happy 
medium seems to be that which the Romance architects aimed at — ^a 
complete homogeneous roof, made of the most durable materials and 
ornamented, both externally and internally ; and there can be little 
doubt but that this is the only legitimate and really artistic mode of 
effecting this purpose, and the one to which attention should now be 

This early mode of employing the pointed arch is so little under- 
stood generally that, before leaving this branch of the subject, it may 
be well to quote one other example with a perfectly authentic date. 

The Church of St. Nazaire at Carcassonne was dedicated by Pope 
Urban II. in 1096. It was not then quite complete, but there seems 
no doubt but that the nave, as we now find it, was finished by the year 
1100. As will be seen from the annexed section, the side aisles and all 
the openings are constructed with round arches ; but the difficulty of 
vaulting the nave forced on the architects the introduction of the 
pointed arch. It is here constructed solid with flat ribs over each 
pillar, and without any attempt to pierce it for the introduction of 
light ; and as the west end is blocked up — ^fortified in fact — ^the result 
is gloomy enough. 

This example is also interesting when looked at from another point 
of view. If we turn back to Woodcuts Nos. 187 and 188, and compare 
them with this section, we shall be able to gauge exactly the changes 
which were introduced and the progress that was made, during the 
1000 years that elapsed between the erection of these two buildings. 
In the plan of the temple of Diana at Ntmes, we have the same three- 
aisled arrangement as at Carcassonne. Their dimensions are not very 
dissimilar ; the nave at Nimes is 27 ft. wide, the aisles 7^ ft. in the 
clear. At Carcassonne this becomes 25 ft. and 10 ft. respectively. The 
aisles are in the early example separated from the nave by screen 
walls, adorned with pillars which are mere ornaments. In the later 

^ The Sootch and Irish Celts seem to 
have had a oonoeption of this truth, and 
in both these conntries we find some 
bold attempts at true stone roofs: the 


influenoe, however, of the Gothic races 
overpowered them, and the mixed roof 
became universal. 


examples the pillars have become the main support of the roof, the wall 
being omitted between them. 

The roof of the nave in both instances is adorned with flat ribs, one 
over each pillar ; but at Nimes the rib is rather wider than the space 
between. At Carcassonne the rib occupies only one-fourth of the 
width of the bay. One of their most striking difierences is, that Ntmes 
displays all that megalithic grandeur for which the works of the 
Romans were so remarkable ; while at Carcassonne the masonry is little 
better than rubble. It need hardly be added that the temple displays 
an elegance of detail which charms the most fastidious tsatey while 
the decoration of the church is rude and fantastic, though no doubt 
picturesque and appropriate. The last remark must not, however, be 
understood as a reproach to Cothic art, for the choir of this very church, 
and the two outer arches shown in the woodcut No. 546, were rebuilt 
in the year 1331, with an elegance of detail which, in a constructive 
sense, would shame the best classical examples. The nave is a tentative 
example of a rude age, when men were inventing, or trying to invent, 
a new style, and before they quite knew how to set about it. The 
builders of Carcassonne had this temple at Nimes standing, jMrobably 
much more complete than it is now, within 120 miles of them, and 
they were attempting to copy it as best they could. It is probable, 
however, they had also other models besides this one, and certain 
that this was not the first attempt to reproduce them. The diiflfer- 
ences are considerable; but the similarities are so great that we 
ought rather to be astonished that ten centuries of experience and 
effort had not shown more progress than we find. 


There are few chapters in the history of mediajval architecture 
which it would be more desirable to have fully and carefully written 
than that of the style of Provence from the retirement of the Romans 
to the accession of the Franks. This country, from various causes, 
retained more of its former civilisation through the dark ages than 
any other, at least on this side of the Alps. Such a history, however, 
is to be desired more in an archaeological than in an architectural point 
of view ; for the Provencal churches, compared with the true Gothic, 
though numerous and elegant, are small, and most of them have 
undergone such alterations as to prevent us from judging correctly of 
their original effect. 

Among the Provenc^al churches, one of the most remarkable is 
Notre Dame de Doms, the cathedral at Avignon (Woodcut No. 547). 
Like all the others, its dimensions are small, as compared with those in 
the northern province, as it is only 200 ft. in len<;jth, and the nave about 

bb. in. cb. l 



20 ft. in width. The side aisles have been so altered aad rebuilt, that 
it is difficult to 8&y what their plan and dimensions originally may 
have been. 

The most remarkable feature and the least altered is the porch, 
which is BO purely Romanesque that it might almost be said to be 
copied from such examples as the arches on the bridge of Chamas 
(Woodcut No 221) It presents however all that attenuation of the 
horizontal features which is so characteristic of the Lo>t<!r Empire and 
cannot rank higher than the Carlovmgian era though it is not quite 
BO eaay to determine how much more modem it may be The bamo 

*namenta are found in the interior, and being integral parts of thi' 
*ament»tion of the pointed roof, have led to various theories U> 
•oWHuit for this copying of classical details after the period at which 
^ wu assumed that the pointed arch had been introduced. It has 
"f^n auffioiently explained above, how early this was the case as a 
'udting expedient in this quarter ; and that difficulty being removed, 
*e may safety ascribe the whole of the essential parts of this church 
^ * period not long, if at all, subsequent to the age of Charlemagne. 

Next perhaps in importance to this, is the church of St. Ti-ophimc 
*t Aries, the nave d which, with its pointed vault, probably belongs 
to the ume age, though its porch (Woodcut No. 548), insicad of being 

E 2 


Pabt IL 

the earliest part as in the last instance, is here the moat modern, 
having been erected in the 11th century, when the church to which it 
is attached acquired additional celebrity by the translation of the body 
<d St. Trophime to a final resting-place within its walls. As it is, it 
forms a curious and interesting pendent to the one last quoted, showing 
bow in the course oi two centuries the style had passed from debased 
Soman to a purely native form, still retaining a strong tradition trf 
its origin, but so nsed and so ornamented that, were we not able to 

Ctwpuj, ' ilojta Xge NoDum 

trace back the steps one by one by which the porch at Avignon led 
to that of Aries, we might almost bo inclined to doubt the succession. 

The porches at Aix, Cuxa, Coustongea, Frades, Valcabre, Tarascon, 
and elsewhere in this province, form a series of singular interest, and 
frf great beauty of detail mixed with all the rich exuberance of our own 
Norman doorways, and follow one another by such easy gradation! 
that the relative age of each may easily be determined. 

The culminating example is that at St. Gilles, near the months of 
the Rhone, which is by far the most elaborate church of its class, but 
so classical in many of its details, that it probably is somewhat earlier 

Ba. ni. Ch. I. PROVENCE. 53 

UuLQ tbJB one al Aries, which it resembles in jna,ay respects, though 
Ear exceeding it in nugnificeace. It consists of three sach porches 
placed side by side, and connected t<^ether by colonnades^if they 
may be so called— and sculpture of the richest class, forming altogether 
a frontal decoration unsurpassed except in the corthem churches of 
the 13th century. Such porches, however, as those of Rheims, Amiens, 
and Chartres, surpass eren these in elaborate richness and in dimen- 
sions, though it may be questioned if they are really more beautiful in 

'■ Xfu ct Chaitb U Aia. (From TitIoi . 

There is another church of the Carlovingian era at Orange, and one 
*t If lines, probably belongii^ to the 9th or 10th century ; both how- 
^^ Tery much injured by alterations and repairs. In the now deserted 
^f of Vaisoa there are two churches, so classical in their style, that 
*< «e not surprised at M. Laborde,' and the French antiquaries in 
S^ural, classing them as remains of the classical period. In any 
'^ber country on this side of the Alps such an inference would be in- 
B'itsble ; but here another code of criticism must be applied to them. 
^ oldest, the chapel of St. Quinide, belongs probably to the 9th or 
lOtb centaij. It is small but remarkably elegant and classical in the 

■ lAborde, ' UonnmentB de U France,' vol. i. p. 92, plates cit. an4 czri. 



Part IL 

style of its architecture, The apse is the most singular as well as the 
most ancient part of the church, and is formed in a manner of which 
no other example is found anywhere else, so far as I know. Ester- 
natty it is two sides of a square, internally a semicircle ; at each angle 
of the exterior and in each face is a pilaster, fairly imitated from the 
Corinthian order, and supporting an entablature that might very well 

mislead a Northern antiquary into the ( 
Pagan temple. 

The cathedral, though larger, is mon 

r of supposing it ' 

i Gothic both in plan and 
detail, though not 
without some classical 
features, and is entirely 
free from the bold rude- 
ness of style we are so 
accustomed to associate 
with the architecture of 
the 11th century, to 
which it belonga. Its 
system of raulting has 
already been explained 
(Woodcut No. 54-4), 
-■ but neither of these 
buildings baa yet met 
; with the attention they 
so richly merit from 
those who are desirous 
of tracing the progress 
of art from the decline 
of the pure Roman to 
the rise of the true 
Gothic styles. 

Taking it altogether, 
. perhaps the most elegant 
specimen of the style b 
the ruined — now, I fear, nearly destroyed— church of Alet, which, 
though belonging to the 11th century, was singularly classical in 
its details, and wonderfully elegant in every part of its design. Of 
this the apse, as having undergone no subsequent transformation, was 
by fur the most interesting, though not the most beautiful, portion. 
Externally the uiijier [lai-t was adorned witli dwarf Corinthian pilasters, 
surmounted by n cornice that would not discredit the buildings of 
l>ioctetian at Spalato ; the lower part was ornamented by forms of 
more mediif val character, liut of scarcely leas elegance. In the interior 
the triumphal arch, as it would be calleii in a Roman basilica, is 
adorned by two Corinthian pillars, designed with the bold freedom of 

■1 AneltotApMtlAlel. (From Tiylur ind N. 

Bl IU. Ch. I. PROVENCE. 55 

the age, though retamiug the classical forms id a most unexpected 

i these parts, though for less 

The rest of the church is as elegant 
classical, the necessities of vault- 
ing and construction requiring a 
different mode of treatment, and 
a departure from conventional 
forms, which the architect does 
not seem to have considered 
himself at liberty to employ in 
the apee. 

Another singularly elegant 
specimen of this style b the 
church of St. Faul-Trois- 
Ch&teanz, near Avignon (Wood- 
cuts Nob. 551, 552). Its details 'Z- 
are so elegant and bo classical 
that it might almost be mistaken 
for a building of the Lower 
Empire anterior to Justinian's 
time. Its plan, however, and the 
details of its construction, prove 
that it belongs to a much more 
modem date ; Viollet le Due 
would even bring it down as low 
as the 12th century. It hardly 
seema possible that it should be 
BO modem as this ; but the truth 
is, the whole history of the 
Romance style in this province 
hta still to be written.' It has 
not yet been examined with the 
cue it deserves by any competent 
authority, aod till it is we must 
be content with the knowedge 
that, in the neighbourhood of the 
BoQches du Rhfine, there exists a 
ponp d churches which, drawing 
tbdr inspiration from the classical 
remuns with which the country 
IS studded, exhibit an elegance of design as exquisite as it is in strange 

'[ATBlnableandwell-Uliutnitodwork, MacGibboD aoOTpta the data of 12lh 
•"Wlsd 'The Aichit«ctare of ProTeiica ' century for the Charch of 81. Paul- 
wJ the BiTiera, Bdiabnrgh, 1888,' by Troia-Cliateaux, and attributes its Romaii 
Hf. Darid HuKJibtxm, hat tinea added character to ancient work in tlie pro- 
to DU knowladge in this rcqwct. Mr, »inee«.— Ed.] 



Part II. 

contrast with the rude vigour — almost vnlgarit; — which characterised 
the works of the Normans in the opposite comer of the land at the 
same period. 

Passing from the round-arched to the pointed modifications of 
this style, the church at Fontifroide, near Narbonne, shows it in its 
completeness, perhaps better than any other example. There, not only 
the roof is pointed, but all the constructive openings have assumed the 
same forms. The windows and doorways, it is true, still retain their 
circular heads, and did retain them as long as the native style flourished 
— the pointed-headed opening being only introduced by the Franks 
when they occupied this country in the time of Simon de Montfort. 

The section across the nave (Woodcut 553) shows the form of the 
central vault, which the longitudinal section shows to be a plain 
tunnel vault unbroken by any intersection throughout the whole 

(l^nm Tifloi ud Nudler.) 

length of the nave. The side aisles are roofed with half vaults, form- 
ing abutments to the central arches — the advantage of this construc- 
tion being, as before expliuned, that the tiles or paving-stones of the 
roof rest directly on the vault without the intervention of any car- 
pentry. Internally also the building displays much elegant simplicity 
and constructive propriety. Its chief defect is the darkness of the 
vault from the absence of a clerestory, which though tolerable in the 
bright sunshine of the South, could not be borne in the more gloomy 
North. It was to correct this, as we shall afterwards perceive, that 
in the North the roof of the aisles was first raised to the height of that 
of the central nave, light being ailmitted through a gallery. Next 
the upper roof the aisles was cut away, with the exception of mere 
strips or ribs left as flying buttresses. Lastly, the central vault was 
cut up by intersections, so as to obtain space for windows to the very 
height of the ridge. It was this last expedient that necessitated the 
adoption of the pointed -headed window. It might never have beea 

Be. m. Ch. I. 



introdnced but for the invention of painted glass, but -thia requiring 

larger openings, compelled the archit«ct3 to bring these windows close 

ap to the lines of the constructive vaulting, and so follow its forms. 

In the South, however, painted gloss never was, at least in the age of 

which we are now speaking, a favourite mode of decoration, and the 

windows remained so small as never to approach or interfere in any 

way with the lines of the vault, and they therefore retained their 

national and more beautiful circular-headed termination. The modes 

of introducing light are, however, undoubtedly the most defective part 

of the arrangements of the Provencal churches, and have given rise 

to its being called a " cavero-like Gothic " ' from the gloom of their 

interiors as compared with the 

glass walls of their Northern 

rivals. Still it by no means 

follows that this was an inherent 

characteristic of the style, which 

could not have been remedied 

by further experience ; but it 

is probable that no ingenuity ' 

would ever have enabled this ; 

style to display these enormous 

surfaces of painted glass, the 

introduction of which was, if 

not the only, at least the 

principal motive of all those 

changes which took place in the 

Frankish provinces. 

It would be tedious to 
attempt to describe the numer- 
ous churches of the llth and m, du 
I2th centuries which are found ""^ 
in every considerable town in this proviii 
such as Elne, St. Guillem du Desert, St. Martin de Landres, Vignogoul, 
Valmagne, Lodeve,' ic, deserve particular attention, as exemplifying 
this style, not only in its earlier forms, but after it bad passed into 
a pointed style, though differing very considerably from that of the 
North, Among these there is no church more interesting than the 
old fortalice-like church of Maguelonne, which, from its exposed 
situation, open to the attacks of Saracenic corsairs as well as Christian 
robbers, looks more like a baronial castle than a peaceful church. One 
of ita doorways shows a curious admixture of classical, Saracenic, and 

imcDU lit Du Lugntdix.') 

e of them, however, 

■ Wood'i ■ Letten of an Arcliitect,' vol. i. p. 163. 

* These ore all illnitratsd iDore or leis com[ile(el; b; ItcnouTier, ' HoDumenta da 
Mnntpellier, IMO. 


Part II. 

Gothic taste, which could only be found here ; and as it bears a date 
(1178), it marks an epoch in the style to which it belongs. 

Had it been completed, the church of St. Oilles would perhaps 
have been the most splendid of the province. Its portal has alreadj 
been spoken of, and is certainly without a rival ; and the lover church, 
which belongs to the 11th century, is worthy of its magnificence. It 
was, however, either never finished, or was subsequently ruined alcoig 
with the upper church, which was commenced in the year 1116 by 
Raymond IV., Count of St. Gilles. This too was probably never com- 
pleted, or, if it was, it was ruined in the wars with the Huguenots. 
Even in its present state, and though wanting the richness ctf the 
earlier examples, it perhaps surpasses 
them all in the excellence {£ its huumoxj, 
and the architectural propriety of all its 

Besides these, there is an important 
church at Valence of the 11th century, 
which seems to be an almost expiring 
effort of the " cavern-like " style. In 
other respects it resembles the Kortbem 
styles so much as almost to remove it 
from the Provencal class. This b even 
more true of the cathedral at Vienne, 
which is nevertheless the largeet and 
finest of the churches of Provence, but 
which approaches, both in style and 
locality, very closely to the Burgundian 

Its plan is extremely simple, haring 
no transept and no aisle trending round 
the apse, as is the case with most of the 
Korthem churches. It consists of three 
aisles, the central one 35 ft. wide between 
the piers, the others 14 ft. The buttresses are internal, as was usual 
in the South, forming chapels, and making up the whole width 
externally to 113 ft. by a length over all of 300, so that it covers 
somewhere about 30,000 sq. ft. This is only half the dimensions of 
some of the great Northern cathedrals, but the absence of transepts, 
and its generally judicious proportions, make this church look much 
larger than it really is. 

The west front and the three western bays are of the 16th century ; 
the next seven are of an early stylo of pointed architecture, with semi- 
Roman pilasters, which will be described in speaking of Burgundian 
architecture, and which belong probably to the llth or beginning of 
the 12th century. The apse is .iKiicribcd to the year 9r)2, but there are 

Bk. nL Ch. I. PROVENCE. 59 

no drawings on which sufficient dependence can be placed to determine 
the date. 

Besides this, there is another church, St. Andre le Bas at Vienna, 
belonging to the 1 1th century, whose tower is one of the most pleasing 
instances of this kind of composition in the proyince, and though 
evidently a lineal descendant of the Roman and Italian campaniles, 
displays an amount of design seldom met with beyond the Alps. 

Circular Churches. 

The round shape seems never to have been a favourite for sacred 
buildings in Provence, and consequently was never worked into the 
apses of the churches nor became an important adjunct to them. One 
of the few examples found is a small baptistery attached to the cathe- 
dral at Aix, either very ancient or built with ancient materials, and 
now painfully modernised. At lliez there is a circular detached 
baptistery, usually, like the churches at 
Vaiflon, called a pagan temple, but 
evidently of Christian origin, though the 
pillars in the interior seem undoubtedly 
to have been borrowed from some more 
ancient and classical edifice. But the 
finest of its class is the church at Rieux, 
probably of the 1 1th century. Internally the 

vault is supported by 4 piers and 3 pillars, 

producing an irregularity far from pleasing, ^se. Plan of church «t Planes 

*^ . ® ^ J r &> (From Taylor and Ncxlier.) 

and without any apparent motive. 

At Planes is another church the plan of which deserv^es to be quoted, 

^ not for its merit, at least for its singularity : it is a triangle with an 
apse attached to each side, and supporting a circular part terminating 
m a plain roof. As a constructive puzzle it is curious, but it is doubt- 
™1 how far any legitimate use could be made of such a caprice. 

There is, so far as I know, only one triapsal church, that of 
St. Croix at Mout Majour near Aries. Built as a sepulchral chapel, 
it is a singularly gloomy but appropriate erection ; but it is too tall 
*ttd too bare to rank high as a building even for such a purpose. 


Provence is far from being rich in towers, which never seem there 
^ have been favourite forms of architectural display. That of 
St. Andr6 le Bas at Vienne has already been alluded to, but this at 
Poiasalicon (Woodcut No. 557) near Beziers is even more typical of 


Part II. 

the style, and scanding as it now does in solitary grandeur among the 
ruins of the chnrch once attached to it, bos a dignity seldom possessed 
by such monuments. In style it resembles the towers <rf ItaJy more 
than any found farther north, but it is not without peculiarities that 
point to a different mode of elaborating this peculiar feature from 
anything found elsewhere. As a design its principal defect seems to 
\ie B. wont of lightness in the upper storey. The single circular opening 
there is a mistake in a building 
gradually growing lighter towards its 

These towers were very seldom, if 
ever, attached symmetrically to the 
churches. When height was made 
an object, it was more frequently 
attained by carrying up the dome at 
the intersection of the choir with 
the nave. At Aries this is done by 
a hea\-y square tower, gradually 
diminishing, but atill massive to the 
t<^ ; but in most instances the square 
becomes an octagon, and this again 
pusses into a circle, which tenmnatea 
the composition. One of the best 
specimens of this class of domes, if 
they may be so called, is the church 
of Cruas (Woodcut No. 558), where 
these parts are pleasingly subordin- 
oted, and form, with the apses on 
which they rest, a very beautiful 
' composition. The defect is the tiled 
roofs or offsets at the junction of the 
various storeys, which give an appear- 
' ance of weakness, as if the upper 
parts could slide, like the joints of a telescope, one into the other. 
This could easily be avoided, and probably was so in the original 
design. If this were done, we have hero the principle of a more 
pleasing crowning member at an intersection than was afterwards used 
in pointed architecture, and capable of being applied to domes of 
any extent, 


Nearly all, and certainly all the more important churches of which 
we have been speaking, were collegiate, and in such establishments 
the cloister forms as important a part as the church itself, and fre- 
(juently the more beautiful object of the two. In our own cold wet 

Lk. III. Ch. I. PEOVENCE. 61 

climate the cloisters lose much of their appnspriateness ; still, they 
always were naed, and always with a pleasing effect ; but in the warm 
sunny South their clmrm ia increased tenfold. The artists seem to 
have felt this, and to have devoted a large share of their attention to 
these objects — creating, in fact, a new style of architecture for this 
special purpose. 

With us the arcades of a cloister are generally, if not always, a 
range of unglazed windows, presenting the same features as those of 
the church, which, though beautiful when filled with glass, are some- 
what out of place without that indispensable adjunct. Id the South 

Tiyloi isd Nailer.) 

Iht cloister is never a window, or anything in the least approaching to 
It in design, but a range of small and elegant pillars, sometimes single, 
"auetimea coupled, generally alternately so, and supporting arches oi 
'igfat and elegant design, all the features I)eing of a character suited to 
'W place where they are used, and to that only. 

The cloister at Aries has long occupied the attention of travellers 
Mil artists, and perhaps no building, or part of one, in this style has 
"^n so often drawn or so much admired. Two sides of it are of the 
's»me age and in the same style as the porch (Woodcut No. 5-18), and 
^ualiy beautiful. The other two are somewhat later, the columns 
supporting pointed instead of round arches. At Aix there is another 
itmilar to that at Aries, and fragments of such colonnades are found 
in many places. That of Fontifroide (Woodcut No. 550) is one of the 
most complete and perfect, and some of its capitals are treated with a 


C^iHali In ClolMr, l:3u. (Fran Tiflor and Kodiir.) 

Bk. m. Ch. L PROVENCE. G3 

freedom and boldness, and at the same time with an elegance, not 
often rivalled anywhere. They even excel — for the purpose at least 
— the Grerman capitals of the same age. Those at Elne are more 
carious than those of any other cloister in France, so far as I know 
— some of them showing so distinct an imitation of Egyptian work as 
instantly to strike any one at all familiar with that style. Yet they 
are treated with a lightness and freedom so wholly medieval as to 
show that it is possible to copy the spirit without a servile adherence 
to the form. Here, as in all the examples, every capital is different 
— the artists revelling in freedom from restraint, and sparing neither 
time nor pains. We find in these examples a delicacy of handling 
and refinement of feeling far more characteristic of the South than of 
the ruder North, and must admit that their architects have in these 
cloisters produced objects with which nothing of the kind we have in 
England can compete. 



pam n. 




Churches at Perigueux, Souillac, ADgouldme, Alby, Toulouse, Conques, 

Tours. — Tombs. 

The moment you pass the hills forming the watershed between the 

rivers flowing to the Mediter- 
ranean and those which debouch 
into the Bay of Biscay, you 
become aware of having left 
the style we have just been 
describing to enter upon a new 
architectural province. This 
province possesses two distinct 
and separate styles, very unlike 
1^ one another both in character 
and detail. The first of these 
is a round arched tunnel- 
vaulted Gothic style, more 
remarkable for the grandeur 
of its conceptions than for the 
success with which those con- 
ceptions are carried out, or for 
beauty of detail. The second 
is a pointed-arched, dome-roofed 
style peculiar to the province. 
The existence of this pecu- 
liar form of art in this part 
of France, where it is alone 
found, is quite sufficient to 
establish the pre-existence in 
this province of a race diflfering 
from that inhabiting the rest 
of the country, though it is not 
at present easy to determine 
their origin. From the prevalence of Basque terminations to the 
names of the principal towns in the district, and from the fragments 

_■«'. t 


_ i ■■- i5 

662. Plan of St. Front, Perlgneux. (From F. de Vernellh, 
•Architecture Bv7antine eu France.') 
Scale 100 ft. to 1 In. 

Bk. m. Ch. n. 


«^ that people atlH existing on its southeni froatier it would appear 
most likel/ that thej were the mfluencing race. If 80 their love of 
dcHnw would be ahnoet sufficient to eBtabhsh their claim to & Turauun 
origin, for though domes are found, no doubt farther north it is in a 
modified form. These phenomena are however sufficient to induce us 
to include for the present m the proviace of Aquitame the doubtful 
districts of the Angoumois and \ endee though it is possible that 
these provinces may event- _ 

ually turn out to belong 
more properly to Anjon 

In describing them, it 
may be convenient to 
take the domical style 
first, as its history — with 
one or two exceptional 
examples in the neigh 
bouring provinces — begins 
and ends here. It will 
no doubt, be found beyond 

the Pyrenees so soon as it 

>• looked tor ; but m a 

ooontry whose architecture 

W been so imperfectly 

■"^tigated as has been 

t** case in Spain, fifty 

^ftront styles might exist 

without our being cog 

■"ttnt of the fact. 

The principal and best 

in»erved example of the 

"•wnicsl style of Aquitame 

"• the church of St 

'fwit, Perigueux, As L 

•ill be seen from the 

»oodcut No. 562, its plan 

ii that of a Greek cross 182 ft each way internally exclusiie of the 

^«e, which is comparatively modem and of the ante-church and 

poreh, shaded darker extending 150 ft farther west which are the 

nnuuns of an older church now very much mutilated and to which 
lie domical church was added in the 12th century. 

Both in plan and dimensions, it will be observed that this church 
bears an extraordinary and striking resemblance to that of St. Mark's, 
Venice, illastrated in Book II. The latter church, however, has the 
angles so filled up as to reduce it to the more usual Greek form of 
a square, while its front and lateral porches are additions of a 


us. Put of St. Front PirlEsaiu (Prom VrrotUb.) 


to which the charch o£ St. Front can laj do claim. The 
five cu^Aas are of nearly the sazzte aize^ and are amilarlj placed, in both 
eharche» ; and the general similarity of arrangement points certainly 
to an identity of origin. Boch too woold seem to be of aboat the same 
age, and there is now some reason to doabt the data on which M. Felix 
de Vemeilh ' arrived at the conclosion that the church we now see 
wa« erected in the very b^inning of the 11th century. There is, 
however, one striking difiference — that all the constmctiTe arches in 
Hi, Front are pointed, while those of St. Mark's are round. The form 
too of the cupolas differs ; and in St. Front the piers that sii|^KNrt the 
domes, having Ijeen foand too weak, have been cased to strengthen 
them, which gives them an awkward appearance, from which St. Mark's 
is free. The difference that would strike a traveller most is, that St. 
Mark's retains its frescoes and decorations, while St. Front, like almost 
all the churches of its age, presents nothing now but naked bare walls, 
though there cannot F>e a doubt that it was originally painted. This 
indeed was the legitimate and appropriate mode of decoration of all 
the churches of this age, till it was in a great measure sapearaeded by 
the invention of painted glass. 

The cupolas are at the present day covered with a wooden roof ; 
but their original appearance is represented with tolerable correctness 
in the wooflcut No. 563, which, though not so graceful as Eastern 
domes usually are, are still a far more picturesque and permanent 
fmishing for a roof than the wooden structures of the more Northern 
rtuuM. Its present internal appearance, from the causes above men- 
ilotuulf is singularly bare and gloomy, and no doubt utterly unworthy 
of ilH pristine splendour. 

Th() tower stands at the intersection between the old and new 

' M. V«^rn(ulh, in his work " Archi- 
tortiird liyxAiitiiio tm Franco," 4to, Paris, 
IHAl, \iiuMH\ \i'\H ar^urnftntM chioily on the 
RUpiKmition that it wum copied from St. 
Mitrk'M, Vcnico. Tho (liHCM)vori(>H to which 
wo hiivn alntaily roftirrrd (p. 580, vol. I.) 
pn>vo that tito lattor woh not built till 
1()H.H-71, HO that it followH that a much 

1120 : but the existing charch is entirely 
built in incombustible material, and there- 
fore it would seem to be more probable 
that a much later date, viz. 1120-1140, 
must be given to it. It should however 
be taken into account that St. Front is 
generally accepted as the prototype of 
all the domed churches in France, so 

Uttir <lato niunt \h^ p^iven to St. Front, un- i that if any of its successors oould be 
\mB thtJ lattiir \h\ like St. Murk's, a copy ' proved to have an earlier date our 
of theeliurcli of the ApontloH ut Constan- | argument would fall to the ground. So 

tiiuiplo. AgaiiiHt thiH Hup}M)Bition there 
^*luainM tho fact that the churchoa 

far as tho architectural details of the 
church are concerned they have more the 

of Ht. Mark, Veiii(H«, ami St. Front, i character of the 12th than of the 11th 
Poriguoux, am identicil in their dimen- century, and the introduction of the 
■ionii if wo rt>plaoo Italian feet by French ! pointed arch at so early a date seems 
foot. 'V\wns ia alao a rt«cord quoted by ' improbable, except so far as the pointed 
Mr (Uilhal>Aud that tho original church barrel vault is concerned, the necessity 
of Si. Fr<mt was deatroycil by lire in for which was pointed out on page 46. 

Bx^ m. ch. n. 



churches, and its lower part at least is so classical in its details that it 
more probably belongs to the older Latin church than to the domical 
one. Its upper part seems to have been added, and its foundation 
strengthened, at the time the eastern part was built 

St. Front is perhaps the only existing apecimea of a perfect Greek 
crosa church with cupolas. That of Souillac is a good example of a 

BM. laterlarotChDrcbitSoulllu. (nnm Ttrlor uul Nndln.] 

modification of a form nearly similar, except that the cupola forming 
the eastern branch is here transferred to the western, making it thus a 
Latin instead of a Qreek cross,' which is certainly an improvement, as 
the principal space and magnificence b thus concentrated about the 
high altar, which is, or should be, the culminating point of effect. An 
c^inion may be formed of its internal appearance, and indeed of all the 
churches of this style, from the view {Woodcut No. 564), which in 
reality gives it much more the appearance of the interior of a mosque 




iiallh.} Sola IMin. loll 

in Cairo tlwD c^ & Chriatiiui chnrob of the Middle Ages. The bv 

is not Urge, b^ng only 205 ft. in length internally, indudin 

porch, and 110 acroes the tnuuepts. Its age is not aocnratelj k 

but it is Dsually placed by ontiq 

in the 12th centniy on account 

pointed arches. 

The cathedral at Angonl^me (" 
. cut No. 565) ia another and still 
r extended example of this class, I 
{■ three domes in the nave ; the I 
' belongLDg probably to the 11th, tb 
to the 12th century. The form of 
domes, with the arraogement o 
side walls, will be understood fro 
woodcut No. 566. The method ad 
in this church may be consider 
typical of all this class ; and, exo 
the mode of lighting the upper pi 
by no means inferior in archite 
efiect to the intersecting vaults of 
ages. The transepts here are shot 
internally so as only to give roo: 
two small lateral chapels ; but externally they are made vei7 imj 
by the addition of two towers, one at the end of each. Thi 
aitotber means of solving a difficulty that everywhere me' 
medieval architects, of giving tbo greatest dignity to the moel 
place. The prope 
obvious mode of 
this was of cour 
raise a tower ui do 
the intersection o 
nave and tr&nsept 
the difficulties of 
struction involved i 
mode of procedure 
such that they a 
were enabled to ca 
out. This can on 
said, indeed, to havi 
'iihO Ho Mile, fairly aooompliahe 
England. At A 
Ume, as will be observed in the plan, there is no passage roun' 
altar, nor is the choir separated from the body of the church 
Italy, and indeed in Germany, this does not seem to have 
considered of importance ; but in France, as we shall presently i 

. m. Co. II. 


Tu r^&rded as the most indispenaable part of the arrangement of the 

chnrch, and to meet this ezigenoj the Southern architects were after- 

varda obliged to invent a method of isolating the 

dioir, by carrying a lofty stone railing or screen 

ronnd it, wholly independent of any of the con- f /^N 1 

Btmctive parts of the church. This, there ia little I I ■• J "■■ ' 

doubt, was a mistake, and in every respnct ■ 

beaatifiil arrangement than that adopted in the • 

Nwth ; still, it seems to have been the only means 

oi meeting the difficulty in the absence of aialea, 

and in some instances the richness with which the 

screen was ornamented, and the unbroken si 

■ion of bassi-reiievi and sculptural ornaments, . 

make us forget that it is only a piece of church 

furniture, and not an integral part of the design of 

the boilding. sn. piu, ^r chnrcb x 

One of the earliest examples of this arrangement " "^ KcS«.) ' 
viiich has been preserved is in the church at ^^' '"" "" " *-'"■ 
Uoissac, remarkable for its strange mythical sculpture and rude 
pnnted architecture, both belonging to the Ilth century, and as unlike 
utything to be found in any 
other part of France as can well 
be conceived. 

At a later age we find in the 
tatbedral at Alby the same system 
carried to its acm^, and still 
ulhered to in all essential parts in 
ipite of the influence and pre- 
dominance of the pure Gothic 
ityles, which had then so gene, 
rally superseded it. Thefoundation 
of the church was laid only in the 
jear 1282, and it was not so far 
completed as to admit of its 
dedicatbn till 1476. Its choir 
and fresco decorations were added 
by the celebrated Louis d'Amboise, 
who completed the whole in 1512. 
As will be seen from the plan 
(Woodcut No 568), the church 
is one immense unbroken vaulted 
hall, 55 ft. in width by 262 in 
bngUi ; or adding the chapels, the internal width is 62 ft., and the 
total length upwards of 300 ft. 

As will be observed, the whole of the buttresses are intemsJ, as is 



Tart II. 

very generally the case in the South ; and where painted glass is not 
used, and fresco painting is the principal mode of decoration, such a 
system has many advantages. The outer walls are scarcely ever seen, 
and by this arrangement great internal extent and appearance of 
gigantic strength is imparted, while the whole space covered by the 
building is available for internal use. But where painted plass is the 
principal mode of decoration, as was the case to the north of the Loire, 
such a system was evidently inadmissible. Then the walls were 
internally kept as flat as possible, so as to allow the windows to be 
seen in every direction, and all the mechanical expedients were placed 
on the outside. Admirably as the Northern architects managed all 
this, I cannot help thinking, if we leave the painted glass out of the 
question, that the Southern architects had hit on the more artistic 

arrangement of the two ; and where, as at Alby, the 
lower parts of the recesses between the internal 
buttresses were occupied by deep windowless chapels, 
and the upper lights were almost wholly concealed, 
the result was an extraordinary appearance of repose 
and mysterious gloom. This character, added to its 
simplicity and the vastness of its vaults, render Alby 
one of the most impressive churches in France, and 
a most instructive study to the philosophical inquirer 
into the principles of effect, as being a Gothic church 
built on principles not only dissimilar from, but 
almost diametrically opposed to, those which we 
have been usually accustomed to consider as indis- 
pensable, and as inherent requisites of the style. 

The church of the Cordeliers at Toulouse is 
another remarkable example of this class, and ex- 
hibiting its peculiarities in even a clearer light than 
that at Alby. Externally its dimensions in plan are 

669. PUn of Church of the •' , , 

Cordeiieni. at Toulouse. 273 ft. by 87. Those of King's College Chapel at 

Scale 100 fu to 1 in. '^ u- U • ^U U'l^' * 

Cambridge, which is the buildmg we possess most 
resembling it in plan, are 310 ft. by 84. But the nave of that chapel 
is only 41 ft. 6 in. clear between the piers, while in the church of the 
Cordeliers it is 53 ft., and except the thickness of the outer wall — 
about 4 ft. — the whole of the floor-space of the plan is utilised in the 
interior. In so far as internal eflect is concerned this is no doubt 
judicious ; but, as may be seen from the view (Woodcut No. 571), the 
absence of any delineation of the line of buttresses externally produces 
a flatness and want of accentuation in the lower part that is highly 
objectionable. As will be observed from the section, the whole of 
the width of the buttresses is included in the interior on the one side. 
On the other it is excluded above the roof of the aisle, but a gallery 
(Woodcuts Nos. 570 and 571) joins the buttress at the top, giving the 

B«. IIL Cn. II. 



«Sect of a cornice and a gallery above. The church is of brick, and all 
the peculiarities of the style are here found exaggerated ; but there are 
few churches on the Continent which coatain so many valuable sug- 
geetioas for a Protestant place of worship, and no features that could 
not easily be improved-by judicious handling. It was built in a country 
where Protestant feeling existed before the Reformation, and where 
consequently architects studied more how they could accommodate 
congregations than provide show-places for priests. 

Besides those which are built wholly according to this plan, there 
m a great number of churches in this province which show the 
influence of its design in more respects than one, though, having been 
rebuilt in a subsequent age, many of the original features are neces- 
urily lost. The cathedral at Bordeaux is a remarkable example of this, 

its western portion being a vast nave without aisles, 60 ft, wide 
intemaUy, and nearly 200 ft. in length. Its foundations show that, 
like that at AngoulSme, it was originally roofed by three great domes ; 
bat being rebuilt in the 13th century, it is now covered by an inter- 
wcting vault of that age, with two storeys of windows, and an immense 
Unty of flying buttresses to support its thrust, all which might have 
Wq dispensed with had the architects retained the original, simpler, 
ud more beautiful form of roof. The cathedral of Toulouse shows the 
nme peculiarity of a wide aisleless nave, leading to a choir of the usual 
'^ODHtnictioa adopted in this country in the 13th and 14 th centuries; and 
tuny other examples might be quoted where the influence of the 
*wlier style peers through the Northern Gothic which succeeded and 
Mwlj obliterated it. 


Chevet Churches. 
The Gothic churches of this province are neither bo nomerous nor 
so remarkable as those of the domical claaa we bare jiut been dea- 
cribinff ; atill, there are several examples, for too important to be passed 
over, and which will serrv 
besides ia enabling us to 
introduce the new form of 
church building which 
became prevalent in 
France to the exclusion 
of all others, and which 
characterised the French 
style in contradistinction 
* to that of other countries. 
The typical example of 
the style in this province 
is the great church of St. 
Satumin, or St. Sernin, at 
Toulouse, dedicated in the 
year 1096. Thechurch is 
375 ft. in length and 217 
in width across the tran- 
sept externally. It is 
five-aisled, the nave being 
95 ft. in the interior, 
though the central aisle is 
only 25 ft. wide and is 
further contracted at the 
intersection by masses of 
masonry subsequently 
added to support the 
central tower. It has five 
apsidal and four transeptol 
chapels, and may therefore 
be considered as possessing 
a complete chevet ; but 
the church at Cooquee 
(Woodcut No. 574), in 
the same style and <d 
almost similar date, illuB- 
trates even more perfoctly 
B. OB DiiK. ^j^^ arrangement of which 

we are now speaking, 
will be observed (Woodcut No. 573), has 

The nave of St. Sernin, i 

Bs. in. Ch, il aquitania. 73 

double ude-aisles, above the inner one of which runs a grand gallery. 

The roof of this gallery — in section the quadrant of a circle — forms an 

abutment to the roof of the nave, which is a bold tunnel-vault oma- 

Lted by transverse ribs only. So far the constructive arrange- 

Lts are the same as in the transitional church of Fontifroide. 

Piling from the nave to the choir, both at Toulouse and at Conques, 

ve oome upon a more extended and complicated arrangement than 

we have hitherto met witL It will be recollected that the early 

RomaDeflque apse was a simple large niche, or semi-dome ; so we found 

oat in the Lombard style, and shall find it in the German style when it 

CQDieB to be described, and generally even in the neighbouring Pro- 

vezi^ style, and always — when unaltered — in the domical style last 

described. In the present instance it will be seen that a semicircular 

nnge of columns is substituted for the wall of the apse, an aisle bent 

roond them, and beyond the aisle there are always three, five, or even 

Wfen chapels opening into it, which give it a 

complexity very different from the simple 

*pie of the Roman basilicas and the other 

itjles we have been describing, and at the 

ttnoe time a perspective and a play of light 

ind shade which are unrivalled in any similar 5 

invention of the Middle Ages. The cr;?«^, '^ 

Pnperly speaking, is a solid semi-cylinder, 

lonnounted by a semi-dome, but always solid 

Wow, though generally broken by windows 

•Iwve. The chevet, on the contrary, is an 

•pw, always enclosed by an open screen of 

-^1 ., , rt , . 674. rian of Cburch at Conqnet. 

OUOmns on the ground-noor, and opening (From laylor and Nodier.) Scale 

.• i .1 !_• 1_ • 1 • 1. 100 ft. to 1 lU. 

into an aisle, which again always opens into 

three or more apsidal chapels. This arrangement ia so peculiarly 
I French that it may properly be characterised by the above French 
word, a name once commonly applied to it, though latterly it has given 
W17 to the more classical, but certainly less suitable, term of apse. 
Ite (nigin too is worth inquiring into, and seems to be capable of easy 

The uses which the various nations of Christendom made of the 
<^ircalar form of building left them by the Romans have been more than 
<xioe adverted to in this work. The Italians used it almost always 
standing alone as a tomb-house or as a baptistery ; the Germans con- 
torted it into a western apse, while sometimes, as at Bonn and 
^where, they timidly added a porch or nave to it ; but the far more 
frequent practice with the Germans, and also in England, was to build 
fint the circular church for its own sake, as in Italy : then the clergy 
b their own accommodation added a choir, that they might pray apart 
'win the people. 



Paw II. 

The French took a different course from all thesa They built 
circular churches like other nations, apparently in early times at 
least, which were intended to stand alone ; but in no instance do thej 
appear to have applied them as naves, nor to have added choirs to them. 
On the contrary, the clergy always retained the circular building as 
the sacred depository of the tomb or relic, the Holy of Holies, and added 
a straight-lined nave for the people. Of this class was evid^itly the 
church which Perpetuus built in the fifth century over the grave at 
St. Martin at Tours. There the shrine was surrounded by sevenly-nine 

pillars arranged in a circular 
form : the nave was lined by 
forty-one — twenty on each 
side, with one in the centre 
of the west end as in 
Germany. When the church 
required rebuilding in the 
11th century (1014?), the 
architect was evidently ham- 
pered by finding himaelf 
obliged to follow the outline 
of the old basilica of Per- 
petuus, and having to labour 
on the same foundatioQ so 
as not to disturb either the 
shrine of the saint or any 
other place which had become 
sacred in this, which was th» 
most celebrated and revered 
of the churches of Gaul. All 
this is made clear in the plan 
of the new church (Woodcut 
No. 575). The arrangement 
of the circular part and the 

676. Plan of St. Martin at Toura. Scale 100 a. to 1 In. nave exactly aCCOrd with the 

description of the old church, only that the latter has been considerably 
enlarged according to the fashion of the day. But the juxtaposition of 
the two shows how nearly the chevet arrangement was completed at 
that time. 

Another church, that of Charroux, on the Loire, looks as though it 
had been built in direct imitation of the church of Perpetuus. The 
round church here retains its pre-eminence over the nave, as was the 
case in the older examples, and thus forms an intermediate link 
between the old church of St. Martin, which we know only by 
description, and the more modern one, of which a plan is given (Wood- 
cut No. ii7i}). 

Be. DL Gh. 11. 



St .B^nigne, Dijon, is another transitional example which may 
•onre to render this arrangement still more clear. It was erected in 
the first year of the 11th century, and was pulled down only at the 
Bevolntion; but before that catastrophe it had been carefully 
measored and described in Dom Plancher's * History of Burgundy.' 
Ab seen by him, the foundations only of the nave were of the original 
stmcture, for in the year 1271 one of its towers fell, and so damaged 
it that the whole of that part of the church was then rebuilt in the 
perfect pointed style of the day. Without entering too much into 
detail, it will suffice to state that the part shaded lightly in the 

S7C. Cbnrcb of Cbarroux. 
Scale 100 ft. to 1 Id. 

677. Plan of St. Benlun**, IHjon. 
(From Dom PUDditr'8 * IIi»toire de 
Burgogne.') Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 

woodcut (No. 577) is taken literally from Dom Plancher's plan, rogard- 
^ which there can be no doubt, and the contemporary descriptions 
^^ so full that very little uncertainty can exist regarding the 
dimensions and general disposition of the nave. 

The bodies of the confessors SS. Urban and Gregory were, it 
Wears, originally buried in the church of St. John the Baptist, which 
■^nis to have been the name most properly applied to this circular 
hnilding; they were afterwards transferred to the crypt below the 
«igh altar, in the rectangular part of the church. Above the lower 
•^<*ey, which retained its name as a baptistery and burial-place, was 
^ upper church, which was dedicated to the Virgin Mary ; al)ove 


that was the church of the Holy Trinity ; and on the top of the round 
towers, on one side the altar of St. Michael, on the other probably 
that of (xabriel. 

The little church of Neuvy St. Sepulchre, near Bourges, which 
was erected between the years 1042 and 1046, presents precisely the 
same arrangements as the church of Charroux, though on a smaller 
scale, there being only one range of ten pillars in the centre. The 
ancient nave having been destroyed, was replaced by a more extended 
one in the 12th century, but the old arrangement can easily be traced. 

In all these old churches — and they seem to have been very 
common in France before the 12th century — the circular part was the 
most important, but they have most of them been rebuilt ; and where 
this has been the case, even when the outline of the circular form was 
retained, the lines of the nave were made tangents of the circle, and 
thus became parts of one design. All these arrangements were perfect 
before the church of Conques (Woodcut No. 574) was erected. There 
the architect, not being hampered by any previous building, was 
allowed free scope for his design. The plan so produced was never 
lost sight of by the French, but was developed into a vast variety of 
beautiful forms, which we shall shortly have to examine. 

When once this transformation of the round church into the chevet 
termination of a basilica was effected, the French adhered to it with 
singular constancy. I am not aware of their ever having built a 
circular church afterwards which was intended to stand alone; and 
there are very few instances of basilicas of any importance without 
this form of apse. Some, it is true, have been rebuilt on old foanda- 
tions, with square eastern ends, but this is rare and exceptional, the 
chevet being the true and typical termination. 

The church at Conques and that of Toulouse both show it fully 
and beautifully developed, though externally the chapels hardly fit 
pleasingly into the general design, and look more as though their 
addition were an afterthought. This, however, was soon afterwards 
remedied, and the transformation made complete. 

The solidity with which these churches were built, and the general 
narrowness of their proportions as compared with the domical churches 
of the same time and district, enabled the architects occasionally to 
attempt some splendid erection on the intersection of the nave and 
transepts, which is the spot where height should always be aimed 
at. The dome at Cruas, in the Provencal district, has already been 
described (Woodcut No. 558). The church at Conques has one as 
important, though dissimilar ; but the finest is that of St. Semin at 
Toulouse (Woodcut No. 578), which rivals the design of our spires at 
Salisbury, Norwich, and elsewhere, but its height being only 230 ft. 
from the ground, it cannot be compared with them in that respect. 
The 3 lower storeys only are of the age of the church ; the 2 upper 


Be m. ch. n. 



ime added long afterwards, but were adapted with remarkably good 
t«Bte. Though difiering in design and det&il, their general form and 
oniline is such as to accord most happily with the older structure ou 
which they are placed ; there is nevertheless a sameness of design in 

pUdng BO many similar storeys one over the other, merely diminishing 
m die, which ia not altogether pleasing. The general effect, however, 
<* good, and for a central object it ia, if not the finest, certainly one 
t' the very best which France possesses. 

As in oil French styles, the western facades of the Southern 
durches are the parts on which the architects lavished their ornaments 


Part 11. 

with the most snsparing 
hand. GfiueraUy they ftre 
flftt, and meet of them now 
Lte squarely, with a 
flat line of cornice of slight 
projection. Beneath this 
there is generally a range of 
arches filled witJi sculpture 
or intended to be so — the 
central one, and that only, 
being used as a window. 
Beneath this is the great 
portal, on which more oma' 
ment is bestowed than on 
any other feature of the 
building. Some at these 
gateways in this province, as 
in Provence, ar» 
wondrous examples 
of patient labour, as 
well as models of 
beauty. They pos- 
sess more than the 
richness ot onr own 
contemporary Nor- 
man portals, with a 
degree of refinement 
and delicacy which 
our forefathers did 
not attain till a 
much later age. 
Some of these 
church ■ portals in 
Aquitaine are com- 
paratively simple, 
but even they make 
up for the want of 
sculpture by the 
propriety of their 
design and the ele- 
gance of their com' 

The church at 
Aillas presents a 
fair specimen, OD a 

. m. ch. II. 



Email scale, of the class of design which is peculiar to the fa^ea of 
Aquitania, though it ia doubtful if the original termination of the gable 
has DOt been lost and replaced by the one shown in the drawing. The 
fagade of Angoul^me is designed on the aame plan, though it is much 
richer. Those of Civray, Parthenay, and of many others, show the 
Bune characteristics. They appear to have been designed, not to ex- 
press the form and conatmction of the interior, but, like an Egyptian 
[iropylon, as a vehicle for a most extensive series of sculptures exhibit- 
ing the whole Bible history. Sometimes, however, the design is more 
strictly architectural, as in the facade of the church at Loupiac, where 
Kulpture is made wholly subordinate, and the architectural members 
are so grouped as to form a pleasing and effective design, not unlike 
instances found farther north and in our own country. 

St. ElU, EBpdko. (Fnm T^lor ud Nodler.) 

The varieties of these, however, are bo endless that it would W in 
vain to attempt either to ptarticularise or to describe them. Many of 
these arrangements are unusual, though almost always pleasing, as in 
the church at Espalion (Woodcut No. 381), where the bolfry ia erected 
as a single wall over the chancel-arch, and groups well with the apsidal 
termination, though, as in almost every instance in this country, the 
irest^^ facade is wanting in sufficient feature and character to 


Generally speaking, the cloisters and other ecclesiastical adjuncts 
lire so similar to those of Provence, as given in the last chapter, that a 
separate description of them is not needed here. They are all of the 
oolamnar style, supporting small arches on elegant capitals of the most 
▼aried and elaborate designs, evincing that <Ielicate feeling so piev.-Llcnt 


in the soatb, which prevented any spproach to that barijuism bo 
common farther north whenever the architects attempted anything 
beyond the common range of decoration. 

The same feeling pervades the tombe, monuments, and domestio 
architecture of this part of France, making them all far more worthy 

(Fnm Tvlcr and Hodlar.) 

of study in every minute detail than has yet beea attempted. The 
woodcut (No. 5S2) represents one small example of a tomb built into 
a wall behind the church of St. Pierre at Toulouse. It is one of those 
graceful little bits of architecture which meet one at every turn in the 
pleasant South, where the people have an innate feeling for art which 
displays itself in the smallest as well as in the most important works. 


bk. ni. Ch. ni. ANJOU. 81 



Cathedral at Angers — Church at Fontevrault — Poitiers — Angioyine spires. 

The architectural province of Anjou cannot perhaps be so distinctly 
defined as the two already described. On the north, indeed, it is 
separated by the clearest line both from Normandy and from the 
Prankish province. But in the south, as before remarked, it is not 
easy to say, in the present state of our information, what works 
belong to Aquitaine and what to Anjou. Not that there is any want 
of sufficient marks to distinguish between the styles ' themselves, but a 
large portion of examples appear to belong to a sort of debateable 
ground between the two. This, however, is true only of the buildings 
on the borders of the province. The two capitals of Angers and 
Poitiers are full of examples peculiar to them alone, and as a rule the 
same remark applies to all the principal churches of the province. 

The age of the greatest splendour of this province is from the 
accession of Foulques Nerra in the year 989 to the death of Henry II. 
of England, 1190. During these two centuries its prosperity and 
independent power rose to a height which it subsequently neither 
maintained nor ever regained. Prior to this period the buildings found 
scattered here and there are few and insignificant, but during its 
continuance every town was enriched by some noble efibrt of the piety 
and architectural taste peculiar to the age. After its conclusion the 
completion of works previously commenced was all that was attempted. 
The rising power of the northern provinces, and of the EInglish, seems 
to have given a check to the prosperity of Anjou, which it never 
thoroughly recovered ; for when it did to a certain extent again become 
prosperous and wealthy, it was under the influence and dominion of the 
great central Prankish power which ultimately absorbed into itself all 
the separate nationalities of Prance, and obliterated those provincial 
distinctions which are so strikingly prominent in the earlier part of 
h^ history. 

The plan of St. Maurice (Woodcut No. 583), the cathedral of 
Angers, may be considered €is a tjrpical example of the Angiovine style, 

VOL. II. o 



and will serve to explain in what it differs from the northern &nd in 

wh&t it resembles the southern stales. On comparing it with the plan 
of Souillac, luid more eqveciall; 
with that of the cathedr&l »t 
Angonl^me, it will be seen how 
Dearly it resembles them— the great 
difference being that, instead of 
cupolas over each square compart- 
ment, it has the intersecting vaolt 
of the northern styles. Its but- 
tresses too are external, but less in 
projection than might be gecerall; 
considered necessary to support a 
vault 52 ft. in span. They more- 
r show a tendency towards a 
northern style of construction ; but 
the absence of free-standing pillars 
of aisles, and the general 
arrangement of the whole building, 
are rather southern peculiarities. 
Externally the fa^e has been 
successively piled up at various 
times from the 12th century, when 
a. the body of the church was com- 
menced and nearly finished, to the 
IGth, when it was completed in the 
style of the Renaissajice, 

Another church in the same 
city, of equal interest, though not 
EO large or important, is that of the 
Trinitc. It consists of one nave 
without transepts, 52 ft. wide mea- 
suring into the recesses, though 
it is only 32 ft. wide between the 
piers. It is roofed with an inter- 
secting vault in eight compartments, 
of somewhat northern pattern, but 
with a strong tendency towards the 
domical forms of the Southern 
style. It possesses, moreover, a 
peculiarity rather frequently at- 
tempted, viz., that of trying to 
attain a greater appearance ot 

length by lowering the vaults from the entrance towards the altar. 

Thus, at the entrance the building is 80 ft. in height, but it gradually 

Bs. m. Ch. ni. 


This coDtrivaiice is i 
I failure. 

mere trick, 

(From ■ Sketch bj 

unks to 65 at the eastern end. 
and, like all sach in architecture, 
The details of this church are 
rich and good tiironghont, and 
altogether the effect of the 
recesses on each ude ia pleasing ; 
and satisfactory. Indeed it may j 
be con^dered as the typical and . 
best example of that class 
cborches, of which a later specimen | 
vas the cathedral at Alby, de- J 
scribed in the last chapter, and J 
which are so beautiful as to go far I 
to shake our absolute faith in the 9 
dogma that usles are indispensably 1 
neoessary to the proper effect of 1 
ft Gothic church. 

Even more interesting than 
either of these, in an archKological 
pwnt of view, is the little castle 
chapel at Loches, commenced by Geoffrey Grise Qonelle, Count of 
Anjou, in the year 962, and continued by his son, Foulques Nerra, to 
whom the nave must be ascribed ; while 
the western tower is probably the only 
part now remaining of the older church. 
Hie eastern portion was rebuilt in the 
12th century by Thomas Pactius, the 
prior, and completed in 11 SO — the latter 
part being in the well-known Norman 
style of that age. An interesting point in 
this church is that the Konnan round-arch 
style is built over and upon the pointed 
arches of the nave, which ore at least a 
century older, having been erected between 
the years 987 and 1040. It will be seen 
from the view given of this chapel that the 
ptnuted style here used has nothing in 

ocmmon with the pointed architecture of 

the North of France^ but is that of the 

South, such as we have seen in the 

churches of Perigueuz and Sooillac. It b 

"Wd here, as there, to support domes. ([?i(BNiSn°(iib?)"'^Siii«'roril"w'i'id. 

TlwM, however, in this instance, instead 

<< being circular, are octagonal, and rise externally in octagonal 

■'tuj^t.lined tsones of stone-work, giving a very peculiar but 

o 2 



intererting »nd elegant outline to the building. They also pomt out a 
method by which roofa at least m high as those which afterward, 
prevailed could have been obtained in stone if this mode of vaultmg 
had been persevered in. The church of St. Sergius »t Angers hw 
pointed arches, cer- 
tainly of an earUer 
date, but whether so 
old as this is not quite 

It has alresdy 

been suggested that 

' all OTCular churchea 

were oripnRlly sppul- 

chral, or intended to 

be so. There can also 

be little doubt but 

that the halves ot 

round churches, which, 

_ termination of Fi 

aymholise a tomb-house c 

sepulchres rf distinguishe 

have been the case in the 

I one of the most splendid 

.rovince, indeed, almost the 

of any real importance, 

Fontevrault, where 

9 of 

■, kings, Henry' 
with others 
will be seen 
(Na 587), it is 
of them, and a 
the style cd tl 
certiunly not so 
^ vine as the ap 
u H>T« Angers and I 
' distinguishii^ chan 

are not found in any other province of France. The 
mounted by four domes, as is usual in this and the caorc. 
provinces, and it is only in having an aisle trending round 
that it differs from the ordinary churches. It may be seen 
plan (Woodcut No. 586) how awkwardly this is done, and 
narrow dimeosions agree with the spaciousness of the nave. 
Woodcut No. 588 demonstrates how similar the domes 

bk. III. ch. ni. 



are to those of Angouleme, Souillac, and those of the South — this 
domical arriuigemoat being, in fact, as characteristic of this age and 
locality as the intersecting vault afterwards became of the Northern 

If the apse or chevet of this church ia not so strictly Angiovine as 
other examples, the fa^e of the church of Notre Dame de Poitiers 

[)bawn in Woodcut No. 589) is not open to the same remark, being 
•trictly local in all its parts. Originally the one window it possessed 
*u circular; but in the 15th century, as may be seen from the 
Oualdings then introduced, it was cut down to its present form, no 
doubt to make more room for painted glass, which at that age bod 
Rqieneded all other modes of decoration : whereas in the 12th century, 
to which the church belongs, external sculpture and internal mural 
-e the prevuUng modes of architectural expression. It 



Pabt IL 

will be obseryed from the preceding woodcut that sculpture is used in a 
profusion of which no example belonging to a later age exists ; and 
though we cannot help admiring the larger proportions and broader 
masses of subsequent builders, still there is a richness and a graphic 
power in the exuberant sculpture of the earlier facades which we miss 
in after ages, and of which no mere masonic excellence can ever supply 
the place. 

This, though not the largest, is probably the best and richest 
church of its class in this province. The border churches of Parthenay, 

Civray, and Rufifec, all show 
traces of the same style and 
forms all more or less richly 
carried out ; but none have the 
characteristic comer towers, 
nor do they retain their 
pedimented gable so perfect as 
Notre Dame at Poitiers. 

Besides this one there are 
four churches in Poitiers, all 
which were certainly erected 
in the 11th century, and the 
greater part of them still 
retain unaltered the features 
of that age. The oldest, St. 
Hilaire (a.d. 1049), is remark- 
able for an irregularity of plan 
sufficient to puzzle all the 
antiquaries of the land, and 
which is only to be accounted 
for on the supposition of its 
having been built on the 
foundation of some earlier 

6M. Plan of Cathedral at PoiUew. (From Couller'a rhiiroh whir*h if hiut rAnlA/«AH 

•HtetoiredaUCaihMraiedePoiUere.') scaieiooittoiin. cnurcn, wnicn iL nas repiacea. 

Montiemeuf (1066) pos- 
sesses in its nave a circular-headed tunnel-vault, ornamented with 
transverse ribs only, but resting on arches which cut slightly into it. 
It has no string-course or plain wall, as is usual in the South, and in 
this shows a tendency towards intersecting vaulting, indicative of an 
approach to the Northern style. 

The most remarkable parts of St. Porehaire and St. Radegonde are 
their western towers, which are fine specimens of their class, especially 
that of the latter, which chcmges pleasingly into an octagon before 
terminating in a short spire. Altogether this church shows that 
elegance of feeling the want of which is a chief defect of the contem- 
porary Norman style. 

Bx. UL Ob. UL 



The cathedral of Poitiers was founded in the year 1161. Its 
eaateni end belongs to a transitional period, while its western front 
was not completed till the pointed Gothic style hod reached its utmost 
perfectioD, 200 years later. Its plan, however, probably belongs to 
the earher period, and presents so strong a contrast to the Northern 
churches of the same date that it may be quoted here as belonging to 
the style which we are describing. The east end is square estomally, 
bnt internally it contains 3 shallow niches like those on. each side 
of St. Trinity at Angers. Its transepts ore mere chapels ; bat its most 
remarkable feature is the convei^ence of its sides towards the east ; 
and as its vault sinks also towards 
that end, a false perspective is 
attained which certainly at first 
sight gives the chiuxh an appearance 
of gr«ater length than it really 
possesses. The 3 aisles, too, being 
of the same height, add to the 
eSect of space ; so that, taken as a 
whole, this church may be quoted 
as the best example known of the 
system of attaining a certain effect 
by these means, and is well worthy 
of stody on this account. It, 
however, I think, admits of no 
doubt that the Northern architects 
were right in rejecting all these 
devices, and in basing their efforts 
on better understood and more 
honest principles. 

It is in this province that, pro- 
ceeding from the South, spires are 
first found in common use. The 
characteristic of the South is the 
sqaare flat-roofed tower or octagonal dome. In Anjou, towers standing 
hy themselves, and crowned by well-proportioned spires, seem early to 
have been introduced, and to have been considered almost essential 
parts of church architecture. The representation (Woodcut No. 591) 
of that attached to the interesting church of Cunault, on the Loirc^ 
ia of the most common type. There is another at Cbemill^, almost 
exactly like it, and a third on the road between Tours and Loohes, 
besides many others which but slightly differ from these in detail. 
They all want the aspiring lightness afterwards attuned in Gothic 
spires ; but their design and ornaments are good, and their outlines 
well suited to the massive edifices to which they are attached. 

Host d the oonv«ntiu] buildings attached to the churches in this 

(rnm pMKrlar.) 


province have disappeared, either during the struggle with the 
Huguenots, or in the later and more disastrous troubles of the Revolu- 
tion, so that there is scarcely a cloister or other similar edifice to be 
found in the province. One or two fragments, however, still exist, such 
as the Tour d']6vrault.^ This is a conventual kitchen, not unlike that 
at Glastonbury, but of an earlier age, and so far different from any- 
thing else of the kind that it was long mistaken for a building of a 
very different class. 

Another fragment, though probably not ecclesiastical, is the screen 
of arches recently discovered in the hdtel of the Prefecture at Angers. 
As a specimen of elaborate exuberance in barbarous ornament it is 
unrivalled even in France, but it is much more like the work of the 
Normans than anything else found in the neighbourhood. Owing to 
its having been so long built up, it still retains traces of the colouring 
. with which all the internal sculptures of this age were adorned. 

The deficiency in ecclesiastical buildings in this province is made 
up in a great measure by the extent and preservation of its Feudal 
remains, few of the provinces of France having so many and such 
extensive fortified castles remaining. Those of Angers and Loches are 
two of the finest in France, and there are many others scarcely less 
magnificent. Few of them, however, have features strictly architec- 
tural ; and though the artist and the poet may luxuriate on their 
crumbling time-stained towers and picturesque decay, they hardly 
belong to such a work as this, nor afford materials which would 
advance our knowledge of architecture as a fine art. 

' This building is well illustrated in Turner's * Domestio Arobitectnre.' 

bk. in. ch. IV. 






Ghuroh at Isaoiie — Clermont — Fortified Church at Royat 

Thb last of the Southern provinces which requires to be distinguished 

is that of Auvergne, one of the most beautiful as well as one of the 

most complete of the round Gothic styles of France. The country in 

which it is found is as distinctly marked out as the style, for no 

naturalist can cross the frontier of the territory without at once being 

struck by the strange character of its scenery. It is a purely volcanic 

country, to which the recently extinguished craters impart a character 

not found in any other province of France. Whether its inhabitants 

are of a different race from their neighbours has 

not yet been investigated. At all events, they 

retain their original characteristics less changed 

than any other people inhabiting the South of 

France. Their style of architecture is distinct, 

and early reached a degree of perfection which 

no other in France had then attained ; it has, 

moreover, a greater resemblance than we have 

hitherto found in France to the Lombard and 

Rhenish styles of architecture. The other styles 

of Southern France — ^whatever their beauties 

may be — certainly never reached that degree of 

independent completeness which enables us to 

class that of Auvergne among the perfected styles 

of Europe. 

In the department of Puy de Dome there are 
at least four churches of the typical form of this 
style, which have been edited by M. Mallay — those of Issoire, of 
N. D. du Port at Clermont, of Orcival, and of St. Nectaire — which 
only differ from one another in size, and in the arrangement of their 
apsidal chapels. That of Issoire has a square central chapel inserted, 
which is wanting at Clermont and Orcival, while St. Nectaire has only 
three instead of four apsidal chapels. 

692. Church at Issoire. 
(FrY>m MaiUy.) 
Scale 100 ft. to 1 In. 


The Urgeet of these is that of lasoire, of which & plan is here given, 
from which it will be seen that, though small, it is beautifully arranged. 
The transepts are just auffinientlj developed to give expression to the 

MlHOlra. (From HiUv.) SnltH 

exterior, and to separate the nave from the choir, which are beantifuUy 
proportioned to one another. 

Thej all possess central towers, raised on a mass of masonry ex- 
tending to the whole width of the church, which gives them a breadth 
of base found in no other style. The want of this is painfully felt 
in most of our own central 
spires, all of which need 
something more to stand upon 
than the central roo^ out of 
which they seem to grow ; 
but I do not know that any 
attempt was ever made to 
remedy the difficulty any- 
where but in Auvergne. All 
these churches were intended 
to have western towers, the 
e foundations for which 
) found in every example, 
{Ftooi MJiiy ) hc,i, «ft. «, un. though there does not appear 

to be a single instance in which these esist in a complete state. 

The fiide-^les are always covered by intersecting vaults, but that 
<d the nave is invariably a simple tunnel-vault, as in the Southern 
styles, ornamented by occasional transverse ribs, and which in the 
church at Issoire is slightly pointed. 

Bk. m. Ch. IV. ADTERQNE. 91 

To enpport this gre&t rault, a Bemi-Tanlt is carried over the aide- 
aisles — as shown in the Bection— which fonns a massive and perfect 
abutment to the thrust of the great arch, besides, as before pointed oat, 
rendering the vault independent of a wooden covering, which, though 
in some instances supplied, was certainly not originally intended. 
The defect of this arrangement is of course evident, as compared with 
the Northern styles, inasmuch as a clerestory was impossible, and the 
only efiective light that could be admitted was through the side-aiglee. 
These churches, however, have an approach to a clerestory not found 
in that at Fontifroide, before quoted, in having a triforium or range 

DO Of CbeTel, Notn Dunt dn Fnrt, Clerauoit. (From Cluipiiy.} 

of arches opening into the gallery, which gave a lightness of charactCT 
to the superstructure, and admitted to a certain extent a borrowed 

Externally, the projection of the buttresses is slight, and they are 
connected by arches, struck from the same centres as the windows, 
above which three small arches relieve and ornament the upper part of 
the nave. The central arch of these is pierced with the small window 
which lights the upper gallery. Above this is a cornice of more 
ele^;aace and of greater projection than is usually found in churches of 
this age. 

The most beautiful and most admired feature of the style is the 
arrangement of the chapels of the chevet externally. 

In the view given above of St. Semin, Toulouse (Woodcut Na 878), 
BR in almost all the churches of that style, it will be observed 
how awkwardly these chapels are stuck on, as if they were after- 


thoughts, and altogether foreign to the main lines of the building 
Here, however, all the parts are pleasingly subordinated one to the 
Other, and the whole are so grouped as to form a design equal, if not 
superior, to the galleried apses of the German and Lombard churches. 
The place of these galleries is here supplied hj a mosaic decoration 
formed with the different coloured lavas of the extinct volcanoes of 
the district, which gives not only a pleasing local character to the 
style, but is interesting as the only specimen of external polychro- 
matic decoration now to be found so far to the north. Id eSect, this 
is perhaps hardly equal to the open galleries of the German churches ; 
but the expense must have been considerably less, and the variety of 
the outline of the chevet arrangement, as compared with the simple 
apse, gives to these churches some advantages over the contemporary 
buildings on the Rhine. Indeed, as far as external decoration is con- 
cerned, it may be questioned whether the French ever surpassed these ; 

(From Gtupn;.) No Male. 

and had they been carried out on the same scale as those of Anuens 
and Chartres, they would probably be thought more beautiful. It ia 
true the flying buttresses and pinnacles of the pointed style enabled 
the architects to introduce far larger windows and gorgeous decora- 
tions of painted glass, and so to improve the internal effect of their 
churches to an immense extent ; but this was done at the sacrifice of 
much external simplicity of outline and propriety of effect, which wo 
cannot but lament could not be reconciled with the requisite internal 

The age of these churches is not very well ascertained. M. Mallay 
is inclined to place them principally in the 10th century, though the 
pointed form of the vault at Issoire induces him to bring that down to 
the 13th century; but we have seen enough to know that such a 
pointed form, on the contrary, is more likely to be ancient than the 
rounded one, which requires better construction, although in that age 
it was thought more beautiful. My own impression is, that thsy 

bk. m. ch. IV. 


belong genenUly to the lltb centuiy, though some were no doubt 
commenced in the 10th, and probably continued to the 12th ; but their 
anifonnity of style is suob, that not more than one century could have 
elapsed between the first and the last. Only one circular church, so 
tax as I know, is found in the district. It is a sepulchral chapel in the 
cemetery at Chambon, small in size, being only 26 ft. wide over all, but 
elegant in its proportions, and showing the same style of decoration aa 
the apses of the larger churches. 

Among the exceptional churches of this district, one of the most 
interesting is that of Royat, illustrated in Woodcut No. 597, being a 

■M. PonUM Cbotcb U BofU. (Fnau GaUluUiid.) 

specimen of a fortified church, such as are sometimes, though not fre- 
quently, found in France. That at Maguelonne, quoted above (p. 57), 
is another, and there are several others in the South of Prance ; but 
none probably either so complete or showing so many castellated 
features as this. In its ruined state we lose the western, or possibly 
the central tower, which might have somewhat restored its ecclesias- 
tical character ; but even as it is, it is a singularly picturesque and 
expreaalTe building, though it speaks more of war and bloodshed than 
of peace and goodwill to all men. 




Ohmoh of St Martin d* Ainay — Cathedral at Le-Puy-en-Velay— Abbeys of ToamnB 
and Cluny — Cathedral of Antun — Church of St. Menonx. 

Thb province of Burgundy was architecturally one of the most import- 
ant in France during the Middle Ages, but one the limits of which 
it is difficult to define. This is partly owing to the extreme fluctuation 
of the political power of the kingdom or dukedom, or whatever it 
might be, but more to the presence of two distinct peoples within its 
limits, the one or other of which gained the ascendancy at various 
intervals, and according as each was in power the architectural bound- 
aries of the province appear to have changed. In Provence the Roman 
or Classical element remained superior down to the time when Paris 
influenced that province as it did all the rest of France ; but this event 
did not take place till very nearly the end of the Gothic period. In 
Burgundy, on the other hand, the Classical and Barbarian streams 
flowed side by side — at times hardly mingling their waters at all, but 
at others so amalgamated as to be undistinguishable, while again in 
remote comers either style is occasionally found to start up in almost 
perfect purity. 

It would add very much to the clearness of what follows if we 
could tell who the Burgundians were and whence they came : neither 
of which questions appears as yet to have received a satisfactory solu- 
tion. That they differed in many respects from the other Barbarians 
who assisted in overthrowing the Roman Empire will probably be 
admitted ; but in the present stage of ethnographic knowledge it may 
seem too daring to assert that they had Turanian blood in their veins, 
and were Buddhists in religion, or belonged to some cognate faith, 
before they settled on the banks of the Sa6ne or the Rhone. Yet if 
this were not so, it appears impossible to account for the essentially 
monastic form which characterised this province during the whole 
Gothic period. 

From the time at least when St. Gall and Columban settled them- 
selves at Luxeuil till late in the Middle Ages, this country was the 

Bk. CL Ch. V, 



first and principal seat of those great monastic eetablishments which 
had so overwhelming &n influence on the faith and forma of those 
times. We must go either to India in the flourishing period of 
Buddhism, <a to Thibet in the present day, to find anything analogous 
to the monastic establishments of the 11th century in this district. 
All these monasteries have now passed away, and few hare left even 
any remains to attest th^ former greatness and magnilicence. The 
great basilica of Cluny, the noblest church of the 11th century, has 
been wholly removed within the present century. Clairvaux was first 
rebuilt in the style of the Kenais- 
sance, but baa been finally swept 
away within the last few years. 
Citeaux perished earlier, and little 
now remains to attest its former 
grentness. Luxeuil is an obscure 
village. The deetruction of the 
church of St. Benigno, at Dijon, 
has already been referred to, and 
it would he easy to swell the 
catalogue of similar consequences 
of the great Revolution. 

Toumus still remains, and at 
Yezel&y fragments exist. Charlier, 
Avallon, Autun, Langres, and 
Besan^on, still possess in their 
cathedrals and churches some 
noble remnants of Burgundian 
architecture. Besides these, there 
are numerous parish churches and 
smaller edifices which would easily 
enable us to make up a history of 
the style, were they carefully 
examined and drawn. The archi- 
tecture of Btti^fundy, however, has 
not yet been examined with the attention it deserves, and it would 
require long and patient personal investigation to elucidate its 

The church of St. Martin d'Ainay at Lyons is an early and beautiful 
specimen of the style when used without any classical inilueace ; yet four 
Roman pillars support the intersection of the nave and transept. Its 
western front (Woodcut No. 698) was erected probably in the 10th 
century, and is decorated with colours and patterns which are character- 
istic of the style. Nor does there seem any reason for doubting but 
that the pointed arch of the entrance doorway belongs to the period to 
which the church is assigned. 



Part II. 

The cathedral of Le-Fuy-ea-V^lay is another example of the same 
style.' The east end and the two first bays of the nave belong to the 
10th century. The church progreseed westward at the rate of two 
bays in a century till the last two were completed with the wonderful 
cavernous porch under them about the year 1 180. The whole length of 
the church b 215 ft., and its width across the nave is a little over 80. 
Externally its moat remarkable feature is the facade of the south 
transept, which is perhaps the richest and most elaborate specimen of 
the Ainay style of decoration existing On the north side is the 
cloister, which is a singu- 
larly elegant specimen of 
the style, but very olaaaicial 
detail. The pillftrs 
are almost Corinthian in 
outline (Woodcut No. 
}) but the blunder the 
Romans made when using 
pillars with arches has in 
s case been avoided. 
If reference is made to 
"Woodcuts 211 and 213, or 
to any others representing 
the classical form, the 
difference will be at once 
j perceived. In both in- 
stances the pillars were 
used merely as ornaments, 
but with the Romans they 
were nothing but useless 
additions, without even 
the pretence of utility. 
In this clobter they sup- 
'"" " " ""^ "'^" ' port the arches, and are 

veritable parts of the construction. It would be difficult to find any 
apter illustration of Pugin's famous antithesis than these examples ot 
Roman and Burgundian architecture — the one is constructed ornament., 
the other ornamented and ornamental construction — and notwith- 
standing its rudeness, the Burgundian example is far more pleasing 
than the Roman, and, if used with classical details, this arrangement 
might now be introduced into any Italian design with the most 
satisfactory effect. 

The church of St. Bonigne at Dijon, mentioned above, was one of 

■ Soe a paper on this church by Mr. Street, in 1861, read to the Inititato of 
BhtUb Architcets. (B. I. B. A. TroDBactioiu, IStiO-Gl.) 

Be. ni. Ch. V, 



the oldest in Burgundy, and was probably an excellent type of the 
style of that country But its total destruction and the insufficiency 
of the plates published by Dom Floncher* preclude anything like 
a satisfactory study of it. The abbey church of ToumuB (Woodcut 
No. 600) is perhaps nearly as old, its antiquity being manifested by the 
rudeness both of its design and execution. The nave is separated from 
the aisles by plain cylindrical columns vlthout bssea, the capitals of 
which are united by circular arches at the height of the vaults of the 
aisle. From the capitals 
rise dwarf columns sup- 
porting arches thrown 
across the nave. From 
one of these arches to I 
the other is thrown a 
transverse tunnel-vault, 
which thus runs the 
cross way of the build- 
ing ; being, in fact, a 
series of arches like 
those of a bridge extend- 
ing the whole length of 
the nave. This is, 
believe, the only known J 
instance of this arrange- i 
ment, and is interesting 
■iS contrasting with the 
longitudinal tunnel- 
Taolta 80 common both , 
in this province and in 
the South. 

It is a curious in- 
stance of an experiment, ' 
the object of which was 
the getting over those 
difficulties afterwards 
removed by the invention of the intersecting vault. In the meantime 
this Toumus roof offered some advantages well worthy of consideration. 
The first of these was that the thrust of the vault was wholly 
longitudinal, so that only the supporting arches of the transverse 
vaults required to be abutted. These being low and in a well-defined 
direction were easily provided for. Another advantage was, that it 
allowed of a large and well-defined clerestory, which, as we have seen, 
was impossible with the longitudinal vaults. On the other hand it 

It AbhCf ■( 

' Hii((»ie Generals do Bonrgogue,' 4 Tcik. fol., Dijon, 1739; p. HI, 


Dight seem to be a fatal objection that the eye instead of being 
conducted pleas- 
ingly along the 
vault was continu- 
al Ij itit«mipted by 
a series of cross 
barrel vaults ; this 
objection, however, 
is more theoretical 
than practical, for, 
owing to the abun- 
dant light which 
enters through the 
clerestory windows 
(not suggested at 
all in the woodcut), 
and the fact that 
froni the west end 
looking down the 
nave the barrel 
vaults are scarcely 
seen, the general 
effect is most pleas- 
ing, and it is singu- 
lar that so h^py 
a. solution of the 
problem, both artis- 
tically and con- 
structively, should 
not have been fol- 
lowed, or that this 
should bean unique 
example. The 
columns in the apae 
are carried on a 
podium 6 ft. high, 
similar to that 
found in the Holy 
Sepulchre, which 
was built by the 
Crusaders, and con- 
stitute a pleasing 
variety to the 
ordinary apsidnl 
termination. A 

Bk. IlL Ch. V. BURGUNDY. 99 

crypt of much earlier date exists under the whole choir, and is specially 
interesting as showing in its vault the rough centering on which it was 
apparently built. 

In the nave of this church all the arches are circular ; in the choir, 
which dates early in the 11th century, if not before, and which is 
perhaps older than the nave, the great transverse arches are slightly 
pointed, and support at the intersection a dome (the pendentives of 
which are formed of squinches carried on wall-shafts), which forms 
the most beautiful feature in the church. Similar features are found 
in the churches of le Puy-en-Velay, St. Martin d'Ainay at Lyons and 

The pride of Burgundy was the great abbey church of Cluny, which, 
with its narthex or ante-church, measured 580 ft. in length, or con- 
siderably more than any other church erected in France in any age. 
Its nave was throughout 37 ft. 6 in. in width, and it had double side- 
aisles, making the total internal width 120 ft., while the whole area 
covered by it was upwards of 70,000 ft. But colossal as these dimen- 
sions are, they convey no adequate idea of its magnificence. The style 
throughout was solid and grand, and it must have possessed a degree 
of massive magnificence which we so frequently miss among the more 
elegant beauties of subsequent erections. 

The semi-dome of the chevet was supported by eight noble columns, 

through which was seen in perspective a circle of five apsidal chapels. 

Externally the roof was crowned by five larger and three smaller 

towers ; and the whole was carried up solidly to a height unrivalled 

among the buildings of this age. What added to its interests was, 

that the church at least was at the time of its destruction an almost 

unaltered specimen of the architecture of the 11th and 12th centuries, 

baving been commenced in 1089 by St. Hugues, and dedicated in 

1131. The narthex or ante-chapel, though somewhat more modern, 

^ag probably completed within the limits of the 1 2th century. These 

^tes have been disputed, but principally on account of the theories 

prevalent regarding the origin of the pointed arch. This feature was 

^^ here, as it is found elsewhere, in all the pier arches separating 

^he nave from the aisles — the vaulting of the aisles having probably 

l>6en also pointed, while the great vault of the church is a plain tunnel- 

^aalt with transverse ribs on its surface. That of the narthex is a 

transverse vault of a later date, but of singularly clumsy construction. 

Whether it had a clerestory or not, is not quite clear from such 

drawings as we possess ; but if not, it undoubtedly had a double gallery 

ti^roughout, the upper range of which, if not both, served to admit 


We should hardly be able to make out, from the representations 
we possess, what the exact ordinance of this church was were it not that 
some other contemporary churches in the same style still remain to us. 

H 2 




Among these, one of the most perfect is the cathedral at Autun, 
formerly the chapel of the dukea of Burgundy, conuneaced about the 
year 1090, and consecrated 1132. The arrangement of its nave is 
extremely similar to that of Cluny, with these differences, that at 
Aatun, the great vault is slightly pointed, and attached to the piers 
of the nave are pilasters instead of three-quarter columna. In the 
ante-church, however, at Cluny, the same pilaatered arrangement 
occurs. This is the characteristic of the trae Burgundian style, and bo 
peculiar is it, and so classical, that some antiquaries have not hesitated 
to consider it as a bad imitation of Gothic forms belonging to the 
15th or 16th centuries. In fact the fluted columns or pilasters, their 
Corinthian capitals, and the whole arrangements are so eminently 

classical, as almost to justify the doubt in those who are not familiar 
with the hbtoiy of the southern styles of France. There can, however, 
be no doubt as to the age of these examples, and as little as to the 
models from which they are copied ; for in this very city of Autun we 
have two Roman gateways (one of which is represented in Woodcut 
No. 218), and there are others at LAngres and elsewhere, which, 
except in the pointed arch and other cooatructive peculiarities, are 
almost identical with the style of these churches. Whether from want 
of familiarity with this style, or from some other cause, it certtunly is 
not pleasing to our eyes, and we therefore turn with pleasure to tha 
ruder but more purpose-like inventions of the purely Gothic architects 
of the same age. 

bk. m. ch. v. 



Among these the province affords no more beautiful specimen than 
the nave of the church of Yezelay, which possesses all the originality 
of the Norman combined with the elegance of the southern styles. In 
this specimen the pier arches are wide and low, there is no triforium of 
any sort, and the windows are small. The vault is formed by immense 
transverse ribs, crossing from pier to pier, and forming square com- 
partments, each divided by plain intersecting arches, without ribs, and 
rising considerably in the centre. This certainly is an improvement on 
the vault at Cluny, though it cuts the roof too much up into divisions. 
Perhaps its greatest defect is its want of height, being only 60 ft. in the 
centre, while the total width is 86 ft. from wall to wall. But the 
details of the whole are 
80 elegant as in a great 
measure to redeem 
these faults. 

The narthex, or 
ante^hurchy resembles 
that at Cluny both in 
its importance and in 
being somewhat more 
modem than the church 
itself. At Yezelay 
(Woodcut No. 604) it 
dates from the begin- 
ning of the 12th cen- 
tury, while the nave 
seems wholly to belong 
to the 11th. It is an extremely instructive example of the progress of 
vaulting. It has the bold transverse ribs, and the plain intersecting 
vaults, which are here in accordance with the southern practice, 
abutted by the arches of the galleries. In the walls of the galleries 
are windows large enough to admit a considerable amount of light. 
But the vaults are here fast losing their original purpose. The arch 
construction supports the solid external roof over the side-aisles, but 
the central vault is covered by a wooden roof, so that the stone vault 
has become a mere ceiling, leaving only one easy step towards the 
completion of the plan of Gothic roofing. This step was to collect 
the vaults of the side galleries into a mass over each pier, and use them 
as flying buttresses, and to employ wooden roofs everywhere, wholly 
independent of the vaults which they covered. 

Yezelay is one of the most beautiful of the remaining churches of 
its age in Burgundy, notwithstanding that the choir, which is a chevet 
in the early pointed style, like those in the northern province, rather 
distnrbs the harmony of the whole. 

Among the remaining churches of this class, the cathedral at 


Section of Narthex at Vexelay. 
(From Didron'8 ' Aunalea Arch^ologlquea.') 



Part IL 

Besun^n is one of the few double-apse churches of France, and is, in 
plaa at least, very much more like those we find on the banka of the 

The cathedral at Vieime, mentioned above (p. 58), might, from 
some of its details, particularly the form of the pier arches, be fairly 
classed with this style, showing oa it does the fluted pilasters and 
other classical adjuncts found here. These peculiarities are common 
both to this and the Proven^l style, but the boundary between them 
is by no means clearly defined. 

On the northern liorder of the province we find the church of St. 

.'•ndin BaurboaniU.') 

Metioux (Woodcut No. G03), belonging certainly in many of its details 
to the style we iire now describing. This is moat distinctly observable 
in the exterior of the apse of the chevet, a feature which is seldom found 
unaltered ; here it is surrounded by a series of pilostcra of rude classical 
design, which give to it a peculiar local character. Internally too, its 
chevet (Woodcut No. 606) is remarkably elegant, though less Bur 
gundian in style. It shows to what an extent the stilting of round 
arches could be used to overcome the difficulty of combining archea of 
different spans, liut all requiring to be carried to the same height. 
Like oil the old churches of the province, it possesses a large and 
important uarth^x, here the oldest part of the church, and a rude and 

bk. ni. ch. v. 


1 hardly be 

characteristic specimen of a style of architecture that c 
later than the tOth century. 

These few specimens must suffice to define a style which well 
deserves a volume to itself, not only on account of its own archi- 
tectural merit, but from the enormous influence exercised both by the 

'"^w itself and l)y its monastic foanders nn the civilisation of Europe 
in (he age to which it l)elongs. During the 11th i\nd 12th centuries 
Clirny was more important to France than Paris. Its influence on the 
whole of Europe was second only to that of Rome — civilising barbarians 
by its mi-ssionaries, notwithstanding the feudal nobility, and in many 
*"ya counteracting the ferocity of the time.s. 




Exceptional buildings — Basse CEuyrc, Bcauvais — Montier-en-Der. 


The architecture of the Northern division of France is certainly the 
mo3t interesting subject in the whole history of the Mediaeval styles, 
inasmuch as it comprehends the origin and progress of that form of 
pointed architecture which in the 13th century extended from Paris as 
a centre to the remotest corners of Europe, pervading the whole of 
Germany, Britain, and even Spain and Italy. In these countries it 
generally obliterated their own pecuhar styles, and usurped their 
places, so that it became the Gothic style jxir eminence, and the only 
one ordinarily understood under that name. It has gained this dis- 
tinction, not perhaps so much from any inherent merit of its own, as 
because it was the only one of all the Mediaeval styles which was carried 
beyond the simple rudiments of the art, and enjoyed the advantage of 
being perfected by a powerful and united people who had advanced 
beyond the first elements of civilised society. It is needless now to 
inquire whether the other styles might not have been made as perfect, 
or more so, had the same amount of talent and of time been bestowed 
upon them. All we can say is, that no other style was so carried 
out, and it is impossible to attempt it now ; the pointed Gothic had 
therefore the opportunity which the others were deprived of, and 
became the prevalent style in Europe during the Middle Ages. Its 
history is, therefore, that to which attention must always be principally 
directed, and from which all lessons and all satisfactory reasoning on 
the subject must be principally derived. 

The great divisions into which the early history of the style 
naturally divides itself have already been pointed out. The great 
central province I have ventured to call the Prankish. It was there 
that the true Gothic pointed style was invented, and thence that it 

Bk. IlL Ch. VI. 



issaed in the middle of the I2th centuiy, first pervading the two great 
Gnbordin&te diviraons of Normajidy on the one h&nd, and Burgundy on 
the other. In Normandy, before this time, a warlike race had raised 
themselves to power, and, with an inconsistency characteristic of their 
state of civilisation, devoted to sacred purposes the wealth they had 
aci(uired by r^ine and plunder, covering thoir provintM with churches, 
and perfecting a rude style of architecture singularly expressive of 
their bold and energetic character. 

In Burgundy, as we have just seen, both the style and its history 
differed considerably from this. From some cause which has not yet 
been explained, this country became early the favourite resort of 
hermits and of holy men, who founded here those great monastic 
establishments which spread their 
influence not only over France, 
but over the whole of Europe, 
controlling to an immense extent 
all the relations of European 
soaety in the Middle Ages. The 
culminating epoch of the archi- 
tecture of Normandy and Bur- 
gundy was the 11th century. 

In the 13th the monarchical 

tway of the central province was 

banning to be felt in them. In 

the 13tb it superseded the local 

character of both, sod gradually 

(used them with the whole of 

FrsQce into one great and sin- 

fia-rly uniform architectural 

Latis Style.' 
Before proceeding to describe 
the local forms of architecture in 
Central France it is necessary to 
*»J« few words regarding a class 
of buildings which have not 
hWierto been mentioned, but which must not be passed over. These 
i»ni»t be included in any other style, and are so nearly devoid of 
"chitectural features, properly so called, that they might have been 
«utted but for one consideration. They bear so remarkable a 

' "8tjU Latin" U the nune generally adopted for tliia style by the Fienoh 



Part IT. 

resemblance to the earliest Christian churches of Rome on the one 
liand, and to the true Gothic on the other, that we cannot doubt their 
being the channel through which the latter was derived from the 
former. They are, moreover, the oldest churches in Kcnthem France, 
which is sufficient to confirm this view. 

The character of this style will be understood from the plan and 
internal and external view of one of its typical examples, the Basse 
(Euvre at Beauvais (Woodcuts Nos. 607 and 608). It will be seen 
that this building consists of a nave and side-aisles, separated from 
each other by a range of plain arches resting on piers without either 
bases or capitals ; on one side the angles are out of^ so as to give a 

slightly ornamental character ; on the other they are left square. The 
central aisle is twice the width, and more than twice the height, of the 
lateral aisles, and has a welUletined clerestory ; the roof, both of the 
central and side aisles, is a flat ceiling of wood. The eastern end has 
been destroyed, but, judging from other examples, it probably consisted 
of three apses, a large one in the centre and a smaller one at the end 
of each aisla 

The similarity of the form of this church to the Roman basilicas 
will Ije evident on referring to the representations of those buildings, 
more especially to that of San Vincenzo alle Tre Fontane (Woodcut 
No. 408), though the details have nothing in common except in the use 
of flat tiles between the cornices of the arches, which is singularly 
characteristic of Roman masonry. The points in which this example 
i:i most evidently the source of some of the important peculiarities of 


the tme Gothic, are the subordin&ttoQ of the aide-aiales to the central 
one, and the perfectly developed clerestory. These are not found in 
any of the styles of France hitherto described. 

Eventnally, as we shall shortly see, stone became the material used 
in the interior ceiling of Gothic vaults, but protected externally by a 
wooden roof. This stone vault was not, I believe, attempted in France 
before the llth century. In the meanwhile, wooden-roofed churches, 
like that at Beauvais, seem to have been usual and prevalent all over 
the N<Hth of France, though, as may be supposed, both from the 
smallnees of their dimen«ona and the perishable nature of their 
materials, moet of them, have been either superseded by larger 
Btmctores, or have been destroyed by tire or by the accidents of 

M. Woillez describes five or six as existing still in the diocese 
of Beauvtus, and varying in age from the 6th or 7th century, which 
probably is the date of the Basse (Euvre, to the beginning of the 
llth century; and if other districts were carefully exainiiked, more 
ezamplea would probably be found. Normandy must perhaps l>e 
excepted, for there the rude Northmen seem first to have destroyed 
all the churches, and then to have — -- 

they did not previously possess. ^3^^^^ ^™™^ ^;:^^^^^!!^^ 

Chorcbes of the Bome class, or ^^^^^^^^rt^|^^^^^^^ 

others at least extremely similar to ^^Bi ^^^5^!4 ~^^B , ^^' _ 

tbem, as far as we can judge from ^H r,^^£."~'\^^HlC^X^L;H 
mch representations as have been ^B -j^^^^i^^^^^B^^^^^n— -■ 
tmblished, exist even beyond the .H.^'^s^^^R^H- <-.=i. — 
Lture. There is one at Savoniirea ~X i-^ j^r^^^tte^-_l ,i- j i ' 
in Aniou, and a still more curious tot- DrcnntioDofsi. Gintnu. 

(Froia OillluluDd.) 

one at St. G6ncreux in Vienne, 

not far from Poitiers, which shows in great perfection a style of 

deooration by triangular pediments and a peculiar sort of mosaic in 


The same style of decoration is carried out in the old church of 
St. Jean at Poitiers, which probably is even older than the Basse 
(Emreof Beauvais. The old church, which now forma the ante-church 
to St. Front at Pcrigueux (Woodcut No. 562), seems also to belong to 
the tame class ; but, if M. Felix do Verneilh's restoration is to be 
tnuted, it approaches nearer to a Romanes(|ue style than any other of 
its class, of which it may nevertheless possibly be the most southern 

Perhaps the most interesting example of the style is the nave of 
tlucharch of Montier-en-Der, near Vassy, almost due east from Paris. 
J' is perfectly plain, very like San Vincenzo (Woodcut No. 408), and 
" « perfect Romanesque example with a wooden roof : the design for 



PiBT n. 

which waa probably brought direct from Rome when this church was 
erected in this remote village. What, however, gives it its greatest 
interest for our present purpose arises from the fact that the apse or 
choir was rebuilt in the 13th century, and we have consequently in 
immediate juxtaposition the Romanesque model as it was introduced 
to the Barbarians, and the result oi tJieir elaboration of it — the germ 
of the Gothic style and the full-blown flower. 

Ab before pointed out (p. 49), the progress was slow in the 
formation of a new style during the 1000 years that elapsed between 
the building of the Temple of Diana at Nimea and the Church at 
Carcassonne ; but here, within the limits of two, or at most three 

centuries, the progress mode was so rapid as to be startling. The 
inhabitants of Central France appear at once to have comprehended the 
significance of the problem, and to have worked it out with a stea^di- 
ness and energy of which it must be difficult to find another example. 
The nave of the church is as poor and as lean as it can well be, but every 
part of the choir is ornamented, while nothing is overdone ; and there 
is not one single ornament which is not appropriate to its place, or which 
may not fairly be considered as a part of the ornamented constmctioa 
of the building. It was an entirely new style invented on the spot, 
and complete in all its parts. Some of its ornaments were afterwards 
made more elegant, and more might have been done in this direction ; 
but as here represented the style was complete, and it is certainly <me 
of the most beautiful creations of the class which ever emanated from 


the activity of the human brain. It is also interesting as being one of 
the few where every step in the progress can be traced and every result 

What we have now to attempt, is to point out — as clearly as 
our limits will admit of — ^the steps by which the rude architecture 
of the western half of the church of Montier-en-Der was converted 
into the perfected style of the choir as shown in the woodcut on the 
previous page. 



Triapwil chnrehtia— CfaurchcB al CncD^Intcrevctiiie Vaulting— Boyeui. 

WiTU one or two slight exceptions, the whole history of the Rouad- 
itrched Norman Giotbic is comprehended within ft period of less than a 
century. No building in this style is known to have been even com- 
menced before the year 105O, and before 1150 the pointed style had 
superseded it in its native province. Indeed, practically speaking, all 
the great and typical examples are crowded into the last fifty years 
of the 11th century. This was a preriod of great excitement and pro- 
sperity with the Northmen, who, having at last settled themselvea io 
this fertile province, not only placed their dukes on an equality with 
any of the powers then 
exbting in France, bat 
by their conquest of 
England raised their 
chief to aa importance 
and a rank superior 
to that of say other 
potentate in Europe 
except the German 
emperors ot that day, 
with whose people they 
were, in fact, both by 
race and poKcy, more 
closely allied than they 
were with those among 
whom they had settled. 
There are two ex- 
ceptional churches in Normandy which should not be passed over 
in silence: one is a little triapsal oratory at St. Waadrille : the 
other a similar but somewhat more important church at Querqueville^ 
near Cherbourg, on the coast of Brittany. Both are rude and 
simple in their outline and ornaments ; they are built with that 
curious herring-bone or diagonal masonry indicative of great oge^ 


and differing in every essential respect from the works of the Normans 
when they came into possession of the province. Indeed, like the 
transitional churches last described, these must be considered as the 
religious edifices of the inhabitants l)efore that invasion ; and if they 
show any affinity to any other style, it is to Belgium and Germany 
we must look for it rather than anywhere within the boundaries 
of France. 

Amongst the oldest-looking buildings of pure Norman architecture 
is the church of Lery, near Pont de I'Arche. It is the only one, so far 
as is known, with a simple tunnel-vault, and this is so massive, and 
rests on piers of such unusual solidity, as to give it an appearance of 
immense antiquity. There is no good reason, however, for believing 
that it really is older than the chapel of the Tc»wer of London, which 
it resembles in most respects, though the latter is of somewhat lighter 

Passing from this we come to a series of at least five important 

churches, all erected in the latter half of the 11th century. The first 

of these is the church of Jumiegos, the western end of which was 

principally erected by Robert, afterwards Bishop of London, and 

finally Archbishop of Canterbury. Its precise date is not very well 

known, though it was probably begun before 1050, and certainly 

shows a far ruder and less complete style of architecture than any 

of the later churches. It is doubtful whether it was ever intended 

to throw a vault over the nave ; yet the walls and piers are far more 

^^■iassive than those of the churches of Caen, or that of Bocherville 

^ its immediate neighbourhood. This last we know to have been 

^nimenced in the year 1050, and completed in 1066. This church 

still retains in a wonderful state of completeness all the features 

^ a Norman church of that age — the only part of which is of a 

^^^ modern date being the two western turrets, which are at least 

a century later. 

The next of the series is the well-known Abbaye-aux-Hommes, or 
°^- Stephen's, at Caen (Woodcut No. 612), commenced by William 
the Coaqueror, 1066, in gratitude for his victory at Hastings, and 
medicated eleven years afterwards. Then follow the sister church 
^ the Trinite, or Abbaye-aux- Dames, commenced in 1083, and the 
parish church of St. Nicolas at Caen, begun in the following year. 
These two last were almost certainly completed within the limits of 
the 1 1th century. 

Of all these the finest is St Stephen's, which is a first-class church, 
*t« extreme length being 364 ft. It was not originally so long, having 
terminated with an apse, as shown in the plah. Fig. 1, which was 
''^pwaeded about a century afterwards by a chevet, as shown, Fig. 2. 
This, however, was an innovation — all the round Gothic churches in 
Normandy having originally been built with apsosJ nor do I know of 




Pabt n. 


H single institnce cf a chevet in the province. Tiiis circnmBtance 
points rather to Germany than to the neighbouring districts of France 
for the origin of the Norman style — indeed all the arrangements of 
thia church are more tike those <^ the Rhenish basilicas, that of 
Spires for example, than any of those churches ve have hitherto found 
vithin the limits of France itself. This is more remarkable at 
JomlSges than even here. None of them, however, has two apses, 
nor are lateral entrances at all in use ; on the contrary, the western 
end, or that opposite the altar, is always, 
as in the true basilica, the principal 
entrance. In Normandy we generally 
Hnd this flanked by two towers, which 
give it a dignity and importance not 
found in any 
of those styles 
we have been 
These western 
towers became 
afterwards in 
France the 
most import- 
ant features of the external architecture 
of churches, though it is by no means 
clear whence they were derived. They 
are certainly of neither Italian ncv 
German derivation, nor do they belong 
to any of those styles of the Sonthern 
provinces of France which we have been 
describing. The churches of Auvergne 
are those which perhaps show the nearest 
approach to them. 

On the whole it appears most probable 
that the western &onts of the Norman 
churches were taken from the facades of Germany, and the towers 
added to give dignity to them. As will be seen from the riew 
(Woodcut No. 613), in St. Stephen's at Caen the feature U well 
marked and defined ; for though the spires were apparently added at 
the same time as the chevet, the towers which support them evidently 
belong to the original design. They may bo r^arded as the prototype 
<£ the facades of nearly all the Gothic cathedrals of France. Theae 
western towers eventually superseded the attempt mode to raise the 
principal external feature of the churches on the intersection of the 
nave with the transepts as had been done in the South, and they 
made the western front the most important part, not only in VIL 



decoration, but in iutnal h«ght. Here and throughont the North of 
Frooce, with the ezoeption (^ the charches at Eouen, the central 
tower is tow and comparativelf insignificant, scarcely even aspiring to 
group with thooe of the western facade. 

iNTBBSEcriNa Vadlting. 
As there are few churches in France which illustrate so completely 
the difficulties cA intersecting vaulting, and the struggle of the Medi- 
Rval architects to conquer them, as St. Stephen's, Caen, it may add to 
the clearness of what 
follows if we pause in 
our narrative to explain 
what these were. 

The churches de- 
scribed hitherto pos- 
sessed simple tunnel- 
vaolts either of round 
or pointed forma, or, 
having no side-aisles, 
were roofed with square 
intersecting vaults of 
equal dimensions each 
way. The former plan 
was admissible in the 
bright South, where 
light was not so much 
Rqoired : but the lat- 
ter expedient deprived 
the churches c£ several 
things which were 
ilways felt to be the 
powerful requisites of 
u internal style of 
vchitectnre. Without 
the contraat in height 
between the central 
and side aisles, the true 

effect of the dimeo^ons 

oonld not be obtained. 

Without the internal 

pilars no poetry of 

pn^ntion was possible, 

ud without an ambulatory, processions lost their meaning. The 

onupwtments of the aisles being square, no difficulty was experienced 

VOL. It. I 



Past IL 

as regards them ; but the central aisle being both higher and wider, it 
became necessary either to ignore every alternate pillar of the Nsle, 
and to divide the central roof equally into squares, or to adopt some 
compromise. This difficulty was not got over till the pointed arch 
was introduced ; but in the meanwhile it is very instructive to watch 
the various attempts that were made to obviate it. 

There can be little doubt that the Norman architects, with true 
Gothic feeling, always intended that their churches should eventually 
be vaulted, and prepared them accordingly, though in many instances 
they were constructed with wooden roofs, or compromises of some 
sort. Even at Jumieges, the alternate piers were made stronger, and 
the intention there and in other instances aeema to have been to throw 
a stone arch across the nave so as to break the flat line of the roof, 
and give it at least a certain 
amount of permanent charact«r. 
In the Abbaye^aux-Houunes, 
Caen, even this does not appear 
to have been attempted in the 
first instance. The vaulting 
shafts were carried right up 
and made to support wooden 
trusses, as shown on the right 
hand of the diagram (Woodcut 
No 614). ' The intention, 
however, may have been to cot 
these away when the vault 
' should come to be erected. 
In England they frequently 
remain, but rarely, if ever, in 
Normandy. The next step was to construct a quadripartite vault over 
the nave, and a simple arch supporting its crown over the intermediate 
shaft. This was soon seen to be a mistake, and in fact was only a 
makeshift. In consequence at Caen a compromise was adopted, which 
the Woodcut No. C16 will explain, — a sort of intermediate vault was 
introduced springing from the alternate piers.' Mechanically it was 
right, artistically it was painfully wrong. It inti-oduced and declared 

' From a paper by Mr, Parker on thiB ^ quadriparfile arrangGment), two of th« 
■abject, read to the Institute of British . fuur quarters were again divided bj Uh 
Arcbitocta. arch thrown ocroBs from one intermediats 

■ This arrangement is known b; tbe ' pillar to the other, thus making' aix 
name of hexapartile, or texaparliUt j divisions in all, though no longer all of 
because the compartment of tho vault j equal dimt-nsiona, as in the qnadripartite 
having been dlvideJ into four hy tho I method. Both these arrangement* ue 
fCreat di^onal arehca crossing one | shown in plan on Woodcut No 612. 
■Dotfaer in tho centre (which was the < 

T of purely constructive features without artistic amngement 
or pleasing lines, and altogether showed so plainly the mere mechanical 
structural wants of the roof as to 

be most nnpleasing. Before, how- 
ever, they could accomplish even 
this, the side-^les had to be 
re-vaulted with pointed arches so 
as to cany the centre of gravity 
higher. A half vault was thrown 
over the gallery as shown in 
Fig. 1, on the left side of the 
Woodcut Ko. 614, and the whole 
upper structure considerably 
strengthened When alt this 
was done they ventured to carry 
out what was practicallv, as will 
be seen from the plan (Woodcut 
No 612), and elt,\ation (Woodcut 
No 616), a quadripartite lault 
with an intermediate uihcrtions 
which insertion was, however, 
neither quite a rib, nor quite a 
compartment of a vault, but some 
toing between the two , and in 
spte of all the ingenuity bestowed 
"pon it in Germany, France, and I Ep| 
^DK^nd, in the 11th and begin , 

"mg of the 12th centunen, it | y I 
•"TCr produced an entirely satis [. *^\, 
f*«ory effect, until at last the (^ 
f^nled arch came to the rescue 
'1 u easy to see from the diagram 
(^flodcut No 615) how the 
""rodnction of the pointed arch 
<*>T«ted the difficulty. In the 
"^ place, supposing the great 
'silt to remain circular, two 
*EOients of the same circle, A B, 
* c, carry the intersecting vault 
••^ly to the height rf the trans- 
'ww one, or it could as easily be 
'^''itd to the same height as at D. 
"Twn both were pointed, as at s 

St Suptam. C«n. (Fntn PnglD.) 

*°a F, it was easy to make their relative heights anything the 
*n^tect chose, without either forcing or introducing any ditiagrocable 



Vabu II. 

curves. By this means the compartments of the vaults of the central 
nave were made the some width as those of the side-aisles, whatever 
their span might be, oad every compartment or bay was a complete 
deaiga in itself, without reference to those next to it on either side. 

The arrangement in elevation of the internal compartments of the 
nave of this church will be understood from Woodcut No. 616, where 
it will be seen that the aisles are low, and above them runs a great 
gallery, a feature common in Italy, but rare in Germany. Its intro- 
duction may have arisen either from a desire for increased accommoda- 
tion, or merely to obtJiin height, as it is evident that an arch the 
uliolo hti^ht of the side-aisles and gallery 
luld be smgularly narrow and awkward. 
d This was one of those ditGcultics which were 
only got 01 er by the introduction of the 
3 pointed arch but which, whenever attempted 
I the circular stylo, led to very disagreeable 
' and stilted effects It may, however, have 
been, suggested by the abutting galleries we 
1 iso frequently used m Southern churches. 
Be tins Hs it niay, the two storeys of the aisles 
up the height far more pleasingly than 
could be (lone by one, and bnng an abutment 
up to the \ery springing of the mam vault oE 

The worst feature in tins elevation (Woodcut 
No G16) is the clerestory, where the difficulties 
of tlic vaulting introduced a lop-sided arrange- 
I luciit very destructive of true architectural 
ollect, and only excusable hero from the in- 
herent ilitHculties of a first attempt. 

During the twenty or thirty years that 
elip^j'd between the building of St Stephen's 
■II. OiuinonDHni. Ai>i>..>c-.iiii (huri.Ii imd th;it of the Abbaye-tiux-I>iunes, 
' iraiiienso progress seems to have been made 
towards the new style, as will bo seen from the annexed elevation 
of one conipartnient of the mive of the latter. The great gallery is 
omitted, the side-aialfs made higher, the piers lighter and more 
ornaincut4iI. The triforium is a mere passage under the upper 
windows, and so managed as not to intci'cept their hght from any 
part of the church. Even the vaulting, though in some parts 
hexapartite, in otliora shows a, great approach to the quadripartite 
vaulting of the subseijuont ago ; this, however, is obtained by bringing 
down the main vault to the level of the side vault, and not by raising 
the sitle arches to the level of the centroj, as was afterwards done. 
The greatest change is in the richness and elegance of the detuils, 

Bk. m. Ch. VII. 



i ornamental style tbat 

which show great progress towards the i 
soon afterwards came into use. 

The parochial church of St. Nicolas at Caen is naturally plainer 
than either of these royal abbeys. It shows considerable progress in 
constraction, and deserves far more attention than it has hitherto met 
with. It is the only church, so far as I know, in Norm.'indy, that 
retains the original external covering of its apse. This consists, as 
shown in the Woodcut (No. 618), of a high pyramidal roof of stAne, 

following to the eastward the polygonal form of the apse, and extend- 
ing one bay towards the west. From an examination of the central 
tower, it is clear that this was not the original pit«h of the church 
roof, which was nearly as low in all Norman churches as in of 
Aare^ne. In this instance the roof over the apse was a sort of semi- 
^nre placed over an altar, to mark externally the importance of the 
portion of the church beneath it. In appearance it is identical with 
the polygonal cones at Loches, before mentioned. At Sourges, and 
elNwhere in France, similar cones are found over chapels and altars ; 
bat in moat instances they have been removed, probably from some 



Part II. 

defect in construction, or from their not harmonising with the wooden 
roofs of the rest of the church. They were in fact the originals of the 
spires which afterwards became so much in vogue, and as such their 
history would be interesting, if properly inquired into. 

The cathedral of Bayeux, as now standing, is considerably more 
modern than either of these ; no part now remains of the church of 
Odo, the brother of the Conqueror, except the lower portion of the 
western towers, and a crypt which is still older. The pier arches of 
the nave belong to the first half of the 12th century, the rest of the 
church to the rebuilding, which was commenced 1157, after the town 
had been burnt, and the cathedral considerably damaged, by the sol- 
diers of Henry I. At this time the apse was removed to make way 
for a chevet, which is one of the most beautiful specimens of early 
pointed Gothic to be found in France, and far surpasses its rival in the 
Abbaye-aux-Honimes at Ciien. In the church at C^ien, the alteration 

was probably made to receive the tomb of 
the Conqueror, when that veneration l^egan to 
be shown to his remains which was denied to 
himself when dying. Here, however, the 
same motive does not soem to have existed, 
and it is more probable that the extension was 
caused by the immense increase of the priest- 
hood in the course of the 11th and 12th 
centuries, requiring a larger choir for their 
accommodation. We know from the disposi- 
tion of the choir, that the nave originally had 
a great gallery over the side-aisles, and con- 
sequently a low clerestory. But before it 
was rebuilt, in the end of the 12th or beginning of the 13th 
century, the mania for painted glass had seized on the French archi- 
tects, and all architectural propriety was sacrificed to this mode of 
decoration. In the present instance we cannot help contrasting the 
solid grandeur of the basement with the lean and attenuated forms of 
the superstructure, although this attenuation was in other examples 
carried to a still greater extent afterwards. 

The diapering of the spandrils of the lower arches (Woodcut No. 619) 
is another feature worthy of remark, as illustrating the history of the 
style. Before painted glass was introduced, the walls of all churches 
in Northern Europe were covered with fresco or distemper paintings, 
as was then, and is to the present day, the case in Italy. But when 
coloured windows came into use, the comparative dulness of the former 
mode of decoration was immediately felt, and the use of colour confined 
to the more brilliant transparent material. It was necessary to find a 
substitute for the wall painting, and the most obvious expedient was 
that of carving on the stone the same patterns which it had been 


619. Ix>wer Compartment, Nave, 
Bayeux. (From l*u«in.) 


customary to paint on them. An attempt was made, indeed, to heighten 
the effect of this carving by inlaying the lines with coloured mastic or 
cement ; but the process was soon found to be not only very expensive 
but very ineffective, and gave way afterwards to sculptured figures in 
traceried panels. These ornaments easily filled up the very small 
spaces of wall that were not occupied either by the windows, which 
were greatly enlarged, or by the constructive supports of the building. 
Now, however, that colour is gone both from the walls and the win 
dows, this diapering gives a singularly rich and pleasing effect to the 
architecture of the lower storey, and, combined with the massiveness 
and varied richness of the piers themselves, renders this a nearly unique 
specimen of a Norman arcade, and one of the most beautiful that has 
come down to us. 

These examples are, it is hoped, sufficient to make known the 
general characteristics of a style which is at the same time of great 
interest to the English reader from its proximity to our shores, 
and from its influence on our own, although it is comparatively so 
familiar as to require less illustration than many others. Besides the 
examples above described, many other specimens of Norman architecture 
might have been given, filling up the details of the series, from the rude 
simplicity of Jumi^ges to the elaborate richness of the nave of Bayeux 
and showing a rapidity of progress and boldness in treating the subject 
hardly surpassed in the succeeding age ; but still, with all its develop- 
ments, it can only be considered as a first rude attempt to form a 
style of architecture which was superseded before its principles began 
. to be understood, and lost before it had received any of those finishing 
touches which form the great element of beauty in all the more perfect 




Hifltorioal Dotice— Tho pointed arch — ^Freemasonry — ^Mediasyal arobitecta. 

Thb architectural history of the Central or Frankish province is widely 
different from that of any of those we have yet examined. At the end 
of the 5th century the whole of the North of France was overrun by 
Clovis and his Franks, and on his death in 5 1 1 his dominions were 
divided into four kingdoms, of which Metz, Paris, Soissons, and Orleans, 
were the capitals. If we take these cities as centres, and add their 
districts together, they correctly represent the limits of the architec- 
tural province we are now entering upon. With various fluctuations, 
sometimes one kingdom, sometimes two or even three being absorbed 
in one, they were at last united under Pepin in 748, only to make 
way for the accession of Charlemagne and his universal empire over 
the whole Gothic districts of Europe, with the exception of England 
and Spain. 

With the Merovingian kings we have nothing to do ; they have not 
left one single building from which to judge of the state of the art 
during their ascendency — (they must have been Aryans pur sang) — ^nor 
can our history with propriety be said even to begin in France with 
Charlemagne. His accession marks tho epoch towards which an 
archflsologist may hope to trace back the incunabula of the style, but 
as yet no single building has been found in France which can with 
certainty be ascribed to his reign. The nave at Montier-en-Der, the 
Basse CEuvre at Bcauvais, and other buildings, may approach his age 
in antiquity, but we must travel down to the time of Capet (987) 
ere we find anything that can be considered as tho germ of what 

This may in a great measure be owing to the confusion and anarchy 
that followed on the death of Charlemagne ; and to the weakne-ss of 
the kings, the disorganisation of tho people, and the ravages of the 
Northmen and other barbarians, from which it resulted that no part of 
France was in a less satisfactory position for the cultivation of tho arts 
of peace than that which might have been expected to take the lead in 

Bk. m. Ch. VIIL central FRANCE. 121 

all. Thus, while the very plunder of the Central province enabled the 
Normans to erect and sustain a powerful state on the one side, and to 
adorn it with moniiments which still excite our admiration, and the 
organisation of the monks of Burgundy on the other hand promoted 
the cultivation of arts of peace to an extent hardly known before their 
time in Northern Europe, Central France remained incapable even of 
self-defence, and still more so of raising monuments of permanent 

There must no doubt have been buildings in the Romanesque 
style in this province, but they were few and insignificant com- 
pared with those we have been describing, either in the South or in 
Normandy and Burgundy. Even in Paris the great church of St. 
Germain des Pres, the burial-place of the earlier kings, and apparently 
the most splendid edifice of the capital, was not more than 50 ft. in 
width by 200 in length before the rebuilding of its chevet in the pointed 
style, and it possessed no remarkable features of architectural beauty. 
St. Genevieve was even smaller and less magnificent ; and if there was 
a cathedral, it was so insignificant that it has not been mentioned by 
any contemporary historian. 

Several of the provincial capitals probably possessed cathedrals of 
some extent and magnificence. All these, however, were found so 
unsuited to the splendid tastes of the 12th and 13th centuries, that 
they were pulled down and rebuilt on a more extended scale ; and it is 
only from little fragmentary portions of village churches that we learn 
that the round Gothic style was really at one time prevalent in the pro- 
vince, and possessed features according to its locality resembling more 
or less those of the neighbouring styles. So scanty indeed are such 
traces, that it is hardly worth while to recapitulate here the few obser- 
vations that might occur on the round Gothic styles as found within 
the limits of the province.^ 

This state of affairs continued down to the reign of Louis le Gros, 
1108-1136, under whom the monarchy of France began to revive. 
This monarch, by his activity and intelligence, restored to a con- 
siderable extent the authority of the central power over the then 
independent vassals of the crown. This was carried still further under 
the reign of his successor, Louis le Jeune (1137-1179), though perhaps 
more was owing to the abilities of the Abbe Suger than to either of 
these monarchs. He seems to have been one of those great men who 
sometimes appear at a crisis in the history of their country, to guide 
and restore what otherwise might be left to blind chance and to perish 

' The Church of St. Remi at Rheims character. It nevcrtli(;loss retains the 
oaght perhaps to bo treated as an excep- ontlincs of a va^t and noblo basilica of 
tion to this assertion: it has, however, | the early part of the lllh century, 
bren so mnch altered in more modern presenting considerable points of simi- 
times as almost to faaye lost its original '< larity to those of Burgundy. 


for want of a master mind. Under Philip Augustus the country 
advanced with giant strides, till under St. Louis it arrived at the 
summit of its power. For a century after this it sustained itself by 
the impulse thus given to it, and with scarcely an external sign of that 
weakness which betrayed itself in the rapidity with which the whole 
power of the nation crumbled to pieces under the first rude shock sus- 
tained in 1346 at Crecy from the hand of £kiward III. 

More than a century of anarchy and confusion followed this great 
event, and perhaps the period of the English wars may be considered 
as the most disastrous of the whole history of France, as the previous 
two centuries had been the most brilliant. When she delivered herself 
from these troubles, she was no longer the same. The spirit of the 
Middle Ages had passed away. The simple faith and giant energy 
of the reigns of Philip Augustus and St. Louis were not to be found 
under Louis IX. and his inglorious successors. With the accession of 
Francis I. a new state of affairs succeeded, to the total obliteration of 
all that had gone before, at least in art 

The improvement of architecture, keeping pace exactly with the 
improved political condition of the land, began with Louis le Gros, and 
continued till the reign of Philip of Valois (1108 to 1328). It was 
during the two centuries comprised within this period that pointed 
architecture was invented, which became the style, not only of France, 
but of all Europe during the Middle Ages ; and is, par excellence, the 
Gothic style of Europe. The cause of this pre-eminence is to be found 
partly in the accident of the superior power of the nation to which the 
style belonged at this critical period, but more to the artistic feelings 
of their race ; and also because the style was found the most fitted to 
carry out certain religious forms and decorative principles which were 
prevalent at the time, and which will be noted as we proceed. 

The style, therefore, with which this chapter is concerned is that 
which commenced with the building of the Abbey of St. Denis, by 
Suger, A.D. 1144,^ which culminated with the building of the Saiiito 
Chapelle of Paris by St. Louis, 1244, and which received its greatest 
amount of finish at the completion of the choir of St. Ouen at Rouen 
by Mark d' Argent, in 1339. There are pointed arches to be found in 
the Central province, as well as all over France, before the time of the 

' It is in the vaulting of tho chior : Morionvnl and Bcllcfontaine, both in 
aisle of St. Denis that wo find tho the Oise Department ; tho latter only is 
earliest example of the new value of tho dated — 1125; but no illustrations of the 
IK)intcd arch rib : four indepond( nt vault are given. The former is an erode 
ribs rise to tho centre of tho aisle, it ' in its design that it is probablj earlier^ 
being no longer necessary to place and it is in fact evident from the 
the opposite ril>s in tlie same plane. M. ; perfection shown in St. Denis tliat many 
Louis Gonso in his ' I/Art Golhique,* ; previous experiments must have been 
however, |K)ints out one or two earlier . made, examples of which it would be 
examples such as the churches of interesting to trace. — Ed. 

Bk, m. Ch. Vra. CENTRAL PRANCE. 123 

Abbe Suger ; but they are only the experiments of masons struggling 
with a constructiye diificulty, and the pointed style continued to be 
practised for more than a century and a half after the completion of 
the choir of St. Ouen, but no longer in the pure and vigorous style of the 
earlier period. Subsequent to this it resembles more the efforts of a 
national style to accommodate itself to new tastes and new feelings, 
and to maintain itself by ill-suited arrangements against the innovation 
of a foreign style which was to supersede it, and the influence of which 
was felt long before its definite appearance. 

The sources from which the pointed arch was taken have been 
more than once alluded to in the preceding pages. It is a subject on 
which a great deal more has been said and written than was at all 
called for by the real importance of the question. Scarcely anything 
was done in pointed architecture which had not already been done in 
the round-arch styles. Certainly there is nothing which could not have 
been done, at least nearly as well, and many things much better, by 
adhering to the complete instead of to the broken arch. The coupling 
and compounding of piers had already been carried to great perfection, 
and the assignment of a separate function to each staff was already a 
fixed principle. Vaulting too was nearly perfect, only that the main 
vaults were either hexapartite or six-celled, instead of quadripartite, 
as they afterwards became ; an improvement certainly, but not one 
of much importance. Ribbed vaulting was the greatest improvement 
which the Mediaeval architects made on the lloman vaults, gi^dng not 
only additional strength of construction, but an apparent vigour and 
expression to the vault, which is one of the greatest beauties of the 
style. This system was in frequent use before the employment of the 
pointed arch. The different and successive planes of decoration were 
also one of the Mediseval inventions which was carried to greater per- 
fection in the round Gothic styles than in the pointed. Indeed, it is a 
fact, that except in window tracery, and perhaps in pinnacles and flying 
buttresses, there is not a single important feature in the pointed style 
that was not invented and in general use before its introduction. Even 
of windows, which are the important features of the new style, by far 
the finest are the circular or wheel windows, which have nothing pointed 
about them, and which always fit awkwardly into the pointed compart- 
ments in which they are placed. In smaller windows, too, by far the 
most beautiful and constructively appropriate traceiy is that where 
circles are introduced into the heads of the pointed windows. But, 
after hundreds of experiments and expedients had been tried, the 
difficulty of fitting these circles into spherical triangles remained, and 
the unpleasant form to which their disagreement inevitably gave rise, 
proved ultimately so intolerable, that the architects were forced to 
abandon the beautiful constructive geometric tracery for the flowing or 
flamboyant form ; and this last was so ill adapted to stone con- 


struction, that the method was abandoned altogether. These and many 
other difficulties would have been avoided, had the architects adhered 
to the form of the unbroken arch ; but on the other hand it must be 
confessed that the pointed forms gave a facility of arrangement which 
was an irresistible inducement for its adoption ; and especially to the 
French, who always afifected height as the principal element of archi- 
tectural effect, it afforded an easy means for the attainment of this 
object. Its greatest advantage was the ease with which any required 
width could be combined with any required height. With this power 
of adaptation the architect was at liberty to indulge in all the wildness 
of the most exuberant fancy, hardly controlled by any constructive 
necessities of the work he was carrying out. Whether this was really 
an advantage or not, is not quit« clear. A tighter rein on the fancy of 
the designer would certainly have produced a purer and severer style, 
though we might have been deprived of some of those picturesque 
effects which charm so much in Gothic cathedrals, especially when their 
abruptness is softened by time and hallowed by associations. We must, 
however, in judging of the style, be careful to guard ourselves against 
fettering our judgment by such associations. There is nothing in all 
this that might not have been as easily applied to round as to pointed 
arches, and indeed it would certainly have been so applied, had any of 
the round-arched styles arrived at maturity. 

Far more important than the introduction of the pointed arch was 
the invention of painted glass, which is really the important formative 
principle of Gothic architecture ; bo much so, that there would be more 
meaning in the name, if it were called the **^>atn/ef/-^/<w« style" instead 
of the pointed-arch style. 

In all the earlier attempts at a pointed style, which have been 
alluded to in the preceding pagc^, the pointed arch was confined to the 
vaults, pier arches, and merely constructive parts, while the decorative 
parts, especially the windows and doorways, were still round-headed. 
The windows were small, and at considerable distances, a very small 
surface of openings filled with plain white glass being sufficient to 
admit all the light that was required for the purposes of the building, 
while more would have destroyed the effect by that garish white light 
that is now so offensive in most of our gre^t cathedrals. As soon, 
however, as painted glass was introduced, the state of affairs was 
altered : the windows were first enlarged to such an extent as was 
thought possible without endangering the safety of the painted glass, 
with the imperfect means of supporting it then known. ^ All circular 
plans were abandoned, and polygonal apses and chapels of the chevet 
introduced ; and lastly, the windows being made to occupy as nearly 

' These gonerally ronaistcd of strong iron bars, wrought into patterns in 
accordance with the design painted on the glass. 

Bk. m. Ch. Vm. CENTRAL FRANCE. 125 

as was possible the whole of each face of these polygonal apses, the lines 
of the upper part of the window came internally into such close contact 
with the lines of the Tault, that it was almost impossible to avoid 
making them correspond the one with the other. Thus the windows 
took the pointed form already adopted for constructive reasons in the 
vaults. This became even more necessary when the fashion was intro- 
duced of grouping two or three simple windows together so as to form 
one ; and when those portions of wall which separated these windows 
one from the other had become attenuated into mullions, and the upper 
part into tracery, until in fact the entire wall was taken up by this 
new species of decoration. 

So far as internal architecture is concerned, the invention of painted 
glass was perhaps the most beautiful ever made. The painted slabs of 
the Assyrian palaces are comparatively poor attempts at the same 
effect. The hieroglyphics of the Egyptians were far less splendid and 
complete ; nor can the painted temples of the Greeks, nor the mosaics 
and frescoes of the Italian churches, be compared with the brilliant 
effect and party-coloured glories of the windows of a perfect Gothic 
cathedral, where the whole history of the Bible was written in the 
hues of the rainbow by the earnest hand of faith. 

Unfortunately no cathedral retains its painted glass in anything 
like such completeness ; and so little is the original intention of the 
architects understood, that we are content to admire the plain surface 
of white glass, and to consider this as the appropriate filling of tra- 
ceried windows, just as our fathers thought that whitewash was not 
only the purest, but the best mode of decorating a Gothic interior. 
What is worse, modem architects, when building Gothic churches, fill 
their sides with large openings of this glass, not reflecting that a 
gallery of picture-frames without the pictures is after all a sorry ex- 
hibition ; but so completely have we lost all real feeling for the art, 
that its absurdity does not strike us now. ! 

It will, however, be impossible to understand what follows, unless 
we bear in mind that all windows in all churches erected after the 
middle of the 12th century were at least intended to be filled with 
painted glass, and that the principal and guiding motive in all the 
changes subsequently introduced into the architecture of the age was 
to obtain the greatest possible space and the best-arranged localities 
for its display. 


The institution of freemasonry is another matter on which, like the 
invention of the pointed arch, a great deal more has been said than 
the real importance of the subject at all deserves. Still this subject 
has been considered so all-important, that it is impossible to pass it 


over here without some reference, if only to explain why so little notice 
will be taken of its influence, or of the important names which are 
connected with it 

Before the middle of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century, 
it is generally admitted that the corporation of freemasons was not 
sufficiently organised to have had much influence on art. At that time 
it is supposed to have assumed more importance, and to have been the 
principal guiding cause in the great change that then took place in 
architecture. Those who adopt this view, forget that at that time all 
trades and professions were organised in the same manner, and that 
the guild of masons differed in no essential particulars from those of 
the shoemakers or hatters, the tailors or vintners — all had their 
masters and past-masters, their wardens, and other officers, and were 
recruited from a body of apprentices, who were forced to undergo 
years of probationary servitude before they were admitted to practise 
their arts. 

But though their organisation was the same, the nature of their 
pursuits forced one very essential distinction upon the masons, for 
inasmuch as all the usual trades were local, and the exercise of them 
confined to the locality where the tradesmen resided, the builders 
were, on the contrary, forced to go wherever any great work was to be 

Thus the shoemakers, tailors, bakers, and others, lived among their 
customers, and just in such numbers as were required to supply their 
usual recurring wants. It is true the apprentices travelled to learn 
their profession and see the world before settling down, but after that 
each returned to his native town or village, and then established himself 
among his friends or relatives, where he was known by all, and where 
he at once took his station without further trouble. 

With the mason it was different : his work never came to him, 
nor could it be carried on in his own house ; he was always forced 
to go to his work ; and when any gre^t church or building was to 
be erected in any town, which was beyond the strength of the ordinary 
tradesmen of the place to undertake, masons were sent for, and 
flocked from all the neighbouring towns and districts to obtain 

At a time when writing was almost unknown among the laity, and 
not one mason in a thousand could either read or write, it is evidently 
essential that some expedient should be hit upon by which a mason 
travelling to his work might claim the assistance and hospitality of his 
brother masons on the road, and by means of which he might take bis 
rank at once, on reaching the lodge, without going through tedious 
examinations or giving practical proof of his skill. For this purpose 
a set of secret signs was invented, which enabled all masons to 
recognise one another as such, and by which also each man could make 

Bk. m. Ch. Vm. CENTRAL FRANCE. 127 

known his grade to those of similar rank, without further trouble than 
a manual sign, or the utterance of some recognised pass-word. Other 
trades had something of the same sort, but it never was necessary for 
them to carry it either to the same extent nor to practise it so often as 
the masons, they being for the most part resident in the same place 
and knowing each other personally. The masons, who thus from^ 
circumstances became more completely organised than other trades, 
were men skilled in the arts of hewing and setting stones, acquainted 
with all recent inventions and improvements connected with their 
profession, and capable of carrying out any work that might be 
entrusted to them, though they never seem to have attempted to 
exercise their calling except under the guidance of some superior 
personage, either a bishop or abbot, or an accomplished layman. In 
the time of which we are speaking, which was the great age of Gothic 
art, there is no instance of a mason of any grade being called upon to 
furnish the designs as well as to execute the work. 

It may appear strange to us in the 19th century, among whom the 
great majority really do not know what true art means, that six cen- 
turies ago eminent men, not specially educated to the profession of 
architecture, and qualified only by talent and good taste, should have 
been capable of such vast and excellent designs ; but a little reflection 
will show how easy it is to design when art is in the right path. 

If for instance we take a cathedral, any one of a series — let us say 
of Paris ; when completed, or nearly so, it was easy to see that though 
an improvement on those which preceded it, there were many things in 
its construction or design which might have been better. The side- 
aisles were too low, the gallery too large, the clerestory not sufficiently 
spacious for the display of the painted glass, and so on. Let us next 
suppose the Bishop of Amiens at that period determined on the erection 
of bis cathedral. It was easy for him or his master-mason to make 
these criticisms, and also to perceive how these mistakes might be 
avoided ; they could easily see where width might be spared, especially 
in the nave, and where a little additional height and a little additional 
length would improve the effect of the whole. During the progress of 
the Parisian works also some capitals had been designed, or some new 
form of piers adopted, which were improvements on preceding examples, 
and more confidence and skill would also have been derived from the 
experience gained in the construction of arches and vaults. All these 
of course would be adopted in the new cathedral ; and without making 
drawings, guided only by general directions as to the plan and dimen- 
sions, the masons might proceed with the work, and, introducing all 
the new improvements as it* progressed, they would inevitably produce 
a better result than any that preceded it, without any especial skill on 
the part either of the master-mason or his employer. 

If a third cathedral were to be built after this, it would of course 


contain all the improvements made during the progress of the second, 
and all the corrections which its results suggested ; and thus, while the 
art was really progressive, it required neither great individual skill nor 
particular aptitude to build such edifices as we find. 

In fine arts we have no illustration of this in modem times ; but all 
our useful arts advance on the same principles, and lead consequently 
to the same results. In ship-building, for instance, as mentioned in 
the Introduction (page 45), if we take a series of ships, from those in 
which Edward III. and his bold warriors crossed the channel to the 
great lineK)f-battle ships now lying at anchw in our harbours, we find 
a course of steady and uninterrupted improvement from first to last. 
Some new method is tried ; if it is found to succeed, it is retained ; if 
it fails, it is dropped. Thus the general tendency constantly leads to 
progress and improvement. And, to continue the comparison a little 
further, this progress in the art is not attributable to one or more 
eminent naval architects. Great and important discoveries have no 
doubt been made by individuals, but in these cases we may generally 
assume that, the state of science being ripe for such advances, had the 
discovery in question not been made by one man, it soon would have 
occurred to some other. 

The fact is, that in a useful art like that of ship-building, or in an 
art combining use and beauty like that of architecture — that is, when 
the latter is a real, living, national art — the progress made is owing, 
not to the commanding abilities of particular men, but to the united 
influence of the whole public. An intelligent sailor who discusses the 
good and bad qualities of a ship, does his part towards the advance- 
ment of the art of ship-building. So in architecture, the merit of any 
one admirable building, or of a high state of national art, is not due to 
one or to a few master minds, but to the aggregation of experience, the 
mass of intellectual exertion, which alone can achieve any practically 
great result. Whenever we see any work of man truly worthy of 
admiration, we may be quite sure that the credit of it is not due to an 
individual, but to thousands working together through a long series 
of years. 

The pointed Gothic architecture of Germany furnishes a negative 
illustration of the view which we have taken of the conditions 
necessary for great architectural excellence. There the style was not 
native, but introduced from France. French masons were employed, 
who executed their work with the utmost precision, and with a per- 
fection of masonic skill scarcely to be found in France itself. But in 
all the higher elements of beauty, the German pointed Gothic cathe- 
drals are immeasurably inferior to the French. They are no longer 
the expression of the devotional feelings of the clergy and people, and 
are totally devoid of the highest order of architectural beauty. 

The truth of the matter is, that the very pre-eminence of the great 

Bk. UL Ch. Vra. CENTRAL PRANCE. 129 

masonic lodges of Germany in the 14th century destroyed the art. 
When freemasonry became so powerful as to usurp to itself the 
designing as well as the execution of churches and other buildings, 
there was an end of true art, though accompanied by the production 
of some of the most wonderful specimens of stone-cutting and of con- 
structiye skiU that were ever produced. This, however, is " building," 
not architecture; and though it may excite the admiration of the 
vulgar, it never will touch the feelings of the true artist or the man 
of taste. 

This decline of true art had nowhere shown itself during the 13th 
century, with which we are concerned at present. Then architecture 
was truly progressive : every man and every class in the country lent 
their aid, each in his own department, and all worked together to pro- 
duce those wonderful buildings which still excite our admiration. The 
masons performed their part, and it was an important one : but neither 
to them nor to their employers, such as the Abbe Suger, Maurice de 
Sully, Bobert de Lusarches, or Fulbert of Chartres, is the whole merit 
to be ascribed, but to all classes of the French nation, carrying on 
steadily a combined movement towards a well-defined end. 

In the following pages, therefore, it will not be necessary to recur 
to the freemasons nor their masters — at least not more than incidentally 
— till we come to Germany. Nor will it be necessary to attempt to 
define who was the architect of any particular building. The names 
usually fixed upon by antiquaries after so much search are merely 
those of the master-masons or foremen of the works, who had nothing 
whatever to do with the main designs of the buildings. The simple 
fact that all the churches of any particular age are so like to one 
another, both in plan and detail, and so nearly equal in merit, is alone 
sufficient to prove how little the individual had to do with their design, 
and how much was due to the age and the progress the style had 
achieved at that time. This, too, has always proved to be the case, 
not only in Europe, but in every corner of the world, and in every age 
when architecture has been a true and living art. 





Paris— Chartrea — Rheims — Amiens — Other Cathedrals— Later Style^ 

St. Oaen*s, Rouen. 

The great difficulty in attempting to describe the architecture of 
France during the glorious period of the 13th century is really the 
eynbarras de rxcfiesse. There are even now some thirty or forty cathe- 
drals of the first class in France, all owing their magnificence to this 
great age. Some of these, it is true, were commenced even early in 
the 12th, and many were not completed till after the 14th century ; 
but all their principal features, as well as all their more important 
baauties, belong to the 13th century, which, as a building epoch, is 
perhaps the most brilliant in the whole history of architecture. Not 
even the great Pharaonic era in lilgypt, the age of Pericles in Greece, 
nor the great period of the Roman Empire, will bear comparison with 
the 13th century in Europe, whether we look to the extent of the 
buildings executed, their wonderful variety and constructive el^ance, 
the daring imagination that conceived them, or the power of poetry 
and of lofty religious feelings that is expressed in every feature and in 
every part of them. 

During the previous age almost all the greater ecclesiastical 
buildings were abbeys, or belonged exclusively to monastic establish- 
ments — were in fact the sole property, and built only for the use, of 
the clergy, though the laity, it is true, were admitted to them, but 
only on sufferance. They had no right to be there, and took no part 
in the ceremonies performed. In the 13th century, however, almost 
all the great buildings were cathedrals, in the erection of which the 
laity bore the greater part of the expense, and shared, in at least an 
equal degree, in their property and purposes. In a subsequent age 
the parochial system went far to supersede even the cathedral, the 
people's church taking almost entirely the place of the priest's church, 
a step which was subsequently carried to its utmost length by the 
Reformation. Our present subject requires us to fix our attention on 
that stage of this great movement which gave rise to the building of 
the principal cathedrals throughout Europe from the 12th to the 15th 


The transition from the Romanesque to the true pointed Gothic 
style in the centre of France took place with the revival of the 
national power under the guidance of the great Abbe Suger, about 
the year 1 1 44. In England it hardly appeared till the rebuilding 
of Canterbury Cathedral, under the guidance of a French architect, 
A.D. 1175 ; and in Germany it is not found till, at all events, the 
beginning of the 13th century, and can hardly be said to have taken 
firm root in that country till a century at least after it had been fairly 
established in France. 

The development of particular features will be pointed out as we 
proceed ; but no attempt will be made to arrange the cathedrals and 
great buildings in chronological order. Such an attempt would merely 
lead to confusion, as most of them took a century at least to erect — 
many of them two. 

In France, as in England, there is no one great typical building 
to which we can refer as a standard of perfection — no Hypostyle Hall 
or Parthenon which combines in itself all the excellences of the style 
adopted ; and we are forced therefore to cull from a number of ex- 
amples materials for the composition, even in imagination, of a perfect 
whole. Germany has in this respect been more fortunate, possessing 
in Cologne Cathedral an edifice combining all the beauties ever 
attempted to be produced in pointed Gothic in that country. But 
even this is only an imitation of French cathedrals, erected by persons 
who admired and understood the details of the style, but were in- 
capable of appreciating its higher principles. The great cathedrals of 
Rheims, Chartres, and Amiens are all early examples of the style, and 
as they were erected nearly simultaneously, none of their architects 
were able to profit by the experience obtained in the others ; they are 
consequently all more or less experiments in a new and untried style. 
The principal parts of the church of St. Ouen at Rouen, on the 
contrary, are of somewhat too late a date ; and beautiful though it is, 
masonic perfection was then coming to be more considered than the 
expression either of poetry or of power. 

Still in Rheims Cathedral we have a building possessing so many 
^ the perfections and characteristic beauties of the art, that it may 
•Imost serve as a type of the earlier style, as St. Ouen may of the 
**ter ; and though we may regret the absence of the intermediate steps, 
except in such fragments as the Sainte Chapelle at Paris, still between 
^em we may obtain a tolerably clear idea of the form to which French 
*rt aspired during its most flourishing age. 

To avoid as far as may be possible the tediousness of repetition 
'^^ceasary if the attempt were made to describe each building sepa- 
^^Ji and at the same time not to fall into the confusion that must 
'^^t from grouping the whole together, the most expedient mode 
^ perhaps be, to describe first the four grant typical cathedrals of 

K 2 



Pabt IL 

Fftris, Chartres, Rheims, and Amiens, and then to point out briefly the 
principal resemblances and differences between these and the other 
cathedrals of France. 

Of these four, that oi Paris is the oldest ; the foundation-stone 
having been laid 1163, and the work carried on with snch activity by 
the bishop, Maurice de Sully, that the high altar was dedicated 1182, 
the interior completed 1208, and the 
west front finished about the year 1214. 
The history ci the cathedral of 
Chartres (Woodcut No. 623) is not so 
easily traced An important church 
was erected there by Bishop Fulbert 
in the beginning of the 11th century, 
of which building scarcely anything 
now remains but the piers of the 
t^dS^ nestern doors and the vast crypt. In 
1115 according to Mr. Street,' a west 
front was commenced and in 1194 the 
' whole church was destroyed by fire. 
, . The new cathedral was at once com- 

^L ti menced but upon the old foundations. 

I As the old crypt sustained no damage 
"^ and it extended the whole length of 
the church the architect was obliged 
to build on the old lines, and thus 
we have as Mr Street points oat, a 
variation m the chapels of the cbevet 
^* ■ * • • -iiB* which IS extremely original and onlike 

- - 'I auT other example. The rebuilding 

was not completed till the year 1260. 

The cathedral of Rheims (Woodcut 

No 624) was commenced in the year 

1211 immediately after a fire which 

consumed the preceding building, and 

I underthe auspices of Archbishop Alberic 

dc Humbert, — Robert de Coucy acting 

1 laity. It was so far completed in all 

essential parts as to be dedicated in 1241. 

Amiens Cathedral (Woodcut No. 625) was commenced in 1220, 
and completed in 1257 ; but being partially destroyed by fire the year 
afterwards, the clerestory and all the upper parts of the church were 
rebuilt. The whole appears to have been completed, nearly as we now 

as trustee on the part of t 


find it, about the year 1273. From this period to the building of the 
choir of St. Ouen, at Rouen, 1318-1339, there is a remarkable 
dencienc7 of great examples in France. The intermediate space is 
very imperfectly filled by the examples of St. Vrbain at Troyea, St. 
Beuigne at Dijon, and a few others. These are just sufficient to shoir 
bow exquisite the style then was, and what we have lost by almost all 
the cathedrals d France having been commenced simultaneously, and 
none being left in which the experieniM of their predecessors ooald be 
made available. 

Though the plans of these cathedrals differ to some extent, their 
dimensions are very nearly the same ; that at — 

Paris, oorering about . . . 64,108 feet. 

Chartres 68.2G0 „ 

Bbeims 67,475 „ 

Amiena TI,20S ^ 

These dimensions, though inferior to those of Cologne, Milan, 
Seville, and some other exceptional buildings, are^till as large as those 
of any erected in the Middle Ages. 

m. EiUnial ElDTiChm. CUIwdnl 
ofPiHi. (From GillbitKBd.) 

The cathedral oi Paris was designed at a time when the architects 
had not obtained that confidence in their own skill which made them 
afterwards complete masters of the constructive difficulties of the 
design. As shown in the plan (Woodcut No. 620), the points of 
aoffMM^ are far more numerous and are placed nearer to one another 
than is osnally the case ; and as may be seen from the section, instead 
at two tall storeys, the height is divided into three, and mode up, if I 



Pabt 11. 

may so express it, erf a aeries of cells built over and beside each, so as 
to obtain immense strength with a slight expenditure of materials. 

It must at the same time be confessed that this result was obt^ncd 
with a considerable sacrifice of grandeur and simplicity of efiect. Even 
before the building 
■^ was completed, the 

architects seem to 
have become aware 
of these defects ; 
and as is shown in 
the woodcut (No. 
622), the simple 
undivided windows 
of the clerestory 
were cut down so 
as to give them the 
greatest possible 
height, and the rocf 
of the upper gal- 
lery made flat to 
admit of this. Sub- 
sequently larger 
windows were in- 
troduced between 

;j the buttresses, with 

l^^^jf a view to obtaining 
fewer and larger 
parts, and also of 
course to admit of 
larger surfaces for 
painted glass. 
With all these 
improvements the 
cathedral has not 
internally the same 
, grandeur as the 

other three, though 
externally there ia a vory noble simplicity of outline and appearance 
of solidity in the whole design. Internally it still retains, as may 
be Bten from the plan, the hexapartite arrangement in its vaults over 
the central aisle, and the quadripartite in the side-aislcs only. Thi« 
causes the central vault to overpower those on each side, and makes 
not only the whole church, but all parts, look much smaller than 
would have been the cose had the roof been cut into smaller divisions, 
AS woa always subsequently the case. 

INui of ( bltlrc* CotlirdraL (From Chapu;.} Scale 100 II, 



At Clurtres moHt of these defects irero avoided ; there ia there a 
aiinplicity of design and a grandeur of conception seldom surpassed. 
The great defect of proportion in that building arises from the circum- 
stanoe that the architect included the three aisles of the old church in 
the central aiole d the present one. At that time the architects had 
□ot attained that daring perfection of execution which afterwards 

enabled them to carr; the vaults to so astonishing a height. At 
Chartres the proportion of width to height is nearly as 1 to 2, the 
breadth oi the central nave heing nearly 50 ft., and the height only 
106. With the great length of such buildings found in England such 
pnportiooa were tolerable, but in the shorter French cathedrals it 
gires an appearance of depression which is far from being pleasing ; 
»nd aa the painted gloss baa been almost entirely removed from the 



Pabt II. 

nave, a cold glare oow pervades the whole, which reitdera it extremely 
difficult to form an opinion of the original effect. 

Moat of those defects were avoided by the builders of the cathedral 
at Rheima, and ootbing can exceed the simple beanty and perfection of 
the arrangement of the plan, aa well as of the general harmony of all 
the parts. The proportion, both in width and height, of the sid&aisles 
to the central nave, and the absence of aide chapels and of any 

w o[ Uh Fu/ido ot Ui< 

subsequent additions, render the nave one of the most perfect in France. 
The mode in which the church expands as you approach the choir, aiwl 
the general arrangement of the eastern part,' as shown in the plan 
(Woodcut No. 624), are equally excellent, and are surpassed by no 
building of the Middle Ages. The piere are perhaps a little heavy, and 

* It aboald 1:e noted that the 1a«t ba; I aiblpB of north and south ttauiepto, 
of the nave and the firel bay of the choir which eontribates in no slight degree to 
ara wider than any of the other baje, and the effect of Taatoen given to this fmrt 
this gives an iocreasnl dimeuBion to the ' of the church. — Ev. 


their capitals want simplicity ; the triforium is if an3rthing too plain ; 
and at the present day the effect of light in the church is in one 
respect reversed, inasmuch as the clerestory retains its painted glass, 
which in the side-aisles has been almost totally destroyed, making the 
building appear as though lighted from below — an arrangement highly 
destructive of architectural beauty. Notwithstanding all this, it far 
surpasses those buildings which preceded it, and is only equalled by 
Amiens and those completed afterwards. Their superiority however 
arose from the introduction just at the time of their erection of com- 
plicated window-tracery, enabling the builders to dispense almost 
wholly with solid walls, and to make their clerestories at least one 
blaze of gorgeous colouring. By the improvement in tracery then 
introduced, they were able to dispose the glass in the most beautiful 
forms, and framed in stone, so as to render it, notwithstanding its 
extent, still an integral part of the whole building. In this respect 
the great height of the clerestory at Amiens, and its exceeding lightness, 
give it an immense advantage over the preceding churches, although 
this is gained at the sacrifice, to a certain extent, of the sober and 
simple majesty of the earlier examples. There is, nevertheless, so 
much beauty and so much poetry in the whole effect that it is scarcely 
fair to apply the cold rules of criticism to so fanciful and fascinating a 

Externally the same progress is observable in these four cathedrals 

as in their interior arrangements. The facade of the cathedral at 

Paris (Woodcut No. 626) is simple in its outline, and bold and majestic 

in all its parts, and though perhaps a little open to the charge of 

heaviness, it is admirably adapted to its situation, and both in design 

Mid proportion fits admirably to the church to which it is attached. 

The flanks, too, of the building, as originally designed, must have been 

BingoUrly beautiful ; for, though sadly disfigured by the insertion of 

chapels, which obliterate the buttresses and deprive it of that light 

^d shade so indispensable to architectural effect, there yet remain a 

*^plicity of outline, and an elegance in the whole form of the building, 

^hich have not often been excelled in Gothic structures. 

The lower part of the facade at Chartres (Woodcut No. 627) is 
^^uer than that of Paris, and so plain (it might almost be called rude) 
•* hardly to admit of comparison with it ; but its two spires, of 
Cerent ages, are unsurpassed in France. Even in the southern or 
^^f of the two, which was probably finished in the 12th century, we 
^d all the elements which were so fully developed in Germany and 
*«ewhere in the following centuries. The change from the square to 
^"^ octagon, and from the perpendicular part to the sloping sides of 
^ spire, are managed with the most perfect art ; and were not the 
effect it produces destroyed by the elaborate richness <rf the other spire, 
tt would be considered one of the most beautiful of its class. The new 


Past II. 

or iKtrthem Bpire was erected by Jean Tcxier between the years 1507 
and 1514, and, notwithstanding the lateness of its date, it most be 
considered as oq the whole the most beautifully designed spire on the 
continent of Europe ; and, though not equal in height,' certainly far 
surpassing in elegance of outline and appropriateness of design thoBe 
at Strosburg, Tionna, or even Antwerp. If it bos rivals it is that at 

Friburg, or those designed for the cathedral at Cologne ; but wera ita 
details of the sftuio dute, it can hardly lie doubted that it would be 
considered the finest apire of the three. 

The transepts at Cbartrea have more projection than those of Fsris, 
and were originally designed with two towers to each, and two others 

' The height of Ihc old epin 

r, 871 ft 


were placed one on each side of the choir ; so that the cathedral would 
have had eight towers altogether if completed ; but none except the 
western two have been carried higher than the springing of the rocrf ; 
and though they serve to vary the outline, they do not relieve, to the 
extent they might have done, the heavy maasiveness of the roof. In 
other respects the external beauty of the cathedral is somewhat injured 
by the eitreme heaviness of the flying buttresses, which wore deemed 
necessary to resist the thrust of the enormous vault of the central nave ; 
and, though each is in itself a massive and beautifnl object, they crowd 
the clerestory to an inconvenient extent ; the effect of which is also 
somewhat injured by the imperfect tracery of the 
windows, each of which more resembles separate 
openings grouped together than one grand and 
simple window. 

The progress that took place between this 
building and that 
] Rheims is more remarkable 
in the exterior than e 
n the interior. ThofaQade ' 
if that church, though , v 
small as compared with IjjV 
some others, was perhaps ^m 
the most beautiful struc- 
ture produced during the 
Middle Ages ; and, though 
it is difficult to institute 
rigorous comparison 
between things so dis- 
similar, there is perhaps 
o facade either of ancient 
I or of modern times, that 
I surpasses it in beauty of 
"iSS^K/rJo" proportion and d.toil^ or™- (fSJ^j'^^"^ 
in fitness for the purpose 
for which it was designed. Kothing can exceed the majesty of its 
deeply-roceased triple portals, the beauty of the rose-window that 
surmounts them, or the elegance of the gallery that completes the 
facade and serves as a basement to the light and graceful towers that 
crown the composition. These were designed to carry spires, no doubt 
as elegant and appropriate as themselves ; but this part of the design 
was never completed. The beautiful range of buttresses which adorn 
the flanks of the building are also perhaps the most beautiful in 
France, and carry the design of the facade back to the transepts. 
These are late and less ornate than the western front, but are still 
singularly beautiful, though wanting the two towers designed to 


complete them. On the intersection of the nave with the transepto 
there rose at one time a spire of wood, probably as high as the 
intended spires of the western towers, and one still crowns the ridge o£ 
the chevet, rising to half the height above the roof that the central 
one was intended to attain. Were these all complete, we should 
have the beau ideal externally of a French cathedral, with one 
central and two western spires, and four towers at the ends of the 
transepts. All these perhaps never were fully completed in any 
instance, though the rudiments of the arrangement are found in 
almost all the principal French cathedrals. In some, as for instance 
at Rouen, it was carried out in number, though at such different 
periods and of such varied design as to destroy that unity of effect 
essential to perfect beauty. 

The external effect of Amiens may be taken rather as an example 
of the defects of the general design of French cathedrals than as an 
illustration of their beauties. The western facade presents the same 
general features as those of Paris and Rheims, but the towers are so 
small in proportion to the immense building behind as to look mean 
and insignificant, while all the parts are so badly put together as to 
destroy in a great measure the effect they were designed to produce. 
The northern tower is 223 ft. high, the southern 205 ; both therefore 
are higher than those at York, but instead of being appropriate and 
beautiful adjuncts to the building they are attached to, they only 
serve in this instance to exaggerate the gigantic incubus of a roof, 
208 ft. in height, which overpowers the building it is meant to 

The same is the case with the central spire, which, though higher 
than that at Salisbury, being 422 ft. high from the pavement, is 
reduced from the same cause to comparative insignificance, and is 
utterly unequal to the purpose of relieving the heaviness of outline 
for which this cathedral is remarkable. The filling up of the spaces 
between the buttresses of the nave with chapels prevents the transepts 
from having their full value, and gives an unpleasing fulness and 
flatness to the entire design. 

All French cathedrals are more or less open to these objections, 
and are deficient in consequence of that exquisite variety of outline 
and play of light and shade for which the English examples are so 
remarkable ; but it still remains a question how far the internal 
loftiness and the glory of their painted glass compensate for these 
external defects. The truth perhaps would be found in a mean be- 
tween the two extremes, which has not unfortunately been attained 
in any one example ; and this arises mainly from the fact that, besides 
the effect of mass or beauty of outline, there were many minor con- 
siderations of use or beauty that governed the design. We must 
consequently look closely at the details, and restore, in imagination 


at least, the building in all its completeness, before we can discover 
how far the general effect was necessarily sacrificed for particular 

What painted glass was to the interior of a French cathedral 
sculpture was to the exterior. Almost all the arrangements of the 
facade were modified mainly to admit of its display to the greatest 
possible extent. The three great cavernous porches of the lower part 
would be ugly and unmeaning in the highest degree without the 
sculptures that adorn theuL The galleries above are mere ranges of 
niches, as unmeaning without their statues as the great mullioned 
windows without their " storeyed panes." In such lateral porches too, 
as those for instance at Chartres, the architecture is wholly subordinate 
to the sculpture; and in a perfect cathedral of the 13th century the 
buttresses, pinnacles, even the gargoyles, every " coign of vantage," tells 
its tale by some image or representation of some living thing, giving 
meaning and animation to the whole. The cathedral thus became an 
immense collection of sculptures, containing not only the whole history 
of the world as then known and understood, but also of an immense 
number of objects representing the arts and sciences of the Middle 
Ages. Thus the great cathedrals of Chartres and Rheims even now 
retain some 5000 figures, scattered about or grouped together in 
various parts, beginning with the history of the creation of the world 
and all the wondrous incidents of the 1st chapter of Genesis, and 
thence continuing the history through the whole of the Old Testament. 
In these sculptures the story of the redemption of mankind is told as set 
forth in the New Testament, with a distinctness, and at the same time 
With an earnestness, almost impossible to surpass. On the other hand 
'^^^ of statues of kings of France and other popular potentates 
carry on the thread of profane history to the period of the erection of 
"te cathedral itself. In addition to these we have interspersed with 
^iiem, a whole system of moral philosophy, as illustrated by the virtues 
*^ the vices, each represented by an appropriate symbol, and the 
'^^ard or punishment its invariable accompaniment. In other parts 
^ shown all the arts of peace, every process of husbandry in its 
^PP^riate season, and each manufacture or handicraft in all its 
P^pal forms. Over all these are seen the heavenly hosts, with 
^^ts, angels, and archangels. All this is so harmoniously contrived 
^ so beautifully expressed, that it becomes a question even now 
whether the sculpture of these cathedrals does not excel the archi- 

In the Middle Ages, when books were rare, and those who could 
read them rarer still, this sculpture was certainly most valuable as a 
means of pc^ular education ; but, as Victor Hugo beautifully expresses 
it»"Ceci tuera ccla : le livre tuera rEglise." The printing-press has 



Pabt IL 

rendered aU this <^ little valae to the present generation, and it is 
only through the eyes of the artist or the antiquary that we can eren 
dimly appreciate what was actual instruction to the less educated 
citizens of the Middle Ages, and the medium through which they 

I teamed the history of the world, or 
heard the glad tidings of salvation 
conveyed from God to man. All this, 
.few, if any, can fully enter into now ; 
but unless it is felt to at least some 
extent, it is impossible these wonderful 
buildings can ever be appreciated. Id 
the Middle Ages, the sculpture, the 
painting, the music of the p«ople were 
all found in the cathedrals, and there 
only. Add to this their ceremonies, 
their sanctity, especially that conferred 
by the relics of saints and martyrs which 
they contained — all these things made 
these buildings all in all to those who 
erected and to those who worshipped in 

'^ i ^l( Wl \l'i! ^' Mil ^^ cathedral of Beauvais is generally 

\ (I m ml \ Ullf mentioned in conjunction with that of 
Kp « w eH? Amiens, and justly so, not only in con- 
sequence of its local proximity, and from 
its being so near it in date, but also 
from a general similarity in style. 
Beauvais is in fact an exaggeration of 
Amiens, and shows defects trf design 
more to be expected in Gemuny than in 
France. It was commenced five year* 
later than Amiens, or in 1225, and the 
I works were vigorously pursued between 
the years 1249 and 1267, though the 

^a dedication did not take place till 1272. 

The architects, in their rivalry of their 
NoitaiF. great neighbour, seem to have attempted 

more than they had skill to perform, for the roof fell in in 1284, 
and when rebuilt, additionul strength was given by the insertion 
of another pier between every two of those in the old design, which 
served to exaggerate the apparent height of the pier arches. Em- 
boldened by this, they seem to have determined to carry the clerestory 
to the unprecedentcil height of 150 ft., or about three times the width, 
measuring,' from the centre of one pier to that of the next. It is 
dillicult ti> say what thi> <^l^ect mi^'ht have been had the cathedral been 


completed with a long nave, aa acute vanlt, wide pier-apaces and bold' 
massive supports ; possibly however not so snbtinie as the choir alone is 
at present, for, owing to its limited floor area, the eye has only to glance 

■loft and the stupendous height and the magnificent construction 
ptdoce an eflect of splendour and sIko which is only excelled l>y 
•W of the great Hall of Karnac and the interior of St. Sophia.' 

' The choir of DoauTiiia is consiilcnil i of Cluirlruis llic i>ordi ori£bcimB,anil tho 
(obeooD of tbc rourwunilt-'ra uf DU'diuiviil iiiivv ot Aaiicats. 
Fnnce, Ihe othura bciog tin; south apiri' I 



Pabt IL 

The qualities jnet quoted of the cb<ar would seem to bare inspired the 
builders of later generations, for altbough the south transept was 
commenced only in 1500, and the nortbem one thirty years later, being 
finished only in 1537, there is a simplicity and graodear in their 
treatment which places them far ahead of the contemporary facade of 
the catJiedral of Rouen, built (1509-30) by Cardinal d'Amboise, which 
is of a moat florid character, and looks like a piece of rough rockwork 
encrusted with images and tabernacles, and ornamented from top to 
bottom. In 1555 the architects of Beanrais being seized with the 
desire of rivalling the dcme of St. 
Peter's at Rome, which was then 
the object of umTersaJ admiration, 
undertook the constructioa of a 
spire on the intersection o£ the 
transepts, which they ccaupleted in 
thirteen years, but which stood 
only five years from that time, 
having fallen down on the day of 
the Ascension in the year 1573. 
This accident so damaged the 
works under it as to require con- 
siderable reconstruction, which is 
what we now see. This epire of 
which the original drawings still 
exist, was 466 ft. in height ; and 
although, as might be expected 
from the age in which it was 
erected, not of the purest design, 
must still have been a ver^ noble 
and beautiful object, hardly inferior 
to that of Cbartres, which was 
built only half a century earlier, 
^a Taken altogether, the cathedral 
of Beauvais may be considered as 
an example of that " vaulting ambition that o'erleaps itself." Every 
principle of Qothic art is here carried to an extreme which tends to 
destroy the object with which it was designed, and not only partially 
has caused the ruin of the building and practically prevented its 
completion, but has run the risk of destroying its artistic eSect, so as 
to make it an example of what should be avoided rather than of what 
should be followed. It has perhaps that want of repose and solidity 
which has often been made the reproach of Oothic architecture. And 
were it not for the perfection of its masonry and the majesty of ita 
size, the additional piers which it was found necessary to insert might 
be regarded as props applied to prevent its falling, instead of suggesting. 

C31. FUficitCithKlnl 



as thej do, additional streagth and insuring durability. There is 
one example in. France in which this danger at carrying the principles 
of Gothic art to its extreme is painfully evident. The church of 
St. TJrbain of Troyee, mentioned farther on, p. 155, and the choir of 
which has just been restored (1891) and filled with modem stained 
glass, resembles more an ephemeral construction in iron and glass, a 
BOrt<rf mediffival crystal palace, than one in which the solid construction 
of its masonry should give repose and a sense of solidity and strength. 
The cathedral of Xoyon is an earlier example, and one ot the best 

Spina of L«oo CUhadnL (FMb DoMMMmd.) 

mod most elegant transition specimens in France, having been com- 
menced about the year 1137, and completed, as we uow see it, in 1167. 
Here the circular arch had not entirely disappeared, which was owing 
to its early date, and to its situation near the German border, and its 
connection with the see of Toumay, with which it was long united. 
Like the sister church of that place, it was triapsal, which gave it 
great elegance of arrangement. The one defect oi this form seems to 
he, that it does not lend itself easily to the combination of towers 
which were then so much in vogue. 

In singular contrast to this is the neighbouring cathedral of Loon, 
one of the very few in Prance which have no cbevot. It terminates 




with a square east end, like an English church, except that it has there 
a great circular window only, instead (d the immense wall of glass 
usually adopted in this country. In style it more resembles the 
cathedral of Paris than any other, though covering less ground and 
smaller in all its features. Its great glory is its crowning group of 
towers. The two western (with the exception of their spires) and the 
two at the end of the northern transept are complete. On the southern 
side only one has lieen carried to its full height, and the central 

lantern is now crowned by a low pyramidal roof instead of tlie tall spire 
that must once have adorned it ; but even as they now are, the six 
that remain, whether si^u from the immediate neighbourhood cd the 
building or from the plain below — for it stands most nobly on the flat 
top of a high isolated hlll^havi) n highly picturewiue and pleasing 
effect, and notwithstanding the rudeness of some of its details, and iti 
deficiency in sculpture, it is in many respects one of the most in 
teresting of the cathedrals of Franco. 

One of the earliest of the complete pointed Oothic churches of 



France is that <rf Coutances (Woodcut No. 634), tho whole of which 
belongs to the first half of the 13th century, and, though poor in sculp- 
ture, makes up for this to some extent by the elegance of its 
architectural details, which are unrivalled or nearly so in France. 

Externally it possesses two western spires, and one octagonal 
lantern over the intersection of the nave and transept, which, both 
for beauty of detail and appropriateness, is the best specimen of its 
class, and only wants the crowning spire to make this group of towers 
equal to anything on this side of the channel. 

Notre Dame de Dijon is another example of the same early and 
elegant i^, but possessing the Burgnndian peculiarity of a deeply 
recessed porch or narthex, surmounted by a facade of twoopen galleries, 
one over the other, exactly in the manner of the churches <tf Pisa and 
Lucca of the 11th and 12th cen- 
turies, of which it may he considered 
an imitation. It is, however, as 
unsatisfactory in pointed Ciothic, 
even with the very best details, as 
it is in the pseudo^classical style of 
^aa, forming in either case 
remarkably unmeaning mode 

The cathedrals of Sens and ' 
Auxerre are pure examples of 3 
pointed architecture. The latter I 
(a.d. 1213) internally rivals perhaps ■ 
even Coutances. Nothing can 
BHM% elegant than the junction of t jg ] 
the lady chapel here with the •''--' 
chevet ; for though this is almost 
always pleasingly arranged, the design has been unusually successful 
in this instance. The two slender shafts, shown in the Woodcut 
No. 635, just suffice to give it pre-eminence and dignity, without intro- 
ducing any feature bo large as to disturb the harmony of the whole. 

In the great church of St. Quentin, the five chapels of the chevet 
have each two pillars, arranged similarly to these of the la<Iy chapel at 
Auxerre; and though the effect is rich and varied, the result is not 
quite BO happy as in this instance. Taken altogether, however, few 
chevets in France ore more perfect and beautiful than this almost 
unknown example. 

The cathedral of Troyes, commenced in 1206, and continued steadily 
for more than three centuries, is one of the few in France, designed 
originally with five aisles and a range of chapels. The efiect, however, 
is far from satisfactory. The great width thus given makes the whole 
appear low, and the choir wonts that expansion and dignity which is 


BO pleas ng at Rheuns and Chartres St Jl the details and design of 
the earl er parts are good and elegant and the west front (Woodcut 
No 63 ) though belonging wholly to the IGth century, is one of the 
most pleasing specimens of flamboyant work in France, being rich 
without exuberance and devo d ctf the bad taste that sometimea di»- 
figures works of this class and age 

The cathedral at Soissons is one of the most pleasing of all these 
churches Nothing can surpass the justness of the proportions of tiie 
central and side aisles 
both in themselves and 
to one another. Though 
the church is not large, 
and principally oi that 
age — the latter half of 
the 13th century — in 
wh ch the effect de- 
pended so much OQ 
pamted glass, now de- 
■ atroyed or disarranged, it 
I still deserves a place in 
" the first rank of French 

The two cathedrals 
Toul and Tours 
I present many points of 
g eat beauty, but their 
moEt remarkable fea- 
tures are their western 
fumades both of late 
date each possessing two 
towers terminating in 
octagonal lanterns, with 
deta Is verging on the 
style of the Renaissance, 
and yet so Gothic in 
g« dvu des gn and so charmingly 
'*™™ " " executed as almost to 

induce the bel cf in sp te nf the fanciful extravagance which it displays, 
that the arch te ts e e approaching to something new and beautiful 
when the man a f r laas al deta la overtook them 

The two cathedrals of Limoges and D jon belong to the latter half 
of the 13th century and w U consequently when better known fill a 
gap painfully felt m the history of the art. 

It would be tedious to enumerate all the great cathedrals of the 
country, or to attempt to describe their peculiarities ; but wc must not 



omit all mention of such aa Liaieuz, remarkable for its beautiful facade, 
and Evreux, for the beaut; of man}' of its parts, though the whole is too 
much a patchwork to produce an entirely pleasing effect. Kevera, 
too, is remarkable as being one of the only two double-apse cathedrals 
in France, Besan^n being the other. At Nevers this wiw owing 
to the high altar having been originally at the west, a defect felt to 
be intolerable in France in the 16th century, when the church waa 

P*t*deafCitlHdnlMTn>7M. (Fivm Ari*u<I.) 

rebuilt, when it was done without destroying the old sanctuary. Bor- 
ifMx, already mentioned for its noble nave without aisles, possesses 
> cheret worthy of it, and two spires of great beauty at the ends of the 
teanstpts, the only spires so placed, I think, in France. Autun has 
» spire on the intersection of the nave with the transepts as beautiful ■ 
U anything of the same class elsewhere. The cathedral of Lyons is 
iater«stipg, as showing how hard it was for the Southern people of 
*mee to shake off their old style and adopt that of their Northern 
iK^fabonrs. With much grandeur and elegance of details, it is still bo 



clnmBy m design that neither the vhole nor any of ita parts can be 

conwdered aa satinfactory. Tho windows, for instance, as shown in the 

woodcut (No. 638), look more like specimeas of 

the so-called carpenter's Gothic of modem times 

than examples of the art <A the Middle Ages. 

There still remains to be mentioned the 
cathedral at Rouen. This remarkable building 
possesses parts belonging to all ages, and eiEhibita 
most of the beauties, as also, it must be confessed, 
most of the defects of each style. It was erected 
with a total disregard to all rule, yet so splendid 
and BO picturesque that we are almost driven 
to the wild luxuriance of nature to find 
inything to which we can compare it. Internally, 
ts nave, though rich, is painfully cut up into 
small parts. The undivided piers of the choir, 
ua wiudnwofCutiifdrai "*" ^^^ Contrary, are too simple for their adjuncts, 
■''ii'^^^^r'^i^'"'''-, EKtemally, the transept towers are beautiful in 
themselves, but are overpowered by the richness 
of those of the west front. The whole of that facade, in spite of the 
ruin of some of its most important 
features, and the intrusion of much 
modern vulgarity, may be called a 
romance in stone, consisting aa it 
does of a profusion of the most 
playful fancies. Like most of the 
cathedrals near our shores, that of 
? Rouen was designed to have a 
central spire ; this, however, was not 
completed till late in the cinqu&^eato 
age, and then only in vulgar wood- 
work, meant to imitate stone^ Tha^ 
licing destroyed, an attempt ba^ 
lately been made to replace it by 
still more vulgar iron-work, leaner 
and poorer than almost anything else 
of modern times. 

In the preceding pages, all men- 
tion of the cathedrals of Bazas and 
Bourgcs has been purposely omitted, 
because they belong to a differeal 
type from the above. The fin 
(Woodcut No. 639) is one of the most perfect specimens of the pn 

■ ' Ctanple Bendo des Trftvnux da la CumniisBion Ji-s HonaineDts,' Ac. ; lta|i{ 
ptiaenU aa Prefct dc la Ginilide, 18J8 ct aen- 



Gothic style in the South of France. Its noble triple portal, filled 
with exquisite sculpture, and its extensive chevet, make it one of the 
most beautiful of its class. It shows no trace of a transept, — a 
peculiarity, as before pointed out, by no means uncommon in the 
South. This, though a defect in so far as external effect is concerned, 
gives great value to the internal dimensions, the appearance of length 
being far greater 
than when the view 
is broken by the 
intersection of the 

This ia still more 
striking at Bourges, 
where the cathe- 
dral, though one 
of the finest and 
largest in France, 
covering 73,170 
square feet, is still 
oae of the shortest, 
being only 405 ft. 
in extreme length ; 

yet, owing to the 

central aisle being 

*hoUy unbroken, it 

spears one of the 

ImgeBt, OS it cer- 

tvoly is 

"iMl, majestic of 

>U- This cathedral 

Poiaeases also 

"rother Southern 

peculiarity of more 

(piestionable ad van- ^ 

••ge, in having 

fiTOiJBles in three different heights. The section (Woodcut No. 640) 

*ill explain this. The central aisle is 117 ft. in height, those next 

'*> it 66 ft. high, the two outer only 2?. These last appear to destroy 

Uie Wmony of the whole, for on an inspection of the building, the 

outer aisles do not appear to belong to the design, but look more like 

iftdrthonghts. At Milan, Bologna, and other places in Italy where 

™>) gradation is common, this mistake is avoided, and the effect 

pnfNirtioDably increased ; and except that this arrangement does not 

■dmit of such large window spaces, in other respects it is not quite 

clear that, where double aisles are used, it would not always be better 



Part 11. 

that they should be of different heights. This amiDgement of the 
aisles was never agitin fairly tried in France ; hut even as it is, the 
cathedral of Bourges must rank after the four first mentioned as the 
finest and most perfect of the remaining edifices of its class in that 
country. It ia singularly beautiful in its details, and happy in its 
main proportions ; for owing to the omission of the transept, the 
length is exquisitely adapted to the other dimensions. Had a 
transept been added, at least 100 ft. of additional length would 
have been required to restore the harmony ; and though externally it 
would no doubt have gwned by such an adjunct, this gain would not 
have been adequate to the additional expense so incurred. 

£w|., AichUn^) 

The greater part of the western facade of this cathedral is of a later 
date than the building itself, and is extended so much beyond the pro- 
portions required for effect as to overpower the rest of the building, so 
that it is only from the aides or the eastern end that all the beauty of 
this church can be appreciated. 

As far as regards she or richness of decoration, the cathedral of 
Orleans deserves to rank as one of the very first in France, and is 
remarkable as the only first-class Gothic cathedral erected in Etiropo 
since the Middle Ages. The original church on this site having been 
destroyed by the Calvinists, the present cathedral was commenced in 
the year 1601 by Henry IV, of France, and although the rebuilding 
proceeded at first with great vigour, and the work was never whoUy 
discontinued, it is even now hardly completed. 


Considering the age in which it was built, and the contemporary 
specimens of so-called Oothic art erected in France and England, it is 
wonderful how little of classical admixture has been allowed to creep 
into the design of this building, and how closely it adhered to every 
essential of the style adopted. In plan, in arrangement, and indeed in 
details, it is so correct, that it requires considerable knowledge to define 
the difference between this and an older building of the same class. 
Still there is a wide difference, which makes itself felt though not 
easily described, and consists in the fact that the old cathedrals were 
built by men who had a true perception of their art ; while the modem 
example only bears evidence of a well-learnt lesson distinctly repeated, 
but without any real feeling for the subject. This want betrays 
itself in an unmeaning repetition of parts, in a deficiency of depth 
and richness, and in a general poverty of invention. 

Collegiate Churches. 

It would not be difficult to select out of the collegiate churches of 
France as complete a series as of the cathedrals, though of inferior size. 
But having already gone through the one class of buildings, we must 
confine ourselves to a brief notice of the other. The church of Charit6 
sur Loire was one of the most picturesque and beautiful in France. It 
is now partially ruined, though still retaining enough of its original 
features to illustrate clearly the style to which it belongs. Originally 
the church was about 350 ft. in length by 90 in breadth. One tower of 
the western front, one aisle, and the whole of the choir still remain, and 
belong without doubt to the church dedicated in 1106 by Pope Pascal. 
The presence of the pointed form in the pier arches and vaults has 
induced some to believe that this church belongs to the reign of Philip 
Augustus, about a century later, and when the church was restored 
after a great fire. Its southern position, however, the circumstance of 
its being the earliest daughter church of the abbey of Cluny, and the 
whole style of the building, are proofs of its earlier age. All the 
decorative parts, and all the external openings, still retain the circular 
form as essentially as if the pointed had never been introduced. 

The most remarkable feature in this church is the exuberance of 
the ornament with which all the parts are decorated, so very unlike 
the massive rudeness of the contemporary Norman or Northern styles. 
The capitals of the pillars, the arches of the triforium, the jambs of the 
windows and the cornices, all show a refinement and love of ornament 
characteristic of a far more advanced and civilised people than those of 
the Northern provinces of France. 

Among those who were present at the dedication of this church 
was the Abbe Suger, then a gay young man of twenty years of age, 
who about thirty years later, in the plenitude of his power, commenced 



Paet II. 

the building of the alibey of St, Denis, near Paris, the west front o£ 
which was dedicnted in the year 1140, and rest of the church bailt 
"Btupend4 celeritate," and dedicated in 1144, Though certainly not 
the earliest, St, Denis may be considered as the typical example of the 
earliest pointed Gothic in France, It terminated the era ot transition, 
and fixed the epoch when the Northern pointed style became supreme, 
to the total exclusion of the round-arched style that preceded it. The 
effect of Suger's church is now destroyed by a nave of the 14th century 
— of great beauty it must be confessed— which is interpolated between 
the western front and the choir, both which remain in all essentials as 
left by him, and enable 
us to decide without 
hesitation on the state 
of architectural art at 
the time of the dedica- 
tion of the church. 

A few years later 
was commenced the once 
!' celebrated abbey of Pon- 
tigny, near Auxerre, 
probably in 1150, and 
completed, as we now 
find it, within 15 or 20 
years from that date. 

Externally it dis 
plays an almost bam- 
like simplicity, having 
no towers or pinnacles 
— plain undivided win- 
dows, and no ornament 
of any sort. The same 
simplicity reigns in the 
interior, but the varied 
form and play of light 
and shade here relieve it to a sufficient extent, and make it altogether, 
if not one of the most charming examples of its age, at least one 
of the most instructive, as showing how much effect can be obtained 
by ornamental arrangomcnt with the smallest possible amount of 
ornament. In obedience to the rules of the Cistercian order, it 
neither had towers nor paintctt glass, which last circumstance perhaps 
adds to its beauty, as we now see it, for the windows, being small, 
admit Just tight enough for effect, without the painful glare that now 
streams through the large mullioned windows of the cathedral of 

To the Englishman, Pontigny should be more than usually intw- 

Bk. III. Cb. IX. 



^ting, as it was here that the three moat celebrated archbiflbops of 
Canterbury — ^6«cket, Laiigton, and Edmund — found an asylum when 
drivea by the troubles of their native land to seek a refuge abroad, and 
the bones of the last-named sainted prelate are said still to remain in 
the cfidgge, represented in the woodcut, and are now aud have been for 
centttries the great object of worship here. 

About a century after the erection of these two early specimens, we 
ha^e two others the dates of which are ascertained and which exhibit 
the pointed style m its 
greatest degree of perfec 
tion. The first, the Sainte 
Chapelle m Faru) was com 
menced in 1241 and dedi 
cated in 1244 ' the other 
the church of St Urban at , 
Troyes was begun in 1 '62 
and the choir and transept 
completed m 1266 Both 

»re only fragments— choirs ^ 

to which it was orif,uially 

intended to add na>e3 of 

wnsiderable extent. 1 

pn^rtions of the Sainte t 

Chapelle are in consequence 

"onewhat too tall and short ; 

hut the noble simplicity of ( 

'*s design, the majesty of 

'** tall windows, and the 

^^tj of all its details, 

■^ndet it one of the most j 

[*rf«t examples of the 

"jleat its culminating point 

■" the reign of St, Louis. ^^ 

Now that the whole of the 

P»iot«d glaas has been restored, and the walls repainted according 

^ *hat may be assumed to have been the original design, we are 

'""hied to judge of the effect of such a building in the Middle Ages. 

« may be that our eyes are not educated up to the mark, or that the 

'Worers have not quite grasped the ancient design ; but the effect as 

■WW seen ia certainly not quite satisfactory. The painted glass is 

Morions, but the efiect would certainly have been more pleasing if all 

U>e structural parts of the architecture had been of one colour. There 

t, rmilKD/. (From 

A plan of the Sainte Chapelle will bo found further 
it with St Stepben'H Cbapcl, WuituiiQBtor. 

a (page 395) wLen 



Past H. 

ia QO repoBe about the interior — nothing to expl&in the construction. 
The flat parts may hare been painted as they now are ; but surely the 
shafts and ribs could only hare been treated as stone. 

The other was founded by Pope Urban IV., a native of Troyes, and 
would have been completed as a large and magnificent church, but for 
the opposition of some contumacious nuns, who had sufficient power 
and influence even in 
those days to thwart 
the designs of the 
Pope himself. Its 
great perfection is 
the beauty of its 
details, in which it 
is unsurpassed by any- 
thing in France or in 
Germany ; its worst 
defect ia a certain 
exaggerated temerity 
of construction, which 
tends to show how 
fast, even when this 
church was designed, 
architecture was pas- 
z sing from the hands 
k of the true artist into 
i those of the maaon, 
I whose attempts to 
( astonish by wonders 
' of construction then 
and ever afterwards 
completely marred the 
progress of the art 
which was thought to 
be thereby promoted. 
About seventy 
years after this we 
come to the choir of St. Ouen, and to another beautiful little church, 
Ste. Marie de TEpine (Woodcut No. 644), near Chftlona sur Mame, 
commenced apparently about 1329, though not completed till long 
afterwards.' It is small — a miniature cathedral in fact — like our St. 
Mary BedcHITe, which in many respects it resembles, and is a perfect 

' Hr. BercBrard Hope, in his 'Eugliah the wpat front was completed by an 
CathcdralH of tlie XlXth Century,' coo- i Engliah architect named Patriclc in 1429. 
tenJi tliat tbU chnrch *as odIj com- If tliu were bo, we mnit abandon all our 
menced in 1119; auUalio mainliiiiis tb&t chronolog; foimded on ityle. It is all a 

Bk. m. Ch. E. collegute chueches. 


bijoa rf its class. One western spire remains — the other was destroyed 

to make room for a telegraph — and is not only beautiful in itself, but 

interesting as almost the only example of an open- work spire in France. 

The church of St. Ouen, at Rouen, was beyond comparison the 

znoBt beautiful and perfect of the abbey edi£ces of Prance. This was 

<iommenced by Marc d'Argent in the year 1318, and was carried on 

-nnintemiptedly for twenty-one 

^ears, and at his death the choir 

And transept were completed or 

"very nearly so. The English wars 

interrupted at this time the progress 

«f this, as of many other buildings 

and the works of the nave were 

sot seemingly resumed till about 

1490, and twenty-five years later 

the beautiful western front was 


Except that of Limc^es the * 
choir is almost the only perfect 
building of its age, and being 
nearly contemporary with the choir 
atCdogne (1276 to 1321) affords 
B mMOB of comparison between the 
two styles of Germany and France 
at that age, entirely to thead\an 
'age of the French example wh ch 
'tiOBgh very much smaller avo ds 
*" the more glaring faults of the 

Nothing indeed can exceed the 
"»nty of proportion of this most 
^^lut church ; and except that it 
'*iitg the depth and earnestness of 
'^ earlier examples, it may be 
'^dered as the most beautiful 
"% of its kind in Europe. The » 
Pi^rtion too of the nave, tran- 
"p)*, and choir to one another is remarkably happy, and aSbrds a most 
"'iking contrast to the very imperfect proportions of Cologne. Its three 
^^en also would have formed a perfect group as originally designed, 
^t the central one was not completed till so late, that its details have 
w the aspiring character <A the building on which it stands, and the 

Butike if tho east end is not a centnrj i pamphlet pabliBhcd by a Frcoch car^ in 
'vlicT. I ^ni, boweTBT, nnwilliog to go a remote village. 
t« Mhool Bgain, on the faith of a littlo | 


western spires, as rebuilt within the last few years, are incoagruons 
and inappropriate ; whereas bad the original design been carried out 
according to the drawings which still exist, it would have been one of 

the most 1>Gautiful fa<;ades known anywhere. The diagonal position of 
the towers met most happily the dililculty of giWng breadth to the 
facade without placing them bryond the line of the aisles, as is done 
in the cathedral of Rouen, and at the same time gave n variety to the 
pvriipcctive which must have hod the most pleasing (.'fleet. Had the 



idea occurred earlier, few western towers would have been placed 
otherwise ; but the invention came too late, and within the lost few 
years we have seen all traces of the arrangement ruthlessly obliterated. 
The style of the choir of thia church may be fairly judged from the 
view of the southern porch (Woodcut No. 647). Thia has all that 
perfection of detail which we are accustomed to admire in Cologne 
Cathedral, and the works of the time of our Second Edward, combined 
with a degree of lightness and grace peculiar to this church. Tlie wood- 
cut is too small to show the details of the sculpture in the tympanum 
above the doors, but 
that too is of ex 
quisite beauty, and 
being placed where 
it can be so well 
seen, and at the samt. 
time so perfectly pro- 
tected, it hoighteus 
the architectural 
design without in 
any way seeming to 
interfere with it 
This is a somewhat 
rare merit in French 
portals. In most of 
them it is evident 
thftt the architect 
has been controlled 
in his design in order 
tom^ce HKMn for the 
imiwTiw quantity of 
■cnlptare which 
asiull J crowds them 
On the other hand , 
the position of the 

Sgures is ofteo forced and constrained, mid the bii.s-r(^Iiefs ncjirly 
naintelligible, from the architects having been unable to give tlie 
sculptor that unencumbered space which was rurjuiMito for the full 
development of bis ideas. 

It would be easy to select numerous cxampli* fi-om tho collngiiite 
and parish churches of Franco to extend this sttrit^s. t.)ur limits will 
not, however, admit of the mention of more than one other instance. 
The sepulchral church of Brou en Bressc was ercctc<l between 1511 and 
I'^ilB, by Margaret of Austria, daughter of Maximilian, and aunt t)f 
Charles V., Emperor of Germany. It w;is tlicit-fmi' nearly ciintcui- 


porary with Henry VII. 's Chapel at "Westminster, and thus affords the 
means of comparison between the English and French styles of the day, 
which is wholly in favour of our own ; both are the most florid speci- 
mens of their class in either country, but at Brou, both externally and 
internally, all majesty of form and constructive propriety are lost sight 
of; and though we wonder that stone could be cut into such a 
marvellous variety of lace-like forms, and are dazzled by the splendour 
of the whole, it is with infinite pleasure that we turn from these 
elaborate specimens of declining taste to an earlier and purer style. 
Fascinating as some of these late buildings undoubtedly are from the 
richness of decorative fancy that reigns in every detail, still they can 
only be regarded as the productions of the stonemason and carver, and 
not of the arts of the architect or sculptor so called. 

In the city of Rouen we also find the beautiful church of St. Maclou 
(1432-1500), a gorgeous specimen of the later French style, presenting 
internally all the attenuation and defects of its age ; but in the five 
arcades of its beautiful western front it displays one of the richest and 
most elegant specimens of flamboyant work in France. It also shows 
what the fa9ade of St. Ouen would have been if completed as designed. 
This church once possessed a noble central tower and spire, destroyed 
in 1794. When all this was complete, few churches of its age could 
have competed with it. 

St. Jacques at Dieppe is another church of the same age, and pos- 
sessing the same lace-like beauty of detail and elaborate finish, which 
charms in spite of soberer reason, that tells us it is not in stone that 
such vagaries should be attempted. Abbeville, St. Riquier, and all the 
principal towns throughout that part of France, are rich in specimens 
of the late Gothic, of which we are now speaking. These specimens 
are in many respects beautiful, but in all that constitutes true and 
good art they are inferior to those of the glorious epoch which preceded 

Bk. in. Ch, X. PILLARS. 161 



G othic details — Pillars — Windows — Circular windows — Bays — Vaults — Buttresses 
— Pinnacles — Spires — Decoration — Construction — Furniture of churches — 
Domestic architecture. 

Although in the proceding pages, in describing the principal churches 
of France, mention has been made of the various changes of detail 
-which took place from the time of the introduction of the pointed style 
till its abandonment in favour of the revived classical, still it seems 
necessary to recapitulate the leading changes that were introduced. 
This will be most fitly done before we leave the subject of French 
architecture, that being on the whole the most complete and 
harmonious of all the pointed styles, as well as the (earliest. 


Of these details, the first that arrests the attention of the inquirer 
is the form of the pillars or piers used in the Middle Ages, inasmuch as 
it is the feature that bears the most immediate resemblance to the 
typical forms of preceding styles. Indeed, the earlier pillars in the 
round-arched style were virtually rude imitations of Roman originals, 
made so thick and heavy as to bear without apparent stress the whole 
weight of the arches they supported, and of the superincumbent wall, 
This increase of the weight laid upon the pillars, and consequently in 
their strength and heaviness, was the great change introduced into the 
art of building in the early round Gothic style. With the same 
requirements the classic architects either must have thickened their 
pillars immensely, or coupled them in some way. Indeed the Komans, 
in such buildings as the Colosseum, placed the pillars in front and a 
pier behind, which last was the virtual support of the wall. The 
Gothic architects improved on this by adding a pillar, or rather a half 
pillar, on each side, to receive the pier arches, and carrying up those 
behind and in front to support the springing of the vault or roof, 
instead of the useless entablature of the Komans. 

By this means the pier became in plan what is represented in ligs. 
1 and 2 in the diagram (Woodcut No. 648). Sometimes it was varied 




Part II. 

as represented in fig. 3, where the angle-shafts were only used to 
lighten the apparent heaviness of the central mass ; in other examples 
both these modes are combined, as in fig. 4, which not only construc- 
tively, but artistically, is one of the most beautiful combinations which 
the square forms are capable of, combining great strength with great 
lightness of appearance, and variety of light and shade. 

These four forms may be said to be typical in the South, where the 
style was derived so directly from the Roman square pier combined 
with an attached circular pillar. 

In the North the Normans, and generally speaking, all the 
Prankish tribes, used the circular pillar in preference to the square pier, 
and consequently the variations were as shown in figs. 5, 6, 7, and 8, 
which, though forming beautiful combinations, wanted the accentua- 
tion produced by the contrast between the square and round forms. 


10 ^</^^— II 

Diagram of Plans of PilUre. 

The architects after a time scorned to have felt this, and tried to 
remedy it by introducing ogee forms and sharp edges, with deep 
undercut shjwlows, thus applying to the pillars those forms which had 
been invented for the mouldings of the ribs of the vaults, and for the 
tracery of the windows. The expedient was perfectly successful at 
first, and, so long as it was practised in moderation, gave rise to some 
of the most beautiful forms of pillars to be found in any style. It 
proved, however, too tempting an opportunity for the indulgence of 
every sort of quirk and quibble ; and after passing through the shapes 
shown in figs. 9 and 10, where the meaning of all the parts is still 
suliiciently manifest, it became as complicated as fig. II, and sometimes 
even more cut up, so that all meaning and beauty was lost. It became 
moreover very expensive and difficult to execute, so that in later times 
the architects reverted, either to circular pillars, or to such a form aa 
that shown in fig. 12, which was introduced in the 16th century. The 
change may have been partly introduced from motives of economy, 

Be. UI. Ch. X. 



and also to some extent from a desire to imitate the flutings of classical 

pillars ; but from whatever motive it arose, it is singularly unmeaning 

and inartistic; and as the capital was at the same 

time omitted, the whole pillar took an appearance 

of cold poverty entirely at variance with the true 

spirit of Gothic art. This last change showed, 

perhaps more clearly than those introduced into 

any other feature, how entirely the art had died 

away before the classical styles superseded it. 

MB. Window. SL Hmt 
PiirU. (KrHD ' Pirla 


Before painted glass came into use, very small 
apertures sufficed to admit the required quantity 
of light into the churches. These openings 
retained their circular-arched heads long after the 
pointed form pervaded the vaults and pier arches, 
l>ccai]se the architects still thought them the most 
tioiitiful ; they moreover occupied so small a 
portioa of the wall spaces that their lines neither 
wme in contact nor interfered with the con- 
"tructive lines of the building itself ; but when 
•' was required to enlarge them for the purpose 
w receiving large pictures, the retention of the 
'ircular form was no longer practicable. 

The Woodcut No. 622, showing the side 
'Iwation of Notre Dame at Paris, illustrates well 
^^ stages of this process as practised in the 
1^ and 13th centuries. It exhibits first the 
"^ undivided window without mullions, the 
Sws being supported by strong iron bars ; nest, 
^ with one mullion and a circular rose in the 
"^ ; and lastly, in the lower storey, a complete 
''**ried window. The transition from the old 
suU window to the first of these is easily 
*^Uined, and the Woodcut No. 649, represent- 
u>g one of the windows in St. Martin at Paris, 
*ul explain the transition from the first to the 
'^'^ood. Instead of one large undivided opening, 
rt "Be often thought more expedient to introduce 
"0 lancets aide by side ; but as these never filled, cubedni » cbuUtB. 
°or could fill, the space of one bay so as to follow 
■ti princ^tal lines, it became usual to introduce a circular window of 
POtw or less size between their heads. This, with the rude 



Pabt 11. 

constructioD ol the age, preseated certain difficalties which vera 
obviated hj canying tho maaoitrj <d the vault tlirongh the wall so as 
to form a discharging nrcb. When once this was done it required 
only a glance from an experienced builder to see that i£ the 
discharging arch were strong enough, the whole 

M~ ^B^J^B^BM ^^ *^^ ^''^ between the buttresses might be 
^raBBBMm removed without endangering the safety of the 
1 building. This was accordingly soon done. 
The pier between the two lancets became 
attenuated into a muUion, the circle lost its 
independence, and was grouped with tbran 
under the discharging arch, which was carried 
down each side in boldly splayed jambs, and 
;ho whole became in fact a traceried window. 

In tho cathedral at Ghartres we have 
ixamples of tho two extremes of these tran- 
sitional windows. In the windows of the aisles 
of tho nave (Woodcut No. 650) the circle is 
small and insignificant, and only serves to join 
together the two lancets. In the cler«story 
(Woodcut No. 651), which is somewhat later, 
the circle is all important and quite overpowers 
the lower part. Here it is in fact a circular 
window, supported by a rectilinear substructure. 
In both these instances the discharging arch 
still retains its circular form, and the tracery is 
still imperfect, inasmuch as all the openings are 
only holes of various forms cut into a flat 
surface, whereas to make it perfect, it is 
necessary that the lines of two contiguous 
openings should blend t<^etber, being separated 
by a straight or curved moulded mullion, and 
not mi'rcly pierced as they are in this instance. 
This may perhaps be better illustrated by 
one of tho windows of the side-aisles at 
Kheiins, where tho pointed Gothic window 
has becoDie complete in all its essential parts, 
"" Even here it will be olwerved how awkwardly 

the circle fits into the spherical triangle of the upper part of the 
window. Indeed, there is an insuperable awkwardness in the sntatl 
triangles nccestuirily left in littiug circles into the spaces above the 
lancets, and bcnciith tho pointed head of the openings. When four 
or five lights wore used instoad of two, this defect became more 
apparent ; and even in Ihe example from St. Ouon (Woodcut No. 
A.iS). one of Ihe taoni l>cau(iful in France, the architect has not 

Bk. III. Ch. X. 




been &ble to obviate the discordaace botween the conflicting lines 

of the circle and spherical triangle. At lost, after two centuries of 

earnest trial, the builders of those daya found themselves constrained 

to abandon entirely these beautiful constructive geometric forms, for 

tracery of a more manageable nature, and in place 

of the circle they invented first a flowing tracery, 

of which the window at Chartres (Woodcut No. 

654) is an exquisite example ; and then having 

shaken off the trammels of constructive form, 

launched at once into all the vagaries of the i| '\^ii0ib\ 

flamboyant style. In this style stone tracery was ' - ' ■ '* "•■- 

made to look bent and twisted, as willow wands. 

Its forma, it must be confessed, were always 

graceful, but constructively weak, and frequently 

extravagant, showing a complete contrast to the 

contemporary perpendicular style followed in 

England. That failed from the stiffness of its j 

forms ; this from4he fantastic pliancy with which ' 

80 rigid a material as stone was used. Greatness ~~ ' 

or grandeur was as unpossible in flamboyant 
tracery, as grace and beauty were with the perpendicular style ; still 
for domestic edifices, and for the smaller churches erected in the 
16th century, it must be confessed the flamboyant style has a charm 
It is impossible to resist. It is so graceful and so fantastically 
brilliant, that it captivates in spite of our soberer reason, lending as 
it docs an elegance to every edifice where it is found, and finding its 
psraUel alone among the graceful fancies of the Saracenic architects 
of the beat age. 

CiRCCLAR Windows. 

By far the most brilliant examples of this class in France are to be 
'onud unong the great circular windows with which the west ends and 
transepta of the cathedrals were adorned. There is, I believe, no 
""•aoce in France of the great straight-mullioned windows of which 
'"'^ srchitects were so fond, and even where the e*st end terminates 
"t^wely, as at Loon, it has a great rose window. There can be little 
•wobt that the circle, so long as it was wholly adhered to, was the 
"wW form architecturally, lx)th externally and internally ; but when 
^ triforium below it was pierced, and the lower angles outside the 
'i'cle were filled with tracery, making it into something like our great 
*indow8, the result was a confusion of the two modes, in which the 
idvantogea ai neither were preserved. 

Of the earlier circular windows, one of the finest is that in the 
*«t«Ti front at Chartres (Woodcut No, 655), of imperfect tracery, like 


Part II. 

the greater part of that cathedral, but of gi«at size huA majesty. Its 
diameter is 39 ft. across the openings, and 44 ft. 6 in. across to the 
outer mouldings of the circle. Those of the transepts are Gmaller, 
being only 33 ft. across the opening, but show a considerable advance 
in the art of tracery, which by the time they were executed was 
becoming far better understood. 

K space admitted, it wi>uld be easy to select examples to trace the 
progress of the invention between these early elforta and the almost 

Window, Ermu. 

perfect window that adorns the centre of the west front at Rbeims 
{Woodcut No. 657) ; and again from this to that at Evroux (Woodcut 
No. 658). In the latter instance, the geometric forms have given way 
to the lace-work of flowing tracery, of which this is a pleasing example. 
It is further remarkable in respect thnt all the parts of the tracery or 
muUions are of the same thickness, whereas it is usual in flowing or 
flamboyant tracery to introduce a considerable degree of subordination 
into the parts, divi<ling them into greater or smaller riba, thns avoid- 
ing confusion and ginng to the whole a constructive appoartuice which 

Bk. UI. Ch. X. 



it otherwise wonld not posBesa This is very apparent m such a 

window OS that which adorns the west front of St Ouen, at Ilouen, 

where the parts are distinctly subordinated to one another tmd have 

consequently that airength and character which it is so dtificult to 

impart It also exemplifies what was before alluded to, viz., the mode 

tn which the lower external angles of the circle were filled up and 

also, UL a far more pleasing manner than usual, the mode m which the 

pierced tnfonum is 

made to form part of 

the decoration. Owing 

to the strong transom 

bar here employed, 

there is strength enough ~~ i 

to support the super 

structure but as too 

often IS the cose, when 

this IS subdued and 

kept under, there is a 

confusion between the . 

circular and upright „'^ 

parts, which is not 

pleasing It is then 

neither a circular oor 

an upright window, but 

an mdeterminate com 

pound of two pleasing 

memberB, m which both 

suffer materially by 


I believe it is safe 
to assert, that out of at least a hundred first-class examples of these 
circular windows, which still exist in France, no two are alike. On 
the contrary, they present the most striking dissimilarity of design. 
There is no feature on which the French architects bestowed more 
pains, or in which they were more successful. They are, indeed, the 
fhe/s-d'ceuvre of their decorative abilities, and the most pleasing 
individual features of their greater churches. At the same time, 
they completely refute the idea that the pointed form is at all 
necessary for the production of beauty in decorative aperture:}. 

(Fran Posiiu) 

It may be useful here to recapitulate what has been said of the sub- 
division of churches into bays, or, as the French call them, traviex. 
The two typical arrangements of these are shown in Woodcuts Nos. 616 


and 617, as existing before the introduction of the pointed forms. In 
the first a great gallery runs over the whole of the side aisle, introduced 
partly as a constructive expedient to serve the purpose for which flying 
buttresses were afterwards employed, partly as enabling the architect 
to obtain the required elevation without extraordinarily tall pillars or 
wide pier-spaces, both which were beyond the constructive powers of 
the earlier builders. These galleries were also useful as adding to the 
accommodation of the church, as people were able thence to see the 
ceremonies performed below, and to hear the mass and music as well as 
from the floor of the church. These advantages were counterbalanced 
by the greater dignity and architectural beauty of the second arrange- 
ment (Woodcut No. 617) where the whole height was divided into 
that of the side-aisles and of a clerestory, separated from one another 
by a triforium gallery, which represented in fact the depth of the 
wooden roof requisite to cover the side-aisles. When once this simple 
and beautiful arrangement was adopted, it continued with very little 
variation throughout the Middle Ages.^ The proportions generally 
used were to make the aisles half the height of the nave. In other 
words, the string-course below the triforium divided the height into 
two equal parts ; the space above that was divided into three, of which 
two were allotted to the clerestory, and one to the triforium.* It is 
true there is perhaps no single instance in which the proportions here 
given are exactly preserved, but they sufficiently represent the general 
division of the parts, from which the architects only deviated slightly, 
sometimes on one side, sometimes on the other, according to 
their taste or caprice. The only really important change afterwards 
introduced was that of glazing the triforium gallery also, by adopting 
a flat roof, or one nearly so, over the side-aisles, as the nave in the 
church of St. Ouen at Kouen, or by covering each bay by a pyramidal 
roof not seen from the interior, as is shown in the Woodcuts Nos. 621 
and 641 ; the whole walls of the church, with the slight exception of 
the spandrils of the groat pier-arches, having thus become walls of glass, 
the mass of the vault being supported only by the deep and bold con- 
structive lines of which the framework of the glazed surfaces consists. 

In England, we have not, as far as I am aware, any instance of a 
glazed triforium, but it is one of the most fascinating features in the 
later styles of the French architects, and where it retains its coloured 
glass, which is indispensable, produces the most fairy-like effect. It is 
however, questionable whether the deep shadow and constructive pro- 
priety of the English practice is not on the whole more satisfactory. 

* The earlier form is found retained at ; the second, and was not afterwards 
Noyon, at Paris, and in most of the revived. 

churches of the 12th century ; but in the * See Introduction, page 29. Woodcut 
first years of the 13th it gave place to No. 4. 

Bk. III. Ch. X. VAULTS. 169 

In a structure of glass »nd iron nothing could be more appropriate than 
t.he French practice ; but in a building of stone and wood more soliditj 
is required to produce an effect which shall be permanently pleasing. 


It has already been explained how essential a part of a Gothic 
church the vault was, and how completely it was the governing power 
that gave form to the art. We have also seen the various steps by 
which the architects arrived at the intersecting vault, which became 
the typical form in the beat age. In Franco especially the stone vault 
was retained throughout as a really essential feature, for though the 
English were so successful in the art of constructing ornamental 
wooden roofs, the practice never prevailed in France. 

In the best age the arrangement of the French vaults was extremely 
simple. The aisles were generally built in square cconpartments, the 
vaults of which were first cir- 
cumscribed, each by four equal 
srehes (Woodcut No. 6G0), of 
which A A were transverse ribs 
or am .ioithhnuT. as the French 
i^led them, and were used, as 
*e tave seen, in the old tunnel- 
TMlts. These arches, as spring- 
iuft from the main points of 
"upport, were the principal 
rtrengtheners of the vault, 
M"! served as permanent centres for the superstructure. n was called 
''^fonmrei, and was a rib built into the wall, of the some form as the 
tfMaverse ribs, and so called because, being the first constructed, it gave 
tbe totm to the vault. ■ Lastly, there were two more ribs springing from 
•ngie to angle, and intersecting one another at c. These were called 
■V'w*, from the Latin word auypre, to strengthen,' the chief object of 
•^ir employment however being to serve aa centering. In Roman 
wnltiiig similar ribs were employed, but the spaces between were sub- 
•^^Oently filled in flush with concrete. In Renaissance and in modem 
'ork (gnch as in cellar or dock-vaults, for instance), when built in 
'"'dt, stone voussoirs are used for the groins, because the brickwork 
"swl there would be liable to^ crushed or fall out ; here also the stone 
u flnsh with the brickwork, but the Mediieval architects recognised 

' The French aDtiqnarics employ this I the word has notliiog to <lo with the foriD 
■Md ii if H nigaifled a pointed arch, of the arcb or tbe ogee, but is the name 
•ln-nce Ihey desipiiBte tbe etyle itseir as of a rib ctHnmon to the round-areboU at 
•Jfmi There ix do doubt, however, tLat I well aa lo tbe pointed style. 



the value of the rib, oot only as a permanent ceatre, but as sn^esting 
the appearaace as well as the reality of strength. 

The roof of the nave was composed of precisely the same parte, only 
that, being twice as wide as each compartment was broad, the length 
of the transverse ribs and of the intersecting ogives was greater in 
proportion to the formerets than in the aisles. Another addition, and 
certainly an improvemout, was the introduction of ridge-ribs {d d), 
marking the point of the vault. 
These could not of course be 
used with circular arches^ 
where there was no centre line 
for them to mark ; and it 
probably was from this cause 
that the French seldom adopted 
them, having been accusfomed 
to vaults not requiring them. 
Another reason was that all 
their earlier vaults were more 
leas domical, or in other 
I words the point C was higher 
I than the points a or b, though 
I this is more apparent in hex- 
I apartite vaults, or where one 
I compartment of the nave-vaults 
I takes in two of the aisles, than 
in qnadripartite, like those 
now under consideration. Still 
I aU French vaults have this 
peculiarity more or less, and 
consequently the longitudinal 
ridge-rib, where used, has an up 
and down broken appearance^ 
which is extremely disagreeable, 
and must in a great measure 
have prevented its adoption. 
There is, however, at least one exception to this rule in France, in the 
abbey church of Souvigny, represented in the Woodcut No. 661, where 
this rib is used with so pleasing an effect that one is surprised it was 
not in more general favour. 

These are the only features usually employed by French architects ; 
but we do sometimes find tiercerons, or secondary ogives, used to 
strengthen as well as to ornament, the plain faces of the vaults, one or 
two on each face, as at E E (in Woodcut No. 660) ; small ribs or txenu^, 
F p, from lier, to bind, were also occasionally used to connect all these 
At the centre, where they formed star patterns, and other complicated 


bat beautiful ornaments of the vault. These last, however, are rare 
and exceptional in French vaulting, though they were treated by the 
English architects with such success that we wonder they were not 
more generally adopted in France. The most probable explanation 
appears to be that the French architects depended more on colour than 
on relief for the effect of their vaults, while in England colour was 
sparingly used, its place being supplied by constructive carving. 
Whatever may have been the comparative merits of the two methods 
'when first used, the English vaults have a great advantage now, inas< 
much as the carving remains, while the paintings of the others have 
perished, and we have no means left of judging of their original effect. 
One of the most beautiful features of French vaulting, almost 
entirely unknown in this country, is the great polygonal vault of the 
semi-dome of the chevet, which as an architect ual object few will be 
disinclined to admit is, with its walls of painted glass and its light 
constructive roof, a far more beautiful thing than the plain semi- 
dome of the basilican apse, notwithstanding its mosaics. Still, as 
the French used it, they never quite surmounted the difficulties of 
its construction ; and in their excessive desire to do away with all 
solid wall, and to get the greatest possible surface for painted glass, 
they often distorted these vaults in a very unpleasing manner. 

The chevet of Pontigny (Woodcut No. 643) presents a good ex- 
Nnple of the early form of vault, which owing to the small size of 
the windows and general sobriety of the composition, avoids the 
defects above alluded to. Of the later examples there are few, 
except that of Souvigny, represented in Woodcut No. 661, where the 
difficulty has been entirely conquered by constructing the spandrils 
^th pierced tracery, so that the vault virtually springs from nearly 
the same height as the arch of the windows, and a very slight 
ttaprovement would have made this not only constructively, but 
artistically perfect. This is a solitary specimen, and one which, 
though among the most beautiful suggestions of Gothic art, has found 
00 admirers, or at least no imitators. 

Notwithstanding this difficulty of construction, these pierced semi- 
are not only the best specimens of French vaulting, but are 
among the most beautiful inventions of the Middle Ages, and form 
& finer termination to the cathedral vista than either the great 
^dows of the English, or the wonderful rose windows of the 
French cathedrals. 


The employment of buttresses was a constructive expedient that 
followed almost indispensably on the use of vaults for the roofing of 
churches. It was necessary either to employ enormously thick walls 
to resist the thrust, or to support them by some more scientific arrange - 



Part II. 

. DUcnm of BuUnOM. 

ment of the materials. The theory of the buttress will be easily under- 
stood from the diagram (Woodcat Na 662), representing seven blocks 
or masses of masonry, disposed first so as to f<H'm 
a continuous wall, bat which evidently afforda 
very little resistance to a thrust or push tending 
to overturn it from within. The left-hand 
arrangement is, from the additional breadth ot 
base in the direction of the thrust, much less 
liable to fall outwards, provided the distance of 
the blocks from one another is not too great, and 
the mass of the vault does not press heavily oa 
the intennediate space. This last difficulty was 
so much felt by the earlier French architects 
that, as we have seen, in the South of France especially, they used the 
roof of the aide-aisle as a continuous buttress to resist the thrust of 
their tunnel-vaults. It was surmounted also by the introduction <£ 
intersecting vaults, inasmuch as by this 
expedient all the thrusts were collected 
together at a point over each pier, and a 
resisting moss applied on that one ptnnt was 
sufficient to give all the stability required. 
This, and the desire <d rsjsing the lights 
as high as possible into the roof, were the 
principal causes that brought this form of 
vaulting into general use ; still it has not 
yet been shown that the continuous vault 
is .not artistically the more beautiful ot 
the t^o forms, if not constructively so sIsol 
Thare was yet another difficulty to be 
mastereid, which was that the principal 
vault to^be abutted was that over the 
nave or c<entral part of the church, and 
buttresses lyf the requisite depth would 
have filled ny) the side-aisles entirely. The 
difficulty firsV presented itself in the 
building of tV^ basilica of Maxentius 
(Woodcut No. VOS), and was there got 
over in somethi^ like ^^» manner prac- 
tically adopted in tiSfiM'^dle Ages, except 
that the arch was «!(fi" carried inside, 
whereas the Gothic archilf®*^'* threw the 
on the outside and above the rJ*^'' 

Istem of flying 

M3. Flrtnj BuBn 
Cl'>i>iii6intal«. -HIjloiniiBl'ArL') ' 

abutting arch 

Several of the previous woodcuts' show the 

' See WoodcnU Noa. G21, 629. 641, ic. 

. Ch. X. BUTTRESSES. 173 

nea in Tarioiu st^ea of advancement. The view d one of those 
(dioir <d St. Oaen (No. 663) exhibits the system in itd greatest 
of clevoI<^iment. Here there are two vertical and two flying 
MB, forming a system of great lightness, but at the same time 
lenee constructive strength, and when used sparingly and with 
M^ as in this instance, constituting an object of great beauty. 
>use of this expedient, as in the cathedral at Colc^;ne and else- 
went very far to mar the proper ofTect. 

i cathedral at Chartres presents a singular but very beautiful 
» of an earlier form of flying buttress : there the immense span 
central vault put the architects on their mettle to provide a 
nt abutment, and they did it by building what was literally 
m wall across the aisle 
oodcut No. 628), strongly 
, and the arches connected 
rt strong pillars radiating 
be vouasoirs of the arch, 
ig could well be stronger 
lOre scientific than this, 
he absence of pcrpon- 
ity in the pillars was 
Mng to the eye then as 
tnd the contrivance was 

far more pleasing form 
at adopted afterwards at 
s (Woodcut No. 664) and 
ere, where a scries of 
tniceried arches stand on 
wer flying buttress, and 
t the upper, which is 
it-lined. Even here, however, the difliculty is not quite got 
the unefjual height of these connecting arches, and the awkward 
vhich the lower supports make with the curvilinear form on 
they rest, deprive them of that constructive propriety which 
secures a perfectly satisfactory result in architecturo. The 
n indeed is one which the French never thoroughly solved, 
I they bestowed immense pains upon it. Brilliant as the eficct 
meB is of the immense mass of pinnacles and flying buttresses, 
ce seldom so put together as to leave an entirely satisfactory 
on the niind of the spectator. Taken all in all, perhaps the 
ileasing example is that of Itbcims (Woodcut No. 629) — those 
■h side of the navo especially — -where two Ixtld simple arches 
lit the pri!ssurc from a bold c,\(|uisit('ly piniuiclt'd buttress to 
:es of ibc clerestorv, and in such a manner as to leave no doubt 



whatever either as to their purpose or their sufficiency to accomplish 
their object. 

Notwithstanding the beauty which the French attained in their 
flying buttresses, it is still a question whether they did not carry this 
feature too far. It must be confessed that there is a tendency in the 
abuse of the system to confuse the outlines and to injure the true 
architectural effect of the exterior. Internally it no doubt enabled 
them to lighten their piers and increase the size of their windows to 
an unlimited extent, and to judge fairly we must balance between the 
gain to the interior, and the external disadvantages. This we shall 
be better able to do when considering the next constructive expedient, 
which was that of the introduction of pinnacles. 


The use of pinnacles, considered independently of their ornamental 
purposes, is evident enough. It is obvious that a wall or pillar which 
has to resist the thrust of a vault or any other power exerted laterally, 
depends for its stability on its thickness, its solidity, and generally 
on its lateral strength. A material consideration, as affecting this 
solidity, is that of weight. The most frequent use of pinnacles by the 
French was to surmount the piers from which the flying buttresses 
sprang. To these piers weight and solidity were thus imparted, 
rendering them a sufficiently steady abutment to the flying arches, 
which in their turn abutted the central vaults. 

It must be understood that these expedients of buttresses and 
pinnacles were only employed to support the central roof of the nave. 
The vaults of the aisles were so narrow as not to require any elaborate 
system of abutments for their support — the ordinary thickness of the 
walls would have sufficed for that purpose; but they also had the 
advantage of the use of the supports designed for the larger vaults. 

As a general rule the English architects never hesitated to weight 
their walls so as to apply the resistance directly on the point required, 
and not only adorned the roofs of their churches with pinnacles, but 
raised towers and lanterns on the intersections on all occasions. The 
French, on the other hand, always preferred placing these objects, not 
071 their churches, but rather grouped around them, and springing 
from the ground. This, it is true, enabled them to indulge in height 
and lightness internally to an extent unknown in England. This 
extravagance proved prejudicial to the true effect even of the interior, 
while externally the system was very destructive of grace and har- 
mony. A French cathedral is generally solid and simple, as high 
as the parapet of the side-aisles, but alx)ve this base the forest of 
pinnacles and buttresses that spring from it entirely obscure the 

Bk. in. Ch. X. SPIRES. 175 

clerestory, and confuse its lines. Above this again the great mass and 
simple form of the high steep roof, unbroken by pinnacles or other 
ornaments, contrasts unpleasingly with the lightness and confused 
lines immediately below it. This inconsistency tends to mar the 
beauty of French cathedrals, and even of their churches, though in the 
smaller buildings the effect is less glaring owing to the smallness of 
the parts. 


An easy transition leads from pinnacles to spires, the latter being 
but the perfect development of the former, and each requiring the 
assistance of the other in producing a thoroughly harmonious effect. 
Still their uses were widely different, for the spire never was a con- 
structive expedient, or useful in any way. Indeed, of all architectural 
features, it is the one perhaps to which it is least easy to apply any 
utilitarian rule. 

Towers were originally introduced in Christian edifices partly as 
bell-towers, partly as symbols of power, and sometimes perhaps as 
fortifications, to which may be added the general purpose of orna- 
menting the edifices to which they were attached, and giving to them 
that dignity which elevation always conveys. 

From the tower the spire arose first as a wooden roof, and as 
height was one of the great objects to be attained in building the 
tower, it was natural to eke this out by giving the roof an exaggerated 
elevation beyond what was actually required as a mere protection from 
the weather. When once the idea was conceived of rendering it an 
ornamental feature, the architects were not long in carrying it out. 
The first and most obvious step was that of cutting off the angles, 
niaking it an octagon, and carrying up the angles of the tower by 
pinnacles, with a view to softening the transition between the per- 
pendicular and sloping part, and reducing it again to harmony. 

One of the earliest examples in which this transition is successfully 

accomplished is in the old spire at Chartres (Woodcut No. 627) ; the 

cliange from the square to the octagon, and from the tower to the 

pyramid, being managed with great felicity. The western spires of St. 

Stephen's abbey at Caen (Woodcut No. 613), though added in the age of 

pointed Grothic to towers of an earlier age, are also pleasing specimens. 

But perhaps one of the very best in France, for its size and ago, is that 

of St. Pierre at Caen (Woodcut No. 665), uniting in itself all the 

properties of a good design without either poverty or extravagance. 

Hie little lantern of Ste. Marie de Tilfcpine (Woodcut No. 644), though 

mall, is as graceful an object as can well be designed ; and the ncv/ 

^ire at Chartres (Woodcut No. 627), as before remarked, is, except as 

on© ** ■ Tt***** 



Bcti^S . 

to A^""^' 
W".S1.3*» o*""' 



Bk. IIL Ch. X. 



themselves, but which group pleasingly with a central lantern of the 
Reniussance age.' And at Coutanccs there are two others of the best 
age (Woodcut No. 634), which combined with a central octagonal 
lantern make one of the moat beautiful groups of towers in France. 
Here the pitch of the 
roof is very low, and 
altogether the external 
design of the building 
is much more in accord- 
ance with the canons 
of art prevalent on 
this side of the Chan- 
nel than with those 
vtiich found favour in 

Of the earlier 
French lanterns, this 
at Coutances is perhaps 
the best specimen to 
be found : of the latUir 
class there is none finer 
than that of St. Oucn 
(■Woodcut No. 666) ; 
and had the western 
*«were been completed 
m the same character, 

10 Hoordance with the 

*"ginftl design, the 

tfl'era of this church 

"oiilij probably be un- 

"■slled. Even alone 

^ lant«m is a very 


'"fe, and appropriate 

ta iU position, though 

•"^e of the details 

"»ft the lateness of 

'te age in which it « 

»M erected. 

Notwithstanding the beauty of these examples, it must be confessed 

Hi»t the French architects were not so happy in their designs of spires 
■nd lanterns as they were in many other features, 

' Tbia was takra down in 1856 to i constrartioa. After the rcbuililing of the 
Rliera the pien of the tower which were piers in 1850-59, a poorly designed 
beJDit enubed owing to their defectivo | Gothic lantern waa nubotitutcd. — Eu. 

n. St. OnD. Roqen. (Ki 




Fabt n. 

It would be in vain to attempt to emunerate &U the smaller deco- 
ratire features that crowd eveiy part of the Gothic churches of France, 
many of which indeed belong more to the department of the sculptor 
than to that of the architect, though the two are so intimately inter- 
woven that it is impossible to draw the line between them. It is, 
however, to the extreme care bestowed 
on these details and their extraordinary 
elaboration that the Gothic churches o£ 
' the best age owe at least half their 
effect. There are many churches in 
Italy of the Gothic and Renaissance 
ages, larger and grander in their pro- 
portions than some of the best French 
examples, but they fail to produce a 
similar effect because these details are 
all — if the expression may be used — 
machine-made. The same forms and 
ornaments are repeated throughout, and 
too frequently borrowed from some other 
place without any evidence of thought 
or fitness in their application, and 
consequently call up no responsiTa 
*"' 'AilSriA'^iiiS''^1 feeling in the mind of the spectatw. 

On this side of the Alps, in the best 
age, every moulding, every detail, exhibits an amount of thought 
combined with novelty, and is always so appropriate to the place or 
use to which it is 
applied, that it never 
fails to produce the 
most pleasing eSect, 
and to heighten to 
a great extent the 
beauty of the buUd- 
ing in which it is 
found. The corbel 
for instance repre- 
sented in Woodcut 
No. 667 is aa mu<di 
a niche for the 
statue as a bracket to support the ends of the ribs <^ the Taults, 
and is one of the thousand instances which are met with every- 
where in Gothic art of that happy mixture of the arts of the miwon, 
the carver, and the sculptor, which, when successfully combined, 
produce a true artistic cfFcct. These combinations are so numeroua 
and GO varied that it would be hopeless to attempt to classify them, 

Ctfdult Croni lUielDis. 

Bk. in. Ch. X, CONSTRUCTION. 179 

or even to attempt to illustrate the varieties found in any single 

The same may be said of the capitals of the pillars, which in all 
the best buildings vary with every shaft, and appear to have been 
executed after the architect had finished his labours, by artists of a 
very high class. In the best age, in France at least, as in the examples 
from Bheims, shown in Woodcut No. 668, they would appear to have 
retained a reminiscence of a Roman Ck)rinthian order, but to have used 
it with a freedom entirely their own. 


It has been shown that the exigencies of a Gothic cathedral were 

a stone roof, a glass wall, and as great an amount of space on the floor, 

as little encumbered with pillars and points of support, as could be 

obtained. The two first of these points have been sufficiently insisted 

upon in the preceding pages ; the last, however, demands a few more 

remarks, as the success achieved by the masons in the Middle Ages in 

this respect was one of their chief merits, though it was but a mechanical 

merit after all, and one in which they hardly surpassed their masters 

the Romans. The basilica of Maxentius, for instance, covers a space of 

68,000 gq. ft., or about the average size of a French cathedral, and 

the points of support, or in other words the piers and walls, occupy 

only 6900 sq. ft., or between a 9th and a 10th part of the whole area. 

If we turn to the great cathedral of St. Peter's at Rome, we find the 

points of support occupying more than one-fourth of the whole area, 

though built on the model, and almost a copy, of the Roman basilica. 

At St. Mary's at Florence they occupy one-fifth ; and in St. Paul's, 

1-ondon, and the Pantheon at Paris, the walls and pillars occupy in 

"16 first rather more, in the other rather less, than one-sixth. If 

from these we turn to some of the Mediaeval examples, we find for 

instance at 

The whole area. Solid. Ratio. 

^rgc8 . . 61,591 . . 11,908 . . 0-181, or between 1 -5th and l-6th. 

^Wrea . . 68,261 . . 8,888 . . 0*130, ,, l-8th. 

P^. . . 64,108 . . 7,852 . . 0122, ,, 1 -8th and 1 -9th. 

^t-Onen. .47,107. . 4,637. . OOJO, ,, 1-lOth and 1-llth. 

The figures, however, at Bourges include a heavy and extended 

POfch not belonging to the original design, which if omitted would 

' H. VioUet le Due's ' Dictionnaire 
<l'Architectare ' contains Bovoral hundred 
^xunples of these minor architectural 
deiul» of French Mediayal architecture. 
All Ate there drawn with skill, and 
mgmv'ud with exquisite taste. They 

form a wonderful illustration of the 
exuberance of fancy and fertility of 
inventiun of the French architects in 
those days. The limits of this work do 
not admit of more tlian a mere passing 
allusion to this most fascinatiag subject. 

N 2 



Pabt II. 

reduce the fractional proportion considerably ; and if the unbuilt 
towers of St. Ouea were excluded, the proportion of the points of 
support to the area would be less than one-twelfth. 

Our best English examples show a proportion of rather less than 
oae-toath, and though they have not the great height and wide- 
spreading vaults of the French cathedrals, their spires and pinnacles 
exteruallj perhaps more than counterbalance this. Taken altogether 
it may generally be stated that one-tenth is about the proportion in 
the best Gothic churches of the best age. When we find it exceed 
this, it is obvious that the lightness of the walls aod pillars has been 
carried to excess, and even in St. Ouen, if there is an error, it is on 
this side. There can be no question that to produce a satisfactcny 
effect a church requires solidity, and apparent as well as real strength ; 
for, without affecting the extreme massivenees of Egyptian art, with 
its wonderful expression of power and durability, there is an opposite 
extreme far more prejudicial to true architectural effect in' parading, 
.,__^' were, mechanical contrivances of construction, so as to gain the 
j^ilitarian effect with the least possible expenditure of means, 
mtians utterly despised and rejected, and heaped mass on 
I expense of any convenience or use for which the 
' een designed. The French architects, on the other 
'•' to dispense with every ton of stone they coald 
MI. CgtbeL (fiaa Dwnn. item they undoubtedly carried too tar, for 

C/pe examples aa the choir of Beauvais or 
age, every moulding, every detave find a degree of airy lightness and 
combined with novelty, and is always of the most important conditions 

'.ibly bestowed upon what 
':< than upon the fabrics 
this denomiuBtion were 
ill essential parts of the 
he buildings themselves 
inor arrangements. 
lideed in any part of 
a -i present day all the 
statue as a bracket to support the ends o£ the rii. 
and is one of the thousand instances which are Mts original altar, 
where in Qothic art of that happy mixture of the arts ot domed part 
the carver, and the sculptor, which, when successfully oi. .«uenots, 
produce a true artistic effect. These combinations are so nutih.-oyed 
and so varied that it would bo hopeless to attempt to classify th%. 



The cathedrAla of AmieoB and Rouea are among tbe f«w which 
retain th«r original stalls ; and the encloenre of the choir at Chartres 
is one <rf the most elaborate pieces of ornamental sculpture to be found. 
That at Alhj has been before alluded to, and fragments of this feature 
stiU exist in many cathedrals. 

The Rood-screens, or Jvhie, which almost all French churches once 
poeaesaed, are rarer than even the other ports of these enclosures. A 

U TrojB*. (Pnm Amnd. Vojifa d> 

good example of them is found In the church of the Madeleine at 
Troyes (Woodcut No. 669), which gives a favourable idea of the rich 
neas of decoration that was sometimes lavished on these parts. Though 
late in age, and aiming at the false mode of construction which was 
prevalent at the time of its execution, it displays so much elegance as 
to disarm criticism. It makes us too regret the loss of the rood-screens 
' of St. Ouen's (of which we can alone judge from drawings) and of the 
larger cathedrals ; though of these we are able to form some idea by 



Pabt H. 

following oat the deaign of the lateral screens, of which they formed 
a part. 

If to these we add the altars of the minor chapels, with the screens 
that divided them from the nare, the tombs of wealthy prelates a^nd 
nobles, the organ galleries, with their apiral stairs and richly-carved 
instrument cases, and all the numberless treasures a! art accumulated 
by wealth and piety, we may form some idea of what a Medieval 
cathedral really was, though scarcely one now exists in any part of 
Enrope in an entire state. 

Domestic ARCHrrEcrURB. 
It is probable that specimens remain sufficient to elucidate in an 
arclucological point of view the progress of domestic architecture in 
France, and thereby to iUastrste the early manners and customs of 
tho people ; but these remains are much leas 
I ft fi A ft ! magnificent and are less perfectly preserved than 
I o CI ri O I the churches and cathedrals, and have con- 
'VV^^ sequently received comparatively little attention. 

Had any of the royal palaces been preserved 

to our day, or even any of the greater municipal 

buildings, the caan raiijht have been different. 

The former h,t b nc r perished, without an 

exception ; and 

as regards the 

latter, France 

■ 4 ^ ■* seems always to 
have presented 
a remarkable 
contrast to the 
country of 

No town in 
France proper 
seems to have 
possessed in the , 
Middle Ages^ 
prior to the end^E 
of the I5&=d 
century either — 

a town-hall ^^^ 
any note. When necessary to discuss communal business it was fkzrm • 
custcon to moot in the open air, or occasionally in tho churches o.r 

HStel d* Tltk ie f 



cloisters. There b one notable exception to this in the town-hall of 
St. Antonin, in the department of Tarn and Garonne, which is a 
remarkable edifice <^ the 12th century, and though partially restored 
retains atill the principal features of its early design (Woodcut 670). 
The ground Btorey, used as a market, consists of a series of pointed 
arches, the one on the left being a passage-way through. On the first 
floor is a fine room, lighted by three windows, each subdivided by three 
shafts. The two piers separating the windows (and which on the inner 
wall support segmental arches carrying the wall above) are decorated 
with sculpture representing Adam and Eve and Moses. The second 
storey, which rises into the roof, is lighted by three double windows. 
Of later examples at the end of the 15th and commencement of the 
1 6th centuries there exist still the town hall »f Cumj.i ^d<> a beautiful 
example, with central tower , 
and at Saumur, St. Quentin, 
Orleans, Bruges, and Beaugency 
a series of small but interestmg 
buildings, some flamboyant and 
others showing early Renaissance 

In a work like the present, 
which is barely sufficient in 
extent to admit cJ all the great 
typical examples of architectural 
art being enumerated, much less 
described, it is evident that to 
dofflestio art a very subordinate 
pMtbn must he assigned. Per- 
^fe it ought to be omitted ' 

"•significant productions of the great ages, that it may be expedient 
^' least to direct attention to the subject, and the three examples 
"^r* given may serve to illustrate the forms of the art at the three 
**^Bt epochs of the French Gothic style. 

The first (Woodcut No. 671) is from a house at Cluny, and es- 
^^it« the round-arched arcade with its alternate single and coupled 
^limms, which arrangement was usual at that period, and of which 
^Qmples ore found all over the South of France and as far north at 
^^■at as Auxerre. 

The second (Woodcut No. 672) represents a house at Yrieix, and 
^**<iwB the pointed Gothic style in its period of greatest development ; 
^•*d althoi^;h the openings are of larger extent than would be con- 
silient in this climate, they are not more so than would be suitable, 
^lile th^ give, in the South of France, great lightness and elegance to 
^^ fsfoda The third example is from the portal of the Ducal Palace 

■tauny. (Kmui UiJIbiUuil.; 

There are, however, so many beauties in even the most 




at Nancy (Woodcut No. 673), and is an instance of the fonn the atjb 
took when on the verge of the Renaiesance. It is not without 
elegance, though aomewhat strange and unmeaning, and, eicept u 
regards the balconies, the parts generally seem designed solely hi 
ornament without any constructive or utilitarian motive. 

One of the most extensive as well as one of the best Bpecioteiii 
of French domestic architecture is the house of Jacques Caur, »t 
Itourgea, now used as the town-hall. It was built by the wealthy 
but ill-used banker of Charles VII., and every part of it show 
evidence of cai-eful deaigu and elaborate execution ; it was erect«d 
too at on aj,'c licfori.' the stylo bad Iwcouio entirely debased, findw 

I private 

town, and therefore irithout i 

»of the 

ur^f a W^ 

attempt at fortification, is the best that France now posse! 

The chiitenu of Meilhan (Cher) is nearly a repetitiot 
design, but at least a hundred years more modern. 

Rouen poaaessea aeveral examples of domestic architectui 
date ; so does Paris— and among others, the celebrated HStel de ClOSLi? 
Few of the ^Teat t^>wns are however without fragments of some sW ' 
but hardly any are of sutlicicnt importance to deserve separat« notii^"^ 
or illustration. 

France is not so rich aa either Germany or England in specimen? 
of castellated arch it<i:t lire. This does not apparently arise from the 
fact of no castles having been built during the Middle Ages, but rather 
from their having been pulled down to make way for more convement 
dwellings after the accession of Francis I., and even before faia time. 



when they had ceased to be of any use. Still the chftteaux of Fierre- 
foads and Coucy are in their own class as fine as anything to be found 
elaewfaere. The circular keep of the latter castle is perhaps unique, 
both frcHn its form and dimensions ; but being entirely gutted inside 
its arcbitectnral features are gone, and it is now difficult to under- 

Ducal PiUn U NucT (Fmn DiuomRud ) 

stand bow it was originally arranged, and by what means it was 
lighted and rendered habitable. ' 

Tancarville still retains some of the original features of its fortifi- 
cations, as do also the castles of Fataise and Gaillard. 

The keeps of Vincennes and Loches are still remarkable for their 

' Viollct le Dui^, in bia 'Architecture I mFaDa eiplaini how tho interior vM 
Hiljlsire,' p. 9C, given a aecticm or the ligbt«il, nor does it accofil with what I 
Dtmjoii at Couoy, vrhich. however, by no I believe 1 Bav there. 


Height, though they hardly retain any features which can be called 
strictly architectural. In the Souths the fortified towns of Carcassonne 
and Aigues Mortes, and in the North, Foug^res, retain as much of 
their walls and defences as almost any place in Europe. The former 
in particular, both from its situation and the extent of its remains, 
gives a singularly favourable and impressive idea of the grave majesty 
of an ancient fortalice. But for alterations and desecrations of all 
sorts, the palace of the popes at Avignon would be one of the most 
remarkable castles in Europe : even now its extent and the massiveness 
of its walls and towers are most imposing. 

These are all either ruins or fragments ; but the castle of Mont St. 
Michel, in Normandy, retains nearly all the features of a Mediaeval 
fortress in sufficient perfection to admit of its being restored, in 
imagination at least. The outer walls still remain, encircling the 
village, which nestles under the protection of the castle. The church 
crowns the whole, and around it are grouped the halls of the knights, 
the kitchens and offices, and all the appurtenances of the establish- 
ment, intermingled with fortifications and defensive precautions that 
must have made the place nearly impregnable against such engines of 
war as existed when it was erected, even irrespective of its sea-girt 






Historical Notice — Old ChnrcheB — Cathedral of Tonmay — Antwerp — St Jacques 

at Li^e. 

The little kingdom of Belgium forms an architectural province as 
distinct and in many respects as interesting as any in Europe. Its 
style does not, it is true, possess that simplicity combined with 
grandeur which characterises the one great united effort of Central 
Prance, but it la more varied and picturesque, and as fully expressive 
of the affinities and aspirations of the people. 

As we may learn from their language, the dominant race during 
the Middle Ages spoke a dialect very closely allied to the pure 
German, which proclaimed their affinity to their neighbours on the 
Rhine; but what their architecture tells us, though their language 
does not, is that there was a very strong infusion of Celtic blood in 
their veins which expresses itself in almost every building they 

Shortly after the departure of the Romans the German immigrants 
seem to have completely overpowered the original Belgse, and, like 
true Aryans, to have divided themselves into a number of separate 
and independent municipalities, with no established capital and 
acknowledging no central authority. At times these communities 
did submit themselves to the rule of Dukes and Counts, but only to 
a very limited extent ; and for particular purposes they occasionally 
even sought the protection of some powerfi^l monarch; but they 
never relinquished their right of self-government nor fell under the 
power of feudal chiefs, or of a dominant hierarchy, to the same extent 
as prevailed throughout nearly the whole of the rest of Europe. This 
spirit of independence was sustained throughout the Middle Ages by 
the immense extension of oomjnercial industry which the fortunate 


position of Belgium, combined with the energy of her inhabitants, 
enabled her to develope While the rest of Europe was engaged in 
feudal wars and profitless crusades, the peaceful burghers of the 
Belgian cities were quietly amassing that wealth which gave them 
individually such importance as free citizens of independent com- 
munities, and raised their towns, and eventually their country, to the 
state of prosperity it maintained till the destruction of their liberties 
by the Spaniards in the 16th century. 

These historical circumstances go far to explain the peculiar 
character observable in the architectural remains of this country, 
in which we find no trace of any combined national effort. Even the 
epoch of Charlemagne passed over this province without leaving any 
impress on the face of the country, nor are there any buildings that 
can be said to have been called into existence by his influence and 
power. The great churches of Belgium seem, on the contrary, to have 
been raised by the individual exertions of the separate cities in which 
they are found, on a scale commensurate with their several require- 
ments. The same spontaneous impulse gave rise to the town-halls 
and domestic edifices, which present so peculiar and fascinating an 
aspect of picturesque irregularity. 

Even the devastation by the Normans in the 9th and 10th 
centuries seems to have passed more lightly over this country than 
any other in the North of Europe. They burned and destroyed 
indeed many of the more flourishing cities, but they did not occupy 
them, and when they were gone the inhabitants returned, rebuilt 
their habitations, and resumed their habits of patient self-supporting 
labour ; and when these inroads ceased there was nothing to stop the 
onward career of the most industrious and commercial community 
then established in Europe. 

In a historical point of view the series of buildings is in some 
respects even more complete than the wonderful group we have just 
passed in review in France. In size, the cathedrals of Belgium are at 
least equal to those that have just been described. In general interest, 
no cathedral of France exceeds that of Tournay, none in gorgeousness 
that of Antwerp ; and few surpass even those of Louvain, Mechlin, 
Mons, Bruges and Ghent. Notwithstanding their magnificence, how- 
ever, it must be confessed that the Belgian cathedrals fail in all the 
higher requisites of architectural design when compared with those 
on the southern border. This was owing partly to the art never 
having been in the hands of a thoroughly organised and educated 
Ijody of clergy like that of France, but more to the ethnographic 
difference of race, which in the first place prevented centralisation, 
and also rendered them less keen in their appreciation of art, and 
less influenced by its merits. From these and other causes, their 
ecclesiastical buildings do not display that elegance of proportion, and 


'bliat beauty of well-considered and appropriate detail, which every- 
^w^here please and satisfy the mind in contemplating the cathedrals 
of France. 

These remarks apply solely to ecclesiastical art. In specimens of 
t;he civil and domestic architecture of the Middle Ages, Belgium 
surpasses cdl the other countries of Europe, on this side of the Alps, 
put together. Her town-halls and markets, and the residences of 
lier burghers, still display a degree of taste and elegance unsurpassed 
l>y anything of the age, and remain to this day the best index of 
the wealth and independence of the communities to which they 

All this is of course only what might be expected from what 

we know of the ethnographic relations of the people. An Aryan 

race, loving independence, cultivating self-government, and steadily 

following those courses which lead to material well-being and wealth ; 

and underlying these a Celtic race, turbulent at times, loving art, 

appreciating its beauties, and clothing the municipal requirements 

with the picturesque graces of architectural design. 

The difference between this country and Central France appears 
to be that in the latter country the Celtic element was in excess of the 
Aryan, while in Belgium this condition was reversed, and this at least 
is precisely what we find expressed in her art. 

Of the oldest churches of Belgium, a large proportion are known 
to us only by tradition, they having been pulled down to make way 
'or the larger and more splendid buildings which were demanded by 
*ne continually increasing wealth and population of the cities. Of 
those which remain, one of the oldest and most interesting is that of 
^t- Vincent at Soignies, built in 965 by Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne, 
^d though probably not quite finished within that century, it still 
retains the features of the 10th century more completely than almost 
*Qy church in Europe. This church, that of St. Michele at Pavia, and 
^*^e Minster at Zurich, constitute a trio very similar to one another 
^ design and in size, and differing principally in the degree of finish 
^"®y display, this being by far the rudest in construction of the three. 
" possessed originally a western tower and a central lantern, the 
^PPcr parts of both which are modernised. The east end was square, 
though possessing a shrine, the tomb of the saint whose name it bears. 
It may have been altered, and is built up on the outside so as to 
•^^der examination impossible. 

Another church, only slightly more modern, that of St. Gertrude 
^ Nivelles (Woodcut No. 674), presents the same peculiarity, of 
having a square termination towards the east, though it seems 
originally to have had an apse at the west end, where the facade was 
<^rried up to a considerable height, and adorned in the centre by a 



Pabt n. 

sqaare tower flanked bj a circul&r one on each side. The latter retain 
their original form, though the central tower was rebuilt in the 16th 
century. This church was built in the earliest yeara of the 11th 
century, and was dedicated in 104S, the Emperor Henry IV. assisting 
&t the ceremony. It is a first-class church with two traosepts, and 
remains externally in all essential particulars as then built. The 
interior was entirely destroyed in the middle oi the laat century, 
which is a very great loss, although the new arrangement which has 
replaced it b in itself remarkably well designed. 

Passing over some minor examples, we come to the cathedral of 
Tonrnay, to the architect and artbt the most interesting of the 
province. It is a first-class cathedral, more than 400 ft. in length 
internally, and cover- 
ing with its dependen- 
cies an area of 62,525 
ft. It consists of s 
nave, dedicated in 
1066; of a transept, 
built about the year 
1146; the choir, which 
formed part of this ar- 
rangement, was dedi- 
cated in 1213, but 
gave place about a 
century afterwords to 
: that now standing, 
which was dedicated 
in 1336, BO that 
within itself it con- 
tains a complete his- 
tory of the style ; and 
though there is no 
doubt considerable incongruity in the three epecimens here brought 
tt^ether, as they are the best of their respective classes in Belgium, 
the effect is not unpleaaing, and their arrangement fortunate, inas- 
much as, entering by the western door, yon pass first through the 
massive architecture of the 11th to the bolder and more expanded 
features of the 12tb century, a fitting vestibule to the exa^erated 
forms which prevailed durii^ the 14th. In the woodcut (No. 676) 
the three styles are represented as they stand ; but it would require 
far more elaborate illustration to do justice to the beauty of the 
deeply galleried nave, which surpasses any specimen of Norman 
architecture, but which is here eclipsed by the two remaining apses 
of the transept. These, notwithstanding a certain rudeness of detail, 
are certainly the finest productions of their age, and are as magnifi- 

bk. IV. ch. l cathedral of tournat. 


cent pioces c4 architecture as can be conceived. The choir is the 
least satisfactory part <^ the whole j for though displaying a certain 
beauty of proportion, and the moot undoubted daring of constructioii, 
ita effect is frail and weak in the extreme. Still, if the tracery were 
restored to the windows, and these filled with pcunted glass, great 
part of this defect might be removed. At the best, the chief merit 
of this choir is its clever 
and daring construction, but 
even in this the builder mis- 
calculated his own strength, 
for it was found necessary 
to double the thickness of 
all the piers after they were 
first erected. This addition 
would have been an im- 
prorement if it had been 
part of the original deugn, 
but as it now is it appears 
tmlj to betray the weakness 
which it was meant to 
conceal. ' • 

It is by no means clear 4' 
that originally there were 
any entrances at the west 
front ; at least there cer- 
tainly was no central door- 
way; and probably the 
principal entrances ware, as 
in most German churches, 
onder lateral porches. 

Externally, the west 
front had neither the flank- 
ing towers of the Norman 
church, nor the frontispiece 
usual in Germany, but »■ 
terminated in a gable the 
height rf the wooden roof of the nave. The original church was 
triapsal, and a Urge square tower adorned the intersection of 
the nave and transept, which was originally surrounded by six tall 
square towers, two belonging to each of the apses. Four of these still 
exist, and with the remaining part of the central tower form as noble 
a group as is to be found in any church of this province. In its triapsal 
state, its superior dimensions and the greater he^^fat of its towers must 
have rendered it a more striking building than even the Apostles' 
Church at Cologne, or indeed any other church of its age. 

. PluotCalMdnlUTaiinuf. Seals 10 


Pabt II. 

Besides the churches already described, there 

L Betginm 
belonging to the 11th 
century, such as St. 
Bartholomew at Liege ; 
St. Servin's, Maestricht ; 
the charch at Buremonde t 
(almost an exact counter- ~ 
part of the Apoatles'^ 
Church at Cologne), andf 
others of more or Iwii 
^ importance scattered ove^r 
the country. They almost 
all possess the peculiarity 
of having no entrance in 
their west fronts, bat 
bare instead a massive 
screen or frontispiece 
surmounted by two or 
three towers. This was 
the arrangement of the 
old church of St. Jacques 
at Li^ge. The church of 
Notre r>ame de Maes- 
tricht presents a some- 
what exaggerated exam- 
ple of this description of 
front (Woodcut No. 677). 
It is difficult to explain 
the origin <rf this feature, 
nor have we any reason 
to regret its abandon- 
ment. There c&d be no 
doubt that the proper 
place for the principal 
entrance to a church ia 
the end opposite the 
altar, where this screen 
prevented its being 

Among the smaller 
antiquities of this age, 
none are perhaps more 
interesting than the little chapel of St. Sang, at Bruges, built by 
Thierryof Alsace, on his return from the Holy Land, A.O. 1150; it is a 

Bk. IV. Cu. I. 



IS. 4iln(i(lbaGbqidiirBI.Buc, 


(Fnm ■ SkMch^r the Anthtr.} 

small doable chAp«I, of a form verj commoQ in Gemuuiy, bat leu 
ornat« thaa these generally were. At one angle of it are two spires, 
represented in Woodcut No. 678 ; the 
mare slender of these would not excite 
remark if found in Cairo or Aleppo, so 
exactly does it l take the Eastern form ; 
the other, on the contrary, seems to belong 
to the 16tli or 17tb century: it is only 
one, however, of the numerous iustauoes 
that go to proTB how completely art re- 
turned, at the period called the Renaisaance, 
to the point from which it started some 
four or five centuries earlier. It returned 
with something more of purity of detail 
and better construction, but unfortunately 
without that propriety of design and 
grandeur of conception which mark even 
the rade baildings of the first naimanee of 
Gothic art. 

Belgium is rich in small ^lecimens of 
transitional architecture, and few of her t 
more extenave eocleeiastical establishments 
&re without some features of this class, 
(rften of great beauty. Their age has not yet, however, been 
determined with anything like precision by the Belgian antiquaries ; 
bat on the whole, it eeems that in 
this, as in most other respects, this 
country followed the German much 
more closely than the French type, 
hesitating long before it adopted the 
pointed arch, and clinging to circular 
forms long after it had been em- 
ployed elsewhere, oecillating between 
the two in a manner very puzzling, 
and rendering more care aeceesary in 
detomining dates than in most other 
parts of Europe. Besides this, none 
of the Belgian buildings have yet 
been edited in such a manner as to 
afibrd materials for the establishment of any certain rule. Fwhaps 
the most interesting specimen of the transititmal period, and certiunly 
one of the most beautiful ruins in the country, is Uie abbey church 
of Villers, near Genappe, a building 338 ft. in length by 67 in 
width, built with all the purity of what we would call the Early 
English style, but with a degree of experimental imperfection in the 


tracery of which I hardly know an example elsewhere. The 
representation given above (Woodcut Na 679) of one of the windows 
of the transept will explain this; throughout it the tracery consists 
of holes cut into slabs ; yet this church is said to have been 
commenced in 1240, and only finished in 1276. In (Germany such a 
date would be probable ; in France a similar specimen would be assigned 
to a period from 70 to 100 years earlier. 

Among the many efforts made in Belgium to get rid of the awk- 
wardness of the pointed form for windows was that in the choir of 
Notre Dame de la Chapelle, at Brussels (begun 1216), where the 
circular tracery is inserted in a circular-headed window, producing iw 
much more pleasing effect, both internally and externally, than the 
pointed form, except with reference to the vault, with which it is so 
little in accordance that the experiment seems to have been abandoned, 
and no attempt made afterwards to renew it. 

Besides those already mentioned, Belgium possesses about twenty 
first-class churches of pointed architecture, all deserving attentive 
consideration, some of them being almost unrivalled edifices of their 
class. Among the earliest of these is the cathedral of Li^ge, begun in 
1280, exhibiting the style in great purity. It has no western entrance, 
but, like St. Croix, St. Jacques, and all the principal churches of this 
city, is entered by side porches. 

A little later we have the eastern parts of St. Gudule, Brussels 
(a.d. 1220-1273), and two other very beautiful churches: Notre Dame 
de Tongres (1240), and St. Martin, Ypres (1232-70). The latter is 
perhaps the purest and best specimen of the (xothic of the 13th century 
in Flanders ; and of about the same age is the beautiful church of 
N. D. de Dinant. These are almost the only important specimens 
of the contemporary art of the 13th century which still excite our 
admiration in all the principal cities of France. Almost all the great 
cathedrals in that country belong to this age, which was also so prolific 
of great buildings in England. But Belgium does not seem to have 
shared to any great extent in the impulse then given to church archi- 
tecture. Her buildings are spread pretty evenly over the whole period 
from the 10th to the 16 th century, as the steadily growing wealth of 
the country demanded them, and but little influenced by the great 
political oscillations of her neighbours. In the next century we have 
N. D. de Huy (1311), the beautiful parish church at Aerschot (1337), 
and N. D. de Hal (1341) — small but elegant places of worship. The 
two crowning examples, however, of this age are N. D. of Antwerp 
(1352-1411), and St. Rombaut, Malines. The choir of this latter 
church was dedicated in the year 1366, haWng been commenced about 
the same time as that at Antwerp, but the nave was not erected till a 
century afterwards (1456-1464), and the tower was not carried even 
to its present height till the 16th century. 

Bk. IV. Ch. L 



Antwerp cathedral is one of the moat remarkable churches in 
Europe, being 390 ft. long by 170 in width loside the nave, and cover- 
ing rather more than 70,000 sq. ft. Aa will be seen by the plan 
(Woodcut No. 680), it is divided into seven aisles, which gives a vast 
intricacy and picturesqueness to the perspective ; but there is a want 
of harmony among the parts, and of subordination and proportion, 
sadly destructive of true architectural effect ; so that, notwithstanding 
its size, it looks much smaller internally than many of the French 
cathedrals of far smaller dimensions. If the length of the nave had 
been divided into ten bays 
instead of only six, and the 
central aisle bad been at 
least 10 ft. wider, which 
space could easily have been 
■pared from the outer one, 
itie apparent size of the 
church would have been 
greatly increased ; but be- 
sides this, it wants height, 
trnd its details show a de- 
cadence which nothing can 

Its magnificent portal, 
*ith its one liniahed tower 
W ft, in height, was com- 
nwnced in 1422, but only 
Biuahed in 1518, and is more 
u ucordance with the taste 
«< the I6th century than 
^ the original design. 
AltboQgh from the lateness 
oF its date it is impossible to 
w atigGed either with the 
ontlioe or the detail, it is 
^ so gorgeous a specimen 
<* Mt, and towers so nobly 

OTfif the bnildings of the city, as to extort our admiration, and a 
miD must have very little feeling for the poetry of art who can stop 
to criticise it too closely. 

The spire at Chartrea (Woodcut Na 627) is more elegant in out- 
line, but the design of its base does not accord with that of the upper 
part, and its eflfect is injured by the great height of the building to 
which it is attached. That at Strasburg is very inferior in outline, 
to is St. Stephen's at Vienna, and it is not quite clear that the open- 
work qsres oi Fteiburg and Cologne arc not mistakes. The base of 



Pabt II. 

the Antwerp spire is perfect in proportion and good in detail ; the 
caprice begins only when near the top, where it oonstructively can do 
no harm, and is much less offensive than it wonld be lower down. It 
is not perfect, but taking it altogether it is perhaps the most beautiful 
thing of its kind in Europe. 

It is a great question if the second spire, were it completed as 
originally designed, would add to^ or detract from, the beauty of the 
composition. An unfinished design is always unpleasing, but, on the 
whole, twin spires, without a very prominent central object, do not 
seem a pleasing form of design. 

The church of St. Rombaut at Malines, though very much smaller 
than that at Antwerp, being only 300 ft. in length internally, and, 
including the tower, only 385 ft. over all externally, is still a far more 
satisfactory church in every respect. Indeed, it is one of the finest 
of those which have round pillars in the nave instead of the clustered 
columns which give such beauty and such meaning to most of the 
churches of this age. It was originally designed to have one western 
spire, which, if completed, would have risen to the height of nearly 
550 English feet. It was never carried higher than to the commence- 
ment of the spire, 320 ft., and at that height it now remains. 'Even 
as it is, it is one of the noblest erections of the Middle Ages, the 
immense depth of its buttresses and the boldness of its outline giving 
it a character seldom surpassed. 

St. Pierre's, of Louvain, is a worthy rival of these two ; for though 
perhaps a century more modern, or nearly so, it seems to have been 
built at once on a uniform and well-digested plan, which gives to the 
whole building a congniity which goes far to redeem the defects in 
its details. The fa9ado, which would have rendered it the noblest 
building of the three, has never been completed. It was designed on 
the true German principle of a great western screen, surmounted by 
three spires, the central one 535 ft. in height, the other two 430 ft. 

Where sufficient width can be obtained, this seems a legitimate and 
pleasing form of composition. Twin towers like those at Cologne or like 
those designed for Strasburg and Antwerp, would overpower any church, 
and are wanting in variety. Two small towers, with one taller between, 
ia a more pleasing composition, though equally destructive to the effect 
of the building behind. The English plan of three spires, as at Lich- 
field, is by far the most pleasing arrangement; but this form the 
continental architects never attempted on an extensive scale, and 
consequently the single spire, as at Malines or Ulm, is perhaps the most 

* A beautiful drawing of thia fa9ade 
to a very large scale still exists in the 
town-hall of the city, as well as a model 

in stone, from which the intended effect 
may be seen. 

Bk. IV. Cb. I. 



satisfactory solution <£ the difficult j. If not that, then the tripl&«pired 
fft^ade deeigned for Loavain wonld probably be the beat. 

Those above enumerated are certunly the finest specimens of 
Belgian eocledastical art. Almost all the churches erected afterwords, 
though some of them very beantifol, are characterised by the elaborate 
weakness of their age. Among these may be mentioned St Oommaire 
at lierre, commenced a.d. 1425, but not completed till nearly a cen 
tmy afterwards ; and St. Jacques at Antweip, a large and gorgeous 
cfanrch, possessing size and proportion worthy of the best age, but still 
nnsatiafactory, from the absence of anything like true art or design 
pervadiog it. The same remarks do not apply to St Waodru at Mons, 
1450-1528, one of the very best speci- 
mens of its age — pleasing in proportion .-^ -" ^ 
and el^;ant in detail. Internally a 
charming efiect of polycbromy is produced 
by the cold blue colour of the stcme, 
contrasted with the red-brick filling-in of 
the vault ; this contrast being evidently a 
part of the original design. By some 
singular £reak of destiny it has escaped 
whitewash, so that we have here one 
instance at least of a true mode of decora- 
tion, and to a certain extent a very good 
(me. The exterior of this church is also 
extronely pleasing for its age. Its tower 
and spire are unfortunately among those * 
that we know only from the original ^ ^ 
drawings, which are still preserved, and 
show a very beaatiful design. 

Of about the same age (1S22-1598) is 
St. Jacques at Li6ge (Woodcut Ko. 681), < 
a church of the second class in point of ^ 
size, being only 264 ft. in length in- 
ternally, by 92 ft. across the nave. At the west end it still retains 
the screen of the old church, marked darker on the plan. The 
principal entrance is a splendid porch of flambc^ant design on the 
n<n1^ The east end may be said to be a compromise between the 
fVench and German methods, for it is not a true chevet, inasmuch as 
it has not the circumscribing aisle, while its circlet of chapels prevents 
its being considered as a German apse. Altogether the plan is charac- 
teristic of its locality on the borders of France and Germany, for in it 
we find mixed together most of the peculiarities of both countries. 
For its age too the details are generally good, but as oonstmctioa was 
no longer the ruling motive, confusion is the result. The most re- 
markable thing about the church is, that it is one of the very few 


churches in Europe which retain their polychromatic decorations in 
anything like completeness, especially on the roof. The paintings, 
however, are of late date, bordering on the cinque-cento period ; yet 
the effect produced, though gorgeous, is remarkably pleasing and 
beautiful, and is in itself sufficient to set at rest the question as to the 
expediency of painting the vaults of churches, or leaving them plain. 
My own conviction is, that all French vaults were once painted to as 
great an extent as in this case. Our English architects often probably 
depended only on form and carving for effect, but on the Continent it 
was otherwise. 

Of the remaining churches, St. Bavon's at Ghent, and St. Martin's 
at Li^ge, both commenced, as they now stand, in the middle of the 
16th century, are among the most remarkable, and for their age are 
wonderfully free from any traces of the Renaissance. At the same age 
in France, or even in England, they would have been Italianised to a 
far greater extent. 

There is scarcely a second-rate town or even a village in Belgium 
that does not possess a church of more or less importance of the Oothic 
age, or one at all events possessing some fragment or detail worthy of 
attentive study. This circumstance is easily explained from the &ct 
that during the whole of the Mediaeval period, from the 10th to the 
16th century, Belgium was rich and prosperous, and since that time 
till the present comparatively so poor as to have had neither ambition 
to destroy nor power to rebuild. Considering its extent, the country 
is indubitably richer in monuments than France, or perhaps than any 
other country in Europe ; but the architecture is neither so good or 
satisfactory nor of so high a class. 

Bt. IV. civil ARCHITECTUBE. 199 



CiTil Aiehiteotnre — Belfries — Hall at Ypres — Louyain — Brussels — Domestic 


Whatever opinion we may form as to her ecclesiastical edifices, the 
'^ architectural pre-eminence of Belgium consists in her civil, or 
rather her municipal buildings, which surpass those of any other 
^^^^tjy. None of these are very old, which is easily accounted for. 
The rise of conmiercial enterprise in Belgium, though early compared 
^th other European nations, was more recent than the ago of military 
^ ecclesiastical supremacy, and men were consequently obliged to 
erect castles to protect their property against robbers, and churches 
'or their religious wants, before they could think of council-halls or 
Diiiiiicipal edifices. 

In the 12th century, when the monarchy of France was consoli- 

"**iiig itself, the cities of Belgium were gradually acquiring that 

health and those rights and privileges which soon placed them among 

*he independent and most prosperous communities of Europe. One of 

^ earUest architectural expressions of their newly-acquired indepen- 

^^ce was the erection of a belfry. The right of possessing a bell was 

^^ of the first privileges granted in all old charters, not only as a 

^W of power, but as the means of calling the community together, 

^ither with arms in their hands to defend their walls, to repress 

^^rnal tumults, for the election of magistrates, or for deliberation on 

**^ affairs of the commonwealth. The tower too in which the bell was 

^ was a symbol of power in the Middle Ages, and, whether on the 

^^ of the Scheldt or the Po, the first care of every enfranchised 

^''^unity was to erect a "tower of pride" proportionate to their 


The tower moreover was generally the record-office of the city, the 
****ce where the charters and more important deeds were preserved 
^^^^ from fire ; and in a place sufficiently fortified to protect them 
^ the event of civic disturbances. 

All these uses have passed away, and most of the belfries have 
^ther faUen into neglect or been removed or apprc^riated to other 
P^ipofies. Of those remaining, the oldest seems to be that of Toumay, 




ft fine tower, though a good deal altered and its effect destroyed t^ 
more modem additions. 

The belfry at Ghent was commenced in 1183, bat the stone-work 
was only completed in 1337. In 1376 a wooden spire was placed npon 
it, making up the height to 237 ft. This was taken down in 
1855 in order to complete the tower according to the original design, 
which, like that of most of the unfinished buildings of Belgium, has 
been carefully preserved. It has since been com- 
^^ I pleted by the addition of an iron spire (375 ft.) 

painted to look like stone. The Woodcut No. 682 
is a reduction of the original drawing, which, though 
not BO perfect as some others, gives a fair idea of 
what it was intended to be. 

The belfry of Brussels was one of the finest in 
the country, but after various misfortunes it fell In 
1714, and is only known now by a model still 
preserved in the city. 

At Ypres and Bruges the belfries fonn p«u^ of 
, the great halls of the city. Those at Liem^ 
^ Nieuport, Alost, Fumes, and other cities, have been 
all more or less destroyed by alteration^ and are 
more interesting to the antiquary than to the 
architect ; moreover, like the cities themaelvo^ tbxy 
never could have been <d the first class, or remarkable 
for any extraordinary magnificence. 

The great municipal halls, which are found in 
all the principal cities of Belgium, are of throe 
classes; — -1. Town-balls — the municipal ai 
and courts of justice. 2. Trade-faalla or i 
houses, the principal of which were clothJialla, oloth 
having been the great staple manufacture of Bolgimn 
during the Middle Ages. And lastly Qaildhall% or 
the separate places of assembly of the difl«nat 
guilds or associated trades of the cities. 
'^'^■L"'?"*' "^ ^*^ ** existing examples go, it would appear 

that the trade halls were the first erected. The 
cloth-hall at Ypres is by far the most magnificent and beautiful of 
tiieae, as also the earliest. The foundation-stone was laid in 1200 l^ 
Baldwin of Constantinople, but it was not finished till 104 years 
afterwards. The facade is 440 ft. in length, and of the Bimplest 
possible design, being perfectly straight and unbroken fran end to 
end. The windows of each storey, all of one design, are repeated, 
not only along the whole front, but at each end. Its height is 
varied by the noble belfry which rises from its centre, and by a 

Bk. IV. Ch. II. 


bold and beautiful piimacle at each end. The whole is of the pure 
architecture of the 1 3th century, and is one of the most majestic 
edifices of its class to be seen anywhere. It might perhaps 

bave been improved by the greater degree of expression and the 
bolder shadows which lines brought down to the ground would have 
given to it, but as it is, it is extremely pleasing from its simplicity and 


the perfect adaptation of its exterior to its internal arrangements. 
These consist of one vast hall on the ground-floor, supported by several 
ranges of columns, with long galleries and great halls above it for the 
use of the trade to which it was appropriated. 

The town-hall at Bruges is perhaps the oldest building erected 
especially for that purpose in Belgium, the foundation-stone having 
been laid in 1377. It is a small building, being only 88 ft. in front by 
65 in depth, and of a singularly pure and degant design. Its small 
size causes it to suffer considerably firom its immediate proximity to 
the cloth-hall and other trade-halls of the city. These, grouped with 
the belfry in their centre, occupy one end of the great Plaoe^ and, 
though not remarkable for beauty, either of design or detafl, stOl 
form a most imposing mass. The belfiy is one oi the most picturesque 
towers in the country. Its original height was 356 ft., which was 
diminished by about 60 ft. by the removal of the spire in 1741, though 
it still towers above all the buildings of the city, «id in that flat 
country is seen far and wide. 

The finest of the town-halls of Belgium, built originally as such, 
is that of Brussels (Woodcut No. 684), conunenced in 1401, and finished 
in 1455. In dimensions it is inferior to the cloth-hall at Tpres^ being 
only 264 ft. in length by about 50 in depth, and its details, as may be 
supposed from its age, are less pure ; but the spire that surmounts its 
centre, rising to the height of 374 ft., is unrivalled for beauty of 
outline and design by any spire in Belgium, and is entitled to take 
rank among the noblest examples of the class in ESarope. Notwith- 
standing its late age, there is no exkuvagance^ either in design or 
detail, about it ; but the mode in which the octagon is placed on the 
square, and the outline broken and varied by the bold and important 
pinnacles that group around it, produce a most pleasing variety, 
without interfering with the main constructive lines of the building. 
The spire, properly so called, is small, so that its open-woric tracery 
is pleasing and appropriate, which is more than can be said of some 
of its German rivals, in which this mode of ornamentation is quite 
unsuited to the large scale on which it is attempted. 

Next in importance to this is the well-known and beautiful town- 
hall at Louvain (1448-1463), certainly the most elaborately decorated 
piece of Gothic architecture in existence. Though perhaps a little 
overdone in some parts, the whole is so consistenty and the outline 
and general scheme of decoration so good, that little fault can be found 
with it. In design it follows very closely the hall at Bruges, but 
wants the tower, which gives such dignity to those at Brussels and 

Towards the end of the same century (1481) the inhabitants of 
Ghent determined on the erection of a town-hall, which, had it ever 
been finished, would have surpassed all the others in size and richness, 

bk. IV. cu. n. 



though whether it would have equalled them in beauty is more than 
doubtful. After a century of interrupted labour the design was aban- 
doned before it was more than two-thirds completed, and now that age 
has softened down its extravagances, it is a pleasing and perhaps 
beautiful building. Nothing, however, can exceed the extent of tor- 
mented and unmeaning ornament that is spread over every part of it, 
showing great richness certainly, but frequently degenerating into very 
bad taste. The architecture of the hall at Ypres, though only half or 
one-third as costly in proportion to its extent, is far nobler and more 
satisfactory than this ever could have been. But when erected the 
day of true' art was past, and its place was sought to be supplied by 
extent of ornament. 

The same remarks apply to the town-hall at Oudenarde, a building 
evidently meant as a copy of that at Louvain, but having combined 
with it a belfry, in imitation of that at Brussels. The result is 
certainly rich and pleasing in general effect ; but the details incidental 
to its age (1525) have marred the execution, and given to the whole a 
clumsiness and a flimsiness that greatly detract from its beauty. Even 
the effect of the belfry is spoiled by the temptation to exhibit a 
masonic trick, and make it appear as if standing on the two slight 
pillars of the porch. It is clever, but apparent stability is as necessary 
to true architectural beauty as real stability is to the dignity of the art. 

Among the smaller halls that of Mons is perhaps the most elegant, 
and is very similar to that of St. Quentin, which, though now in 
France, was a Flemish city at the time of its erection. 

In the days of her magnificence Mechlin attempted the erection 
of a splendid hall, which was intended to rival those of any of the 
neighbouring towns. Civic troubles, however, put a stop to the work 
before it was carried so far as to enable us now even to determine 
what the original design may have been. 

Among minor edifices of the same class may be mentioned the 
cloth-halls of Louvain and Ghent, both of the best age, though small ; 
and the Boucheries or meat-markets of Diest, Ypres, Antwerp, and 
other towns — the boatman's lodge at Ghent and the burgesses' lodge 
at Bruges, besides numerous other scattered memorials of civic magni- 
ficence that meet one everywhere in this great emporium of Mediseval 

Of palaces, properly so called, little remains in Belgium, worthy of 
notice, unless it be the palace of the Bishop of Li^ge (Woodcut Na 
685), which, as far as size and richness of decoration are concerned, 
almost deserves the reputation it has attained. It was, however, 
unfortunately commenced at an age (1508) when the Gk>thic style, 
especially in civil buildings, was all but extinct, and it is impossible to 
admire its stunted columns and flat arches in such immediate proximitj 
to the purer works of the preceding centuries. 

Be IV. Ch. n. 



Of th« same age and atyle was th« Exchange at Antwerp (1S15). 
^lis building was more pleasing in its details : and, though oommenoed 
a few years later, its simpler and more monumental character seems to 
have preserved it from the individual caprices which are apparent in 
the palace, and which became the fatal characteristic of all future 
designs. Neither of theee buildings can, however, be called in strict- 
ness Oothic designs, for the true 
spirit of that art had perished 
before the; were commenced. 

Many rf the private dwelling- 
houses in the Flemish cities are 
picturesque and elegant, though 
hardly rising to the grade of 
specimens of fine art ; but when 
grouped together in the narrow 
winding streets, or along the 
banks ot the canals, the result ia 
so varied and charming that we 
are inclined to ascribe to them 
more intrinsic beauty than they 
really possess as individual designs. 
Most of them are of brick, and 
the brick being used undisguis- 
edly, and the buildings depending 
wholly on such forms as could be 
given to that material, they never 
offend our taste by shams ; and 
the honest endeavour of the citizens to ornament their dwellings 
externally, meets here with the success that must ^ways follow 
such an attempt. To exhibit this class of structures adequately 
would require far more illustration than is compatible with a work 
like the present, and would occupy the space that more properly 
belongs to buildings of a lai^^ and more monumental class, and of 
higher pretensions to architectural efiect, both in their design and the 
1 which it is carried out. 

, FUtottb*auiicv'iFdMa,LU|a. Mom 

206 HOLLAND. Tabt 11. 



Churches — Civil and Domestic Buildings. 

The moment wo pass tho boundary line which separates Belgium 
from Holland, we feel that we have stepped at once into a new 
architectural province. At last we have got among a people of pure 
Aryan or Teutonic race, without one trace of Turanian or Celtic 
blood in their veins, and who consequently carry out their archi- 
tectural designs with a matter-of-fact simplicity that is edifying, if 
not charming. It is not ^ that the kingdom of Holland is deficient in 
the possession of Mediaeval churches — far from it — she possesses as 
many Grothic cathedrals as we do, and their average dimensions are 
equal to those which adorn this island ; they belong also to the same 
age : but the result is wonderfully different. 

The Dutch did not work out any part of the style for themselves ; 
they attempted no novelties, and did not even give themselves the 
trouble to understand perfectly the style they were employing. They 
were then, as now, a religious people, and wanted churches, and 
built them according to the only pattern then available. No one can 
say that their churches were not perfectly adapted to the form of 
worship then prevalent, and in dimensions and dignity perfectly 
suited to the wants of the communities who erected them. Notwith- 
standing all this, they are only vast warehouses of devotion, and are 
utter failures as works of art. 

If any one wishes to perfectly realise the difference between mere 
ornamental construction and ornamental construction which is also 
ornamented, he cannot do better than study carefully the design of 
these Dutch churches. Their dimensions are frequently grand, their 
proportions generally pleasing, and the subordination of the parts to 
each other often most judicious. On the other hand, the pillars of the 
pier arches are almost always round — the vaulting shafts poor, and 
never carried to a sufficient resting-place — the windows want mullions 
and tracery — the vaults ar<; domed and slilt<'d — the ribs lean — and 

Bk. rv. Ch. III. CHURCHES. 207 

eyerything in fact is pared down as closely to mere utility as is 
possible in such a style. In France or in England, in the same age, 
every stone would hare spoken out and had a meaning; and every 
detail would not only have been in its right place, but would have 
expressed the reason of its being there, and the purpose to which it 
was applied. 

To the want of artistic feeling, or real knowledge of the style, 
which is shown in the designs of the Dutch churches, must be added 
the inferiority of the material in which they were carried out. Some 
are wholly of brick, and few are entirely of stone, though most of 
them have an admixture of the nobler material — and where brick 
is employed, without great care and artistic feeling, the result is 
generally poor and unsatisfactory. 

Judged by their dimensions alone, the churches of Holland ought 
to be almost as interesting as those of Belgium, for they are generally 
larger with lofty and well-proportioned aisles, and transepts which 
project boldly. They have frequently tall and not ungraceful western 
towers, and sometimes large windows filled with good tracery, though 
mostly of a late age. Notwithstanding all these requisites of a perfect 
Gothic church, there is not one of them that must not be considered a 
failure, from the causes just mentioned. 

These remarks apply especially to the great churches at Haarlem, 
Leyden, and Rotterdam, two at Amsterdam, and the two at Delft, 
the older of which contains some details worthy of attention. That 
at Qouda is remarkable for the beauty of its painted glass, though 
the architecture of the church is very unworthy of so brilliant an 

The church at Dort is older than most of these, and has a venerable 
look about it that hides many of the faults of its architecture, but it 
will not bear examination. 

The churches of Utrecht and Bois le Due are to some extent 
exceptions to the general poverty of design which characterises the 
churches of Holland This is owing probably to the situation of these 
two churches on the verge of the province, and their proximity to 
Belgium and Germany. That at Utrecht consists at the present day 
of merely two fragments — a choir and a tower, the nave that joined 
them having been destroyed by a storm and never replaced. What 
remains is good late German, though it is much disfigured by modern 
additions. The church at Bois le Due is still a large and richly orna- 
mented church, with a good deal of stone-work about it ; but being 
too large for the decaying town in which it stands, it has sufiered 
much from neglect, and is now in a very ruinous condition. 

The church at Rampen, on the Zuyder Zee, is better than most 
others, and many of the smaller churches on the borders of the pro- 
vince are worthy of more attention than they have received. There 



Pabt 1L 

are few abbeys or monastic buildings of any importance to be founds 
such establishments never having been suited to the industrious 
character of the Dutch people. 

Bad as are the churches of Holland, the town-halls and civic 
buildings are even worse. With the single exception of the town-hall 
at Middelburg, erected in 1468 by Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, 
and a fine example of its kind, there are none, in the whole of the 
Netherlands, which can be classed as works of fine art. Even age has 
been unable to render them tolerably picturesque ; nor are there in the 
province any belfries with their picturesque forms, nor any palaces 
worthy of note, which belong to the Middle Ages. The older dwellings 
houses are sometimes picturesque and pleasing, but less so than those 
of Belgium. Most of them are unpretending specimens of honest 
building, the result of which is often satisfactory ; and combined, as 
they generally are in Dutch towns, with water and trees, and with 
the air of neatness and comfort which pervades the whole, we some 
times scarcely feel inclined to quarrel with the absence of higher 
elements of art when so pleasing a result has been produced without 

Notwithstanding all this, it might be well worth while to give one 
or two examples of the plans and illustrations of some of the churches 
in Holland in a work like the pres^it, not so much for their own sake, 
as for comparison with other buildings ; but the materials do not exist. 
The Dutch have shown the same indifference to the conservation of 
their Mediieval monuments which their forefathers exhibited in their 
erection, and not one has been edited in modem times in such a 
manner as to admit of being quoted. ^ The history of this variety 
remains for the present to be written, but fortunately it is one of the 
least important of its class. 

' A large work was oommenoed a few 
years ago on the chnroh at Bois le Due ; 
but after the first numbers it seems to 
have been disoontinued, and has not 
been since heard of — in this country at 
least [Since this was written a fine 
work in 8 vols., entitled 'Documents 
olasB^ de Tart dans les Pays-Bas du x"* 

au.xnii'"* Si^de,' and illustrated with 
ink photos, has been compiled by M. Van 
Ysendyck; and although the greater 
number of the plates represent Benais- 
sanco work, some of the finest flamboyant 
Gothic buildings, both in Belgium and 
Holland, are there reproduced. — ^Ed.] 

Bk. V. Ch. I. 







Chronology and Historioal Notice. 


OittlenugDe (Karl der Orone) . . 768 

Coond L of FVMioodU 

Heory the Fowler . . Saxon . . . . 

OtboL „ . . . 

OUwIL , . . . 



Conrad n Franconian . . 

Henty UL •...• „ .•• 

Henry IV. „ . . . 

HemyY „ . . . 

LothairelU. of Saxony 

Conrad I IL .... Hobenstanfen . 
Fradoick I., BarbanMsa . 


OCho IV., the Ouelph . . 



A D. 

















Frederick II HobensUnfen 

William of Holland . . SwabU . . 

Period of Anarcby . . „ 

Richard of Cornwall „ 

AlpboDfloofCaatile. . » . . 



Rudolph of Hapsbnrg 1273 

Adolph of Naana 1292 

Albert of Austria 1298 

LooiB of Bavaria 1314 

CharleaofLuxembnrg 1347 

WeDceslans of B(>heinla 1378 

Rapert of the Palatinate 1400 

Sigiamnnd of Hnngary uio 

Frederick III. . . . Hapeburg . . 1440 

Maximilian 1 1-193 

Charles V , . 1519 to 1556 

Afi might be expected from the known difference of race, the history of 
architecture in Germany differs in the most marked degree from that 
of France; and instead of a number of distinct nationalities being 
gradually absorbed into one great central despotism, and their indi- 
viduality obliterated, as happened in that country, we find Germany 
commencing as a great uniting power under Charlemagne and the 
Othos, but with a strong tendency to disintegration from first to last. 
Had the Germans been as pure Aryans as they are sometimes supposed 
to be, they might under certain circumstances have resolved themselves 
into an aggregation of village communities under one paramount pro- 
tector. The presence of a Celtic dominion on their western frontier, 

VOL. IL p 


always greedy for territory, and always prepared to fight either for its 
acquisition, or for anything else, prevented such a catastrophe as this. 
But the tendency in those parts of Germany where the blood was 
purest was towards every city becoming an independent community, 
every trade an independent guild, and every lordship a little kingdom 
in so far as independence was concerned. All this, however, was the 
natural tendency of the race, and by no means involved the cutting up 
of the country into separate architectural provinces. Had the country 
indeed been divided into 1000 or 1500 separate principalities and free 
cities, instead of one-tenth of that number, the uniformity would have 
been greater than it is, and from the Alps to the Baltic we should 
have had only one style, as was very nearly being the case during the 
Middle Ages. The greatest difference that strikes the observer at first 
sight, is the change of style between the buildings on the banks of the 
Rhine and those on the shores of the Baltic. This, however, is more 
superficial than real, and arose from the iact of no stone being found on 
the sandy plains of Prussia. The inhabitants of Northern Germany 
were forced to use brick, and that only, and consequently employed 
forms which were difierent from those used in stone countries, but 
varying from them constructively more than essentially. There may 
nevertheless be a certain infusion of Wendiah blood in Northern 
Germany, which may to some extent have influenced the style, but 
it is not easy to trace or isolate it. 

On the eastern boundary of the province a well-marked ethnographic 
distinction may easily be detected. In Bohemia and Moravia a strong 
infusion of Sclavonic feeling does tincture the art, but not to its 
advantage. In these countries there are some very grand Gothic 
buildings; but they are wild and ill-understood as Gothic designs, and by 
no means satisfy the judgment of any one who is familiar with the best 
examples in France or England. In Siebenburgen,^ as might be 
expected, the style is still more abnormal, but it would take more trouble 
and more illustration to describe it than its importance deserves ; for, 
except the cathedral at Karlsburg, it does not possess any building of 
great architectural magnificence. Its general characteristic is that it 
is more Italian than German, though not the less interesting for that 
very reason. 

The history of Gothic architecture in Germany began practically with 
Charlemagne and ended with Charles V. There may be some buildings 
erected before the date of the first-named king, but, if so, they are 
small and unimportant, and indeed it seems probable that the edifices 
left by the Romans sufiiced for the early wants of the people. Some of 
these, like the church at Treves, were built for Christian purposes ; 

^ See two papers on tliis subject in I Erhaltung der Baudenkmale,' vol. ii. 
Jahrbuch der Central Commission zur I p. 05, and vol. iii. p. 14il. 


while others may have been in wood and have perished. Be that as it 
may, however, from the time of Charlemagne we can trace the history 
of the style with tolerable distinctness. A considerable impulse was 
given to it under the Othos (936-1002), and under the Hohenstaufens 
(1138-1268) the old round-arched style reached its culminating point 
of perfection. If any style deserves the name of German it is this, as 
it was elaborated in the valley of the Rhine, with very little assistance 
from any other nation beyond the hints obtained from the close 
connection that then existed between the Germans and the inhabitants 
of the valley of the Po. 

With the house of Hapsburg (1273) a change came over the spirit 
of the country. What Germany did in the 18th century was only a 
repetition of what she had done in the 13th. At the later epoch she 
abandoned her native literature, almost her mother tongue — ^to speak 
French and to copy French fashions, as at the earlier epoch she forsook 
her own noble style of art to adopt the French pointed Gothic. Had 
she thoroughly understood and appreciated the French style, it might 
have been as well ; but it was foreign to her tastes, she had never 
worked it out from the beginning, and it soon in consequence became 
exaggerated, and finally degenerated into a display of tricks and tours 
de force. 

By a strange perversion of historical evidence, the Germans at 
one time attempted to appropriate to themselves the credit of the 
invention of the pointed style, calling it in consequence German archi- 
tecture. The fact being that the pointed style was not only invented 
but perfected in France long before the Germans thought of introducing 
it ; and when they adopted it, they did so without understanding it, 
and fell far short of the perfection to which it was carried by the 
French in all the edifices which they erected in the age of its greatest 
development in their own country. 

On the other hand, the Germans may fairly claim the invention 
of the particular style which prevailed throughout Lombardy and 
Germany of which we are now speaking. This style, it is true, never 
was fully developed, and never reached that perfection of finish and 
completeness which the pointed style attained. Notwithstanding thip, 
it contained as noble elements as the other, and was capable of as suc- 
cessful cultivation, and had its simpler forms and grander dimensions 
been elaborated with the same care and taste, Europe might have 
possessed a higher style of Medieval architecture than she has yet 
seen. The task, however, was abandoned before it was half completed, 
and it is only too probable now that it can never be resumed. 

A complete history of this style, worthy of its importance, is still 
a desideratum which it is to be hoped the zeal and industry of German 
architects will ere long supply, and vindicate their national art from 
the neglect it now lies under, by illustrating as it deserves one of the 

r 2 



Part II. 

most interesting chapters in the history of architecture.^ Already 
German writers seem to be aware that the age of the Hohenstaufens 
was not only the most exclusively national, but also the most brilliant 
period of their history. Its annals have engaged the pens of their best 
historians, and its poetry has been rescued from obscurity and com- 
mented upon with characteristic fulness. Every phase of their civilisa- 
tion has been fuUy illustrated, except one — that one being their 
architecture, which is, however, the noblest and the most living record 
of what they did or aspired to do, that could be left for their posterity 
to study. So distinctly is it their own, that^ were it necessary to 
find for it a separate name, the style of the Hohenstaufens wotdd be 
that which would most correctly describe it. 

The leading characteristics of the German style are the double 
apsidal arrangement of plan, the multiplication of small circular or 
octagonal towers, combined with polygonal domes, at the intersections 
of the transepts with the nave, and the extended use of galleries under 
the eaves of the roofs both of the apses and of the straight sides. The 
most ornamental parts are the doorways and the capitals of the columns. 
The latter surpass in beauty and in richness anything of their kind 
executed during the Middle Ages, and, though sometimes rude in 
execution, they equal in design any capitals ever invented. These 
only required the experience and refinement of another century of 
labour to qualify them to compete successfully with any parts of the 
pointed style of architecture which they borrowed from the French, 
and which in the course of time entirely superseded their own native 

' The work of F. Osten on the archi- 
tecture of Lombardy, and that of Geier 
and Gtfrtff on the etyle in the Rhine 
country, combined with the works of 
BoiB8ei€e, have already furnished con- 

siderable materials for such a history. 
Both these first-named works were left 
incomplete, the former from the death of 
the author, the latter owing to the late 
troubles of the oountry. 

Bk. V. Ch. II. BASILICAS. — ST. GALL. 213 



Plan of 8t Gall — Church at Mittelzell in island of Beiohenan^Bomain-Motier— 
Granson — Church at Gernrodo— Tz^^ee — Hildesheim — Cathedrals of Wonns 
and Spires — Churches at Cologne — Other churches and chapels — Double 
churches — Swiss churohea 

St. Gall. 

Ab just mentioned, the history of Gk>thic architecture in Germany com- 
mences practically with Charlemagne ; and, by a fortunate accident^ 
we are able to begin our account of it by quoting from a contemporary 
illustration of the greatest interest and importance. In the library of 
the monastery of St. Gall, in Switzerland, a manuscript plan of a great 
monastic establishment was found by Mabillon in the 17th century, 
and published by him in the second volume of the < Annals of the 
Benedictine Order.' The name of the author is not known ; but, from 
some dedicatory verses on the back, it appears certain that it was sent 
to Grospertus, who was abbot of the monastery, in the beginning of 
the 9th century, and who in fact rebuilt the church and part of the 
monastic buildings between the years 820 and 830. Mabillon 
conjectures that the plan was prepared by Eginwald, the friend of 
Charlemagne, and who was also the director of his buildings. It is 
by no means improbable that this may have been the case, though it 
does not seem possible to prove it. 

It is a matter of extreme difficulty to decide how far this plan was 
followed in the erection of either the church or monastery of St. Gall 
at this remote period, for everything there has been altered at subse- 
quent times ; nor is it very important to enquire. The plan does not 
pretend to represent any particular establishment, but is a " projet " 
of what was then considered a perfect monastery.' In this respect it 
resembles the plans of fortified towns which are engraved in our books 
of fortification representing the systems of Yauban, Coehom, Monta- 
lembert, &c., and which, though applicable mutatis muta/ndis to every 
place, have never literally been carried out in any one. It is in fact 


an illustration of the Benedictine system, as applicable to Germany in 
the ninth century, in its completed and most perfect form, and on this 
account is far more interesting to us than if it had been merely a plan 
of any particular monastery. 

The plan itself is on four sheets of parchment sewn together, and 
is so large ( 2 ft. 7 in. by 3 ft. 7 in.) that only a small portion of it 
can be reproduced here, and that on a reduced scale. 

The whole group of buildings was apparently meant to occupy 
a space of about 450 ft. by 300. On the north side of the church 
was situated the abbot^s lodging (b), with a covered way into the 
church, and an arcade on either face; his kitchen and offices being 
detached, and situated to the eastward. To the westward of this was 
the public school (c), and still farther in the same direction the 
hospitium or guest-house (d d), with accommodation attached to it for 
the horses and servants of strangers. 

Beyond the abbot's house to the eastward was the dispensary (e), 
and iKjyond that again the residence of the doctor (p), with his garden 
for medical herbs and simples at the extreme corner of the monastery. 

To the eastward of the great church was situated another small 
double-apse church (o (".), divided into two by a wall across the centre. 

On either side of this church was a cloister, surrounded by apart- 
ments : that on the north was the infirmary, next to the doctor*s 
residence, and to it the western portion of the chapel was attached. 
The other was the school and residence of the novices. Beyond these 
was the orchard (u), which was also the cemetery of the monks ; and 
still farther to the southward were situated the kitchen-garden, tho 
poultry-yard, the granaries, mills, bakehouses, and other offices. These 
last are not shown in the woodcut, for want of space. 

On the south side of the church was situated the great cloister (i), 
and further to the south of this was the refectory (j), with a detached 
kitchen (k), which also opened into the great wine-cellar (l) ; and 
opposite to this was the dormitory (m), with its various dependent 

To the westward was another hospitium (n), apparently for an 
inferior class of guests ; and to the southward and westward (o o) were 
placed the stables for horses, cattle, sheep, and all the animals required 
for so large an establishment, the whole arranged with as much skill 
and care as can be found in the best modern farms. 

The principjil point of interest is the church, which was designed 
to be 200 ft. long from e^st to west and 80 ft. in width, divided into 
three aisles by two rows of columns ; the centre aisle being 40, the outer 
each 20 ft. in width. It has two apses ; the principal one towards the 
east (a) has a vaulted crypt, in which is a confessio, meant to contain the 
relics of the patron saint, St. (lall. In front of this is a choir, arranged 
very much on the model of that of S. Clemente at Rome, before 

:bk. v. ch. u. 

RcdocUoa or IB Original PUn of . 


described.^ The western apse, on the same level as the floor of the 
church, was to be dedicated to St. Paid, and the eastern one to St. 
Peter. Between the two chours is the font, and the altar of St. 
John the Baptist, and on each side are a range of altars dedicated 
to various saints. Behind both apses are open spaces or paradises 
(b b) (parvise), that to the west is surrounded by an open semicircular 
porch, by which the public were to gain access to the church ; and on 
either side of this, but detached, are two circular towers (p p), each with 
an altar on its summit, one dedicated to the archangel Michael, the 
other to Gabriel : these were to be reached by circular stairs or inclined 
planes. No mention is made of bells, and the text would seem to 
intimate rather that the towers were designed for watch-towers or 
observatories. The similarity of their position and form to that of the 
Irish round towers is most remarkable ; but whether this was in com- 
pliment to the Irish saint to whom the monastery owed its origin, or 
whether we must look to Ravenna for the type, are questions not easily 
determined at the present date, for we know far too little as yet of the 
archaeology of the age to speak with certainty on any such questions. 
It is by no means improbable that the meaning and origin of these 
and of the Irish towers were the same ; but whether it was a form 
exclusively belonging to a Celtic or Irish race, or common to all 
churches of that age, is what we cannot now decide from the imperfect 
data at our command. 

On either side of the east end of the church is an apartment, 
where the transept is usually found ; that on the south is the vestry (s) ; 
on the north is the library (t), and attached to the church on 
the same side is the schoolmaster's house (u), and beyond that the 
porter's (v). 

All the living apartments have stoves in the angles, but the dormi- 
tory has a most scientific arrangement for heating ; the furnace is at 
(x), and the smoke is conveyed away by a detached shaft at (t), 
between which there must have been some arrangement of flues 
beneath the floor for heating the sleeping-apartment of the monks. 

Were it not that the evidence is so incontrovertible, we should feel 
little inclined to fancy that the monasteries of this dark age showed 
such refinement and such completeness as is here evidenced; for at 
no period of their history can anything more perfect be found. In the 
church especially, the two apses, the number of altars, the crypt and 
its accompaniments, the sacristy, the library, <&c., many of which 
things have generally been considered as the invention of subsequent 
ages, are marked out distinctly and clearly, as well-understood and 
usual arrangements of ecclesiastical edifices. This plan in fact refutes 
at once all the arguments regarding the dates of churches which have 

' See Tol. i. p. 513. 

Bk. V. Ch. n. MITTELZELL. 217 

been founded on the supposed era of the introduction of these 

By another fortunate coincidence there is a church still standing at 
Mittelzell, on the island of Reichenau, in the lake 
of Constance, within thirty miles of St, Gall, 
which certainly belongs to this date, and is un- 
altered in nearly all ita principal features. It I 
was finished, or at least dedicated, in the year ; 
816, and therefore this event took place just 
before the rebuilding of St. Gall commenced.' 

As will be seen from the plan (Woodcut No. 
687) the dimensions of the two churches are 
nearly the same; on the St. Gall plan they are 
written 200 ft by 80. This church is 230 by 83 
English feet, but the eastern* apse has been 
rebuilt on a more extended scale, and if we 
restore its original circular forms, we bring its 
dimensions so nearly to those of the St. Gall 
plan that, if its author used what we now know 
as French feet, the dimensions of the two may be . 
considered as identical. The pier-arches of the _ __ _ 

nave are plain, and the whole arrangement is 
not unlike that of the nave of Mon tier-en- Der (Woodcut No. 610). 
One of the most remarkable peculiarities of the Reichenau church 
is the door behind the altar in the western apse, and the great 
window looking into it, with 
double stairs which lead up 
to it, as though the bishop's 
throne was placed there above 
the heads of all. The two 
principal entrances were, as 
shown in Woodcut No. 688, 
on each side of the western 
apse, and the whole of the 
elevation — in so far as it 
is preserved — retains the 
original design. Although 
retaining the wooden roof, 
and never apparently intended f^ t „ 
to be vaulted, this church is 
purely Romanesque in all its details. 

■ All the particnlare regarJiiig tliis centur;, and gives the leogth as 283 I 
church are taken from Hubsch, 'Alt- I ' Tiiat shi.wn in the woodcut i 
chmtlicbe Bauwerkc,' pp. 109, xtix. stiggeBtiuo of Dr. Hiibach. 
Dubme ascrlbcB Ihc cliarcli tu the llth I 

There is not a classical feature 



Past II 

! ratber startled to find a Barbftmn style a 
an E^-, and bo far removed from anything tha 
could with propriety be called debase 

There are other churches in this nelgl 
bourhood scarcely less ancient in date tha: 
this one at Mittelzell, and almost a 
interesting in their arrangement. Amon 
these may be mentioned that of EUimaii 
Motier, the body of which certainly remain 
as it was when consecrated in the year 7bS 
The nartbex, which is in two storeys, ma; 
be a century or two later, and the pore) 
and east end are of the pointed style o 
the 12th or 13th century. The vaulting o 
the nave also can hardly be coeval iritl 
the original building. 

From other examples in the neighboui 
hood, we may safely infer that it originally terminated eastward in on 
or three apses. Supposing these to be restored, we have a cbnrcb o 
about 150 ft. in length by 55 in width across the nave, with transeptt 

(Ftnil lll«vt« 

' If there are *nj rpmainB of thu of Roiclicnaa sent afler its compktiai 
monastin buildtugi at Rcivhenau it ia | by thu abbot Ueiton to his fiieni 
eitretncl; deairable thnt thcj should be Gospcrtua? 

examined, ia nrder to Bee how far they ' ' Histoire de rArchitectore Saorc' 
aooord with the St. Gall plan. What if j du i" au 10"* Siirle dan* lea Eftchi: 
it abould turn out tn be a iicrfeciwi plno dr Gcnuve, Lauainnc, et Sion,' 1853 

. V. Ch. II. 



a tower at the intersection, and nearly all the arrangementa found at 
A mneh later age, and with scarcely any more reminiscei^oe cS the 
early Christian style than is observable at Mittelzell. 

The external mode of decoration ia very much that d the two 
churches of San Apollinare at Ravenna, but is carried <hib step further, 
inaamuoh as in the npper storey of the nave each compartment ia 
divided into two arches, the centre one carried on a oorbel ; in the 
tower there are three such little arches in each bay, and in the narthex 
five. This design afterwards became in Gennaay and Italy ^ the 
favourite string-course moulding. 

The church of Oranaon, on the borders of the lake of Neufcbatel, 
though much smaller, is scarcely less interesting. It belongs to the 
Carlovingian era, and like many churches of that age, has borrowed its 
pillars and many of ita ornaments from earlier monuments. Ita most 
remarkable peculiarity is the vault of the nave, which ahowa how 
timidly at that early period the 
architects undertook to vault 
even the narroweat apans, the 
whole nave with ita aide-aisles 
being only 30 ft. wide. It ia 
the earliest specimen we pos- 
aeas of a mode of vaulting 
which aubsequently became 
very common in the South of 
France, and which, aa has 
been pointed out above, led to 
moat of the forma of vaulting 
afterwards introduced. 

The church of Notre Dame de Neufchatel, part of which ia aa old 
as from 927 to 934, presents also forms of beauty and interest. The 
same may be said of the tower of the cathedral of Sion, which ia of 
the same age, and of parts also of the cathedral of Geneva. 

The church at Payeme is very similar in size and in all its arrange- 
ments to that of Romain-Motier ; but being two centuries more modern, 
the transition is complete, and it shows aU the peculiarities of a round- 
arched Gothic style as completely aa San Michele at Favia, or any 
other church of the same age. 

If there are any examples of basilican churches in Germany as old 
as these Swiss examples, they have not yet been described, nor their age 
satisfactorily ascertained. The oldest known example, so far as I am 
aware, is the old Dom at Ratisbon,' originally apparently about 45 ft. 

■ The esrlieBt example is found i 
Bnptiitcrj >t Kavennii, 396 a.d. 

' Kall.'iiboch, (' Di'iitHvW Ilaiiki 
Htatoa that it y.TH l>iiilt bf fi 

1 the I nuribold. 710-752. It Ib the rhapet on 
the north side of cloiHtera of Cathedml 
nut,') (Bie 'King's Stuilj B'lok,' toI. iL p. 81). 
-hop I 




11. PI'DuftbcGliiircb 
(I'rani Puuridi.'} 

by 2? in the clear. It waa surrounded internally by eleven niches, and 
vnult«d. It also possessed the peculiarly German arrangement of 
/n^ having no entrance at the west end, and has a deep 

I I gallery occupying about one-fourth of the church. 

if Tff-^fln^ The lateral entrance is unfortunately gone, so that 
&■ L_Zli'J" there b very little ornamental architecture about 
f*^ ~ 'W'* the place by which its age could be determined ; and 
OS no record remains of its foundation, we can only 
conjecture that it may belong to some time slightly 
subsequent to the Carlovii^ian era.^ 

Boisseree places in this age the original cathedrals 
of Fulda and Colt^ne, both which he assumes to 
been double-apse basilicas, but apparently 
without any sufficient data. There is no doubt that 
the cathedral at the latter place, burnt in 1248, w« 
a double-apse church ; but if it was anything like his restoration il 
could not bare been erected earlier than the 11th or 12th century, and 
must have replaced an 
older building, which, for 
anything we know, may 
have been circular, «■ 
probably as rectangular 
and such would likewiu 
appear to have been tim 
case at Fulda, ^ thou^ 
there is as little to reascz 
upon there as at Colc^nes 
There can be litta 
, doubt that the church 
St, Jufltinus, built 
Archbishop Otgar, 82r 
847 A.D., at Hochst (~I 
tween Mayence and Fra^ 
fort) is of the CarIovio|^- 
period, as also parte 
the church of St Castor •■ 
Coblenz, and the churches at Michtolstadt and Seligenstadt, the t<W 
last erected by Eginw.ild, the biogriipher of Charlemagne. 

vicv ui Wdtt EcHi or 

' At Aquilcjo, nt the u|)]>er end of the 
Adriatic Giiir, Poppo. ttio nrclibi^liop, 
betwn-n tin- yonn 1019-1042. crecteil n 
building a1mn»t iilcntiml witli this in 
eveiji rcBiirct belwrcn thn old basilica 
bnd the baptiitery, so aa to make a 
doiiblc4|>ee cliiirch out of tho ol<l 
LoQibard arrangement. Tlie similarity 

of tbe two buildings ma; probably tnn > 
(tovm the data of that at Batiabon to lb j 
lOtb century. 
' The church was burnt in 937, tod ii 
otid to hare had two oboin (addad r 
616 by Abbot Engil), a irastera tianwpt 
and olcven bafi to the nave. 

Bk. V. Ch. II. 


The most important building of the tenth ceatnrj is the crypt of 
the Abbey of Quedlinburg, erected by Matilda, consort of Henry I., in 
S36 A.D. It consuls of three aisles, covered with parallel barrel vaults 
Buf^rted upon alternating piers and colnmns, and is the first appear- 
ance of this favoarite form of support in Qerman basilicas. The 
dimensions of this building are 23 feet 8 inches X 22 feet 7 inches, and 
32 feet 2 inches to the crown of vault. 

The caps and bases take a distinctive form, leading from the debased 
Bconan to the Romanesque, the further development of which can be 
seen in tho choir of the abbey church at Essen, erected shortly 
after 947 a.d. 

Leaving these, we must come down to the end of the 10th or 
bf^inning d the 
11th century for 
examples of the class 
we are now speaking 
of. Of these, one of 
the most perfect and 
interesting is the 
church at Gemrode, 
in the Harts, 
founded a.d. 960, 
when probably the 
eastern part (not the 
extended choir) was 
commenced, and the 
whole boilding may 
be Bssomed to have 
been erected within 
a century after that 
date. From the plan 
(Woodcut No. 692) 
it will be seen how ^ 
singularly like it is 
to the St. Gair example, except that it appears to have been originally 
about 60 ft., or tme-fourth, less in length. The western circular 
towers, instead of being detached, are here joined to the building. 
Piers too are introduced internally, alternating with pillars; and 
altogether the church shows just such an advance on the St. Gall plan 
as we might expect a century or so to produce. It exemplifies most 
satisfactorily the original form of these churches. 

It poBseases what is rare in this country — a bold triforium gallery, 
and externally that strange frontispiece, forming tho connecting gallery 
of the two towers, which is so distinguishing a charnctcristic of German 
churches. A still bolder example of thii> gallery remains in the fa9adc 

Df Wen Hoi of Abbey of Correy. 


of the once famous abbey of Corvey, on the eastern frontier of West- 
phalia (Woodcut Na 694), where we find the feature developed to its 
fullest extent, so that it must originally have entirely hidden the 
church placed behind it, as it did afterwards at Strasbourg and in many 
other examples. 

At Gernrode, as at Mittelzell, the roof was originally intended to 
have been of wood, the crypts under the two apses being alone vaulted. 
Indeed at that age the German architects hardly felt themselves 
skilled enough to undertake a stone roof of any gre-at extent. Tlie 
old Dom at Katisbon is only 22 ft. in width, and that they could 
accomplish, but not apparently one like Gernrode, where the span was 
twice that in extent. 

If the church at Gernrode is a satisfactory specimen of a complete 
German design carried out in its integrity, the cathedral at Treves is 
both more interesting as well as instructive from a very different cause. 
It is one of those aggregated buildings of all ages and styles which let 
us into the secrets of the art, and contain a whole history within 
themselves ; and as the dates of the successive building eras can be 
ascertained with very tolerable accuracy, it may be as well to describe 
it next in the series, to explain how and when the various changes took 

As is well known, the original cathedral at Treves was built by the 
pious Helena, mother of Constantino, and seems, like the contemporary 
church at Jerusalem, to have consisted of two distinct edifices, one 
rectangular, the other circular. The original circular building was 
pulled down in the 13th century, to make way for the present Lieb- 
frauen church erected on its site, and most probably of the same 
dimensions. Of the other, or sjjuare building, enough still remains 
encased in the walls of the present basilica to enable us to determine 
its size and plan with very tolerable accuracy. The plan of it in the 
woodcut (No. 696) is taken from Schmidt's most valuable work on the 
Antiquities of Treves. The atrium has been added by myself, because 
it was an almost universal ftviture in churches of the date in which this 
was erected, and because there is every reason to believe that the 
present church occupied as nearly as possible the exact site of the 
older one, and is of the same dimensions. The circular church is 
restored from the Roman examples of the same age (Woodcuts 227, and 
422 to 436). From their relative positions it will be seen how 
indispensable the atrium must have been. 

This Romanesque church seems to have remained pretty much in its 
original state till the beginning of the 11th century, when the 
Archbishop Poppo found it so ruinous from age, that it required to be 
almost entirely rebuilt. He first encased the pillars of the Romans in 
masonry, making them into piers. He then took in and roiifed cyver 
the atrium, and added an apse at the western end, thus converting it 

*H [[FUaotMfdtBfilCbuKhiUTr^vM. (Prom Schmidt, ' Bii 

by no means clear that i instead uf tbo four now built iulo the 
I not/ >ix* pillars originslly I piers of the Gothic church, 
the nkve from the aisles I 


into a Germctn church of the approTod model, so that from this time 
forward the buildings took the form shown in the Woodcut No. 692. 

WautaApMofCliurcliUTTeTM. (From Schmlduj Sole H It. Is 1 la. 

No very important works seem to have been undertaken from the 
beginning of the 11th tUl the middle of the 12th century, when Bialuy 
Hillin b said to luve 
undertaken the repair or 
rebuilding of the eastern 
apse : he did not proceed 
beyond the foundation ; bot 
the work was token up ftnd 
completed by BIsIk^ John, 
who held the see fn»n 1190 
to 1213. These two apaea, 
therefore, one an example 
of the beginning of the 
German round-arched styles 
the other representing the 
same near its close, show 
clearly the progress which ^ 
had been made in the^ 

The £rst of these apae^- 
(Woodcut No. 607) is perhaps somewhat ruder than we migbl'j 
reasonably expect, though this may in port be accounted for by it-^ 

bk. V. ch. n. 


remote prorincial Bituation. The round towers too are subordiDate to 
the square ones, in a manner more congenial to French than to 
German taste. But the principal defect is in the apsidal gallery, 
which is mde and tasteless as compared with other specimens, which 
we are apparently justified in considering as contemporary. Before 
the later or eastern apse was erected the gallery had almost mn into 
the opposite extreme of minute littleness, and the polygonal form and 
projecting buttressea of pointed architecture were beginning to 
aapersede the simpler ontlinea ot the parent style, of which these two 
specimens form as it were the 
Alpha and the Omega. Between 
them the examples and varieties 


I that there really is an embarraa de ricliesse in 
selecting those most appropriate for illustration. 

The church of St. Michael at Hildesheim, erected by Bishop 
Bemward in the first years of the llth century, is among the earliest 
and most interesting of those remaining in sufBcient purity to enable 
ns to JQdge correctly of their original appearance. The plan (Woodcut 
"So. 700) consists of nare and aisles, an eastern and western transept, 
both projecting beyond the aisles, and flanked by octagonal towers 



with staircases in them. The west choir, of one bay and apse, is flanked 
by two vestries, with a low aisle round the apse, and entered only from 
it. At the east end there were originally a central and two side apses,^ 
but in the 1 2th century the central apse was replaced by one of equal 
length to that at the west end. All these apses have long ago dis- 
appeared. The entrances are as usual on each side of the nave, and 
none at the west end. Though the proportions appear short with 
reference to the breadth, considerable additional effect is given by 
the screens that shut off both arms of the eastern transept so as not 
to allow the perspective effect to be broken. Hence the continuooB 
view of the central aisle, being six times as long as it is broad, gives 
the appearance of far greater length to the church than could be 
supposed possible from its lineal dimensions. But the great beauty 
here is the elegance both in proportion and detail of the pier-arches, 
which separate the nave from the aisles ; the proportion of the pillars 
is excellent, their capitals rich and beautiful, and every third pillar 
being replaced by a pier gives a variety and apparent stabilty which 
is extremely pleasing. 

The church at Limburg, near Durkheim, in the Bavarian Rhenish 
Palatinate, erected by the Emperor Ck>nrad (a.d. 1024-39), is a similar 
though rather a larger church than that at Hildesheim, and possesses 
a peculiarity somewhat new in Germany, of a handsome western porch 
and entrance, with a choir with a square termination, instead of with 
an apse as was usual. Ajiother fine church, with a plan of the same 
form, is the Benedictine abbey church at Echtemach, dedicated to St. 
Willibrord (a Northumbrian missionary monk). It was consecrated in 
1031. The extreme dimensions are 265 ft. by 72 ft. 

The three great typical buildings of this epoch are the Rhenish 
cathedrals of Mayence, Worms, and Spires. The first was commenced 
in the 10th century, and still possesses parts belonging to that age. 
The present edifice at Worms belongs principally to the church 
dedicated there in 1110. The age of the third and most important of 
these three cathedrals is still a matter of controversy, and one^ I fear, 
that will not be settled without difficulty ; for the church has been so 
frequently damaged by fire and war, and lately by ill-judged restora- 
tions, that it is not easy to ascertain what portions of it are old 
and what new. Still I cannot help feeling convinced that the plan, 
and probably a great part at least of the present structure, may 
belong to the original building of Conrad, commenced in 1030, and 
which was dedicated by his grandson Henry FV., thirty-one years 

Except the eastern apse, which is as usual flanked by two round 
towers, the whole of the exterior of Mayence has been so completely 

^ Taken from R. Dohme, * Geschichte dor Deutschcn Baukunat' BerliD, 1887. 

:. T. Ch. n. 


rebuilt, that little can now be said about it. The pUa presento' 
nothing remarkable, except that it is evident, from its Bolidity and 
arrangement, that it was intended from the tMjmmencement to be a 
vaulted building; while of its detaUs only one doorway remMOS 
which can with certainty be said to belong to the original foundation. * 
It is remarkable principallj tor the classicality of ita details, and if 
ita age is correctly ascertuned (the emi <d the lOtb oentory), it would 
go far to confirm the date nsnally assigned to the portal at Lorsch, 
namely, the late Oarlovingian period. 

At Worms, the only part now r«nuuning of the edifice dedicated 
in. 1110 is the eastern end. The western apse cannot be older than 
the year 1200, the intermediate parte having been erected between 
those dates. The original plan is probably nearly unchanged, and is 
a fine specimen of its class. The eastern tqne is a curioos compromise 
between the two modes of finishing that were 
in use at that period, being square externally, 
and circular in the interior. Internally the 
vaulting thronghont is simple and judicious, 
without any straining after efiects like those 
which puzzled the Norman architects in the 
same age (see ante, p. 114), 
and the alternate clustered 
piers and large size of the 
windows give to the whole a 
variety and lightness not 
usual in churches of that 
Nothing can well be 
simpler or nobler than the 
design externally. The four 
circular towers and the two 
domes break the sky-line 
pleasingly, and the ornamen- 
tation throughout is good 
and appropriate. Among the 
beet of its details are the 
pilaster-like buttresses which 

ornament its flanks; (me of 

) is shown on a larger CF>™a^„dO^, 
scale (Woodcut No. 702). They display the true feeling of Roman- 
esque art : one moulding on each side numing round the win- 
dows, while the central group forms a pilaster running up to the 

0«n.) Bala 100 ft. lo 1 In. 

If the design has a defect, it is the want of dignity in the lateral 
' Moller, * Deutsche Buukniut,' toL L [^te vL 


Past H. 

entrances, and from these moreover being placed onsymmetricaU; 
on the flanks. The fact of these being lateral arose from the doable- 
apse arrangement ; but there seems no reason why they sbonld not 
have been central, and been covered bj a porch to give them dignity. 

Whether right or wrong, this position of the entrances ia typical 
Oermou church architecture, and is found in all ages. 

Although the cathedral of Spires cannot boast of the elegance ai 
finish of that of Worms, it is perhaps, taken as a wbol^ the 

Bk. V. Ch. U. 


specimeii in Europe ot a bold and simple bnilding conceived, if the 
expression may be used, in a truly Doric spirit. Its general dimen- 
sions are 435 ft. in length by 125 in width; and taken with itsadjoncta, 
it GOTers about 57,000 square feet, so that though c^ sufficient dimen- 
sions, it is hy no means one of the largest cathedrals of its class. It 
in built BO solidly that the supporting masses occupy nearly a fifth 
of the area, and like the other great building of Conrad's, the church of 
Iiimbnrg, this possesses, what is 

80 rare in Oermaay, a narthex or ,'"■'_ 

porch,^ and its principal entrance ,' ; ■- 

faces the altar. Its great merit , < I - -i 

is the daring boldness and sim- 
plicity of its nave, which is 45 ft. 
wide between the piers, and 105 
ft. high to the centre of the vault, 
dimensions never attained in 
England, though they are equalled I 
or surpassed in some of tb 
French cathedrals. There is 
simple grandeur about the parts 
of this building which gives a 
value to the dimensions unknown 
in later times, and it may be 
questioned if there is any other 
Mediieval church which impresses 
the qwctator more by its appear- 
ance (A size than this. 

Externally, too, the body of 
the church has no ornament but 
its small window openings, and 
the gallery that runs round under 
all its roofs. But the bold square 
towen (certainly of the 13th 
centnry) and the central dome 
group pleasingly together, and, 
rising so far above the low roofs " 
of the half^depopolated town ab 
its feet, impress the spectator with awe and admiration at the boldness 
of the design and the grandenr with which it has been carried out. 
Taken altogether, this noble building proves that the Oerman 
architects at that time had actually produced a great and original 
style, and that had they persevered they must have succeeded in 

' ThU has boon cnUruly rebuilt, with a moilarn Tront. — Ed. 




perfectmg it, but they abfuidoned their task before it ' 

The western apae of the cathedral at Mayenoe is the most modem 
part of these three great cathedrals, and perhaps the oqIt example in 
Germany where a triapsal arrangement has been attempted with poly- 
gonal instead of circular forms. In this instance, as shown in 
Woodcut No. 705, the three apses, each forming three sides of an 
octagon, are combined together so as to form a singularly spacious and 
elegant choir, both externally and internally as beautiful as anything 
of its kind in Germany. Its style b so nearly ridentical with that of 
the eastern apse of the cathedral at Treves (Woodcut Na 698), that 
there can be no doubt but that, like it, it belongs to the beginning o£ 
the 13th century. At this time more variety and angularity were 
coming into use, suggested no doubt by the greater convenience which 
flat surfaces presented for inserting larger windows than could con- 
veniently be used with the older curved outlines ; for now that painted 
glass had come into general 
use, large openings had 
become indispensable few its 
display. Notwithstanding 
this advantage, and the 
great beauty of the othw 
forms often adopted, mme 
of them compensate for the 
external efiect c^ the cir- 
cular lines of the older 

Proceeding northwards, 
we find in the churches of 
Westphalia a fine series of examples which are comparauvaly but 
little known. Among the more important of these we may mention 
Ulinster, with its fine and impressive nave, Soest, Paderbom, 
Lippstadt, Osnabriick, Hildesheim, Hamein, Herafeld, Brunswick, 
Quedlinburg, Ooslar, Gelnhausen, etc. They are very numerous, and 
many of them are sufficiently large for architectural effect ; but in the 
earlier Bomuiesque work they are somewhat heavy, and in the age < 
of the pointed Gothic style there is a tendency to attenuation vhich -m 
is the reverse of pleasing. In some of the early churches there is.^ 
considerable refinement, as may be seen in the northex porch of the^o 
cathedral of Soest (Woodcut No. 706) ; and in the Schloss Kirch^^ 
at Quedlinburg there is a profusion of sculpture in tbe capitals, aomt^^ 
of which show considerable Byzantine influence. 

A good deal of the heaviness of the northern churchee inte mallyy 
may no doubt be traced to the circumstance that the earlier exampl^M^ 
depended almost wholly on colour for their ornament, and tbe paint^^ 

Bk. V. Ch. II. 



ing having disappeared, the plain 8t(me or plaster sorfacea remain— 
their flatness being made only the more prominent by the whitewash 
that now covers them. Notwithstanding these defects, so many of 
these churcbea remun in a state so nearly onaltered at the present 
day, that much informatioa might be gleaned from a study of their 
pecnliarities. The three examples, for instance^ given in Woodcut 
No. 706, illnstrate very completely the progress td German spire- 
growth. The first, that of Minden, is a very early example of the 
facade screen so popular thronghout Germany in the Middle Ages. 
The centra] example, from the cathedral at Paderbom, belonging to 

rram ' ItlllBdMrUdii Kuut In WeMptulm,' no W. 

the middle of the 11th eentnry, shows one of the earliest attempts at 
a spire-like roof to a tower, four gables being used instead of the two 
which were generally employed. The third illustration, &om Soest, 
about A.D. 1200, shows the transition complete. The four gables are 
still there, bat do not extend to the angles nor do they form the 
prininpal roof. The c(»iiers are oat o^ so as to suggest an octagon, 
and a eeoond rocrf has grown up to the form of a spir^ entirely 
eclipdng that suggested by the gables. In this instance also the 
tower has become a speramen of a complete design, and, though the 
narthex or porch has scanewhat the appearance td being stuck on, the 
upper pu^ of the tower is of considerable elegance. 

The same process of t^ir&'growth can be traced to some extent both 



in England and in France, but on the whole it is b; no means clear 
that the spire, properly bo called, is not an importation from the banks 
of the Bhine. Height in the root appears alwaja to have been 
considered a beauty hj German architects, and it seema to have been 
applied to towers earlier in Germany than in other oonntries. 

Far more important than these, and surpassing them infinitely in 
beauty, is the group of churches which adorns the city of Cologne, the 
virtual capital, or at least the principal city, of Germany at the time of 
their erection. The old cathedral has penshed and made way for the 
celebrated structure that now occupies its place. As just remarked, if 
it was like the restoration proposed by Boiaserde, it resembled Worms, 

. SU. Mull la Ciplwllu, ColoeiH. (Fnm Bolmeitt' 

and must have belonged to the 13th century; but it does not seem 
that there are sufficient data for determining this question. 

Of the remaining churches three may be selected as types of the 
German round-arched style as it existed on the eve of the introduction 
of the French pointed stylo into Germany. 

Of these, Sta. Maria in Capitolio (Woodcut No, 707) is apparently 
the oldest. It was originally erected by Flectmdis, wife of Pepin 
Heristall, in the year 700, but of that church nothing now remuns. 
The nave was rebuilt apparently in the 11th century, and the choir, 
with its three noble apses, in the 12tb, and perhaps even aa late as the 
13th century. In plan these apses are more spacious than tboM of 
the Apostles' Church or of that of St. Martin (Woodcuto 708 uul 709), 
this church alone having a broad msle running round each, a featnro 
which gives great breadth and variety to the perspective, but the afat 

Bk. V. Ch. U. 



of the Church of the Apostles (erected a.d. 1035) is far more beautiful 
externally. This Utter building is perhaps, taken altogether, the moat 
pleMJng example of its class, externally at least. The whole design oC 
the east end is quite complete, as ve now see it, and is perfectly well 
balanced in all its parts. St. Martin's, on the other hand (Woodcut 
No. 709), has more of the aspiring tendencies of the pointed style, and 
though very elegant, ita aspidal gallery is too small, and the whole 

ApH ot Uie ApoiUti' Chi 

Cologna, (From BolHtrfe.) 

design somewhat wiredrawn, while there is a solidity and repoae about 
the design of the Apostles' Church, and a perfect harmony among the 
parts, which we miss in the more modem example. These three 
churches, taken together, suffice probably to illustrate sufficiently the 
Dstnre and capabilities of the style which we are describing. The 
triapsal arrangement possesses in a remarkable degree the architectural 
propriety of terminating nobly the interior to which it is applied. Jis 
the worshipper advances up the oave, the three apses open gradually 
upon him, and form a noble and appropriate climax without the effect 



Past II. 

bdng destroyed b; something less magnificent beyond. But their 
most pleasing effect is external, where the three simple circular lines 
combine gracefully together, and form an elegant basement for any 
central dome or tower. Compared with the oanfused buttresses and 
pinnacles of the apaes 
of the French pointed 
churches, it most certainly 
be admitted that the 
German designs are f^ 
nobler, as possessing more 
orchitectnral propriety 
and more of the elements 
of true and simple beanty. 
The churches which possess 
this feature ore small, it 
is true, and therefore it 
is hardly fair to compare 
them with such imposing 
edifices as the great and 
overpowerisgly magnifi- 
cent cathedral of the same 
town; but among build- 
ings on their own scale 
they are as yet unriTolled. 
As these churches now 
stand, their effect is to 
some extent marred by 
the circumstance of their 
naves neither being suffi- 
cient in extent nor so 
ornamental as to support 
effectually the varied out- 
line and rich deowatioa 
of the apse. Generally 
these are of a different 
age and of a less ornate 
style, BO that the complete 
effect of a well-balanced 
composition is wanting; 
but this does not suffice 

m Bolaserto.) Salt 

to destroy the great beauties these churches undoubtedly { 

In so far 08 beanty of design in this style is concerned, perhaps the 
church at Bonn ought to be quoted next after those of Cologne. It is 
only the east end, however, that belongs properly to their style of 
architecture, the nave and central tower were not ccanpleted till the 

13th century ; bnt the eastem apse and ita two flanking towers are in 
thenuelves aa noble as the triapsal arrangement of the Apostles' Church, 
but would require even 
a bolder nave and loftier 
west end tobajanoe them 
than the more modest 
arraiigement at that 
building. As it is, the 
effect of the church as 
a whole is destn^ed by 
the comparative mean- 
ness of these parts. 

As is the case with 
almost all Mediieral 
buildings, the greater 
number of churches of 
this ^e have been 
erected at different 
periods of time, and the 
designs altered as the 
work proceeded, to suit 
the taste of the day. 
This circumstance 
makes them particn- 
lu'ly interesting to the 

architectural historian, 

Uiough the artist and 

architect must always 

regret the incomplete- 
Dees and want of bar- 

aony which this pro- 

dncee. An exception to 

this rule is found in the 
'>o»utiful abbey church 
At Laach, erected b»- 
'"ween the years 1093 
**»d 1156, therefore 
"^ther early 
Ktjla I 

*« Knall, cmly 215 ft. 

iulemally by 62; but , 

^>u it compensated for 

"J its completeness. It ' 

>■ tne of the few churches that still possess the western paradise 

<* purisc^ M shown in the remarkable ancient plan found at 

bitZndofCbnrchatttmi. (From 



Past U. 

St. Gall. The western apse is applied to its proper use of a ixaah- 
house, and on each aide of it, as at Mittelzell, are the principal 
entrances. Ezternallj this church has two 
central and four lateral towers, two of the latter 
being square, and two circular. It is imposaible 
to fane; anything; more picturesquely pleasing 
than this group of towers of various heights and 
shapes, or a church producing a more striking 
ict with such diminutive dimensions as this 
one possesses, the highest point being only 140 ft. 
£rom the ground-line. No church, however, of 
the pointed Gothic style has its sky-line so 
pleasingly broken, while the cornices and eaves 
— ^- » --■ —»— still retain all the unbroken simplicity of classic 
V r^'H'-f^jy examples, showing how easily the two forms might 
*■ ■'"' have been combined by following the path hero 
indicated. This church, the Liebfrauen Kirche 
at Halberstadt, and the Abbey of Maolbronn ' in 
Wurtemburg, the most perfect Cistercian abbey 
existing, are perhaps the finest and most typical 
buildings in this style, and sufficient to charac- 

' FoTBdeaoripUonof thissbbej eceapapeTreadb7Mr.Cku'leiFowl«r(B.I.K_ 

Tmnnctioos, 1882-83). 


terise tbe form of architecture in rogue in Germany in the great 
Hohenstanfen period (1138-1284), and in the century immediately 
preceding the accession to power of that house ; but they are not 
nearly all the really important buildings which during the epoch of 
true German greatness were erected in almost every considerable city 
of the empire. In Colc^e itself there is the church of St. Gereon, 

(F^om DoUwrt*.) 

the nave (rf which, with its crypt, belongs to the 11th century, 
the apse to the 12th, and tbe decagonal domed part to tbe 13th. 
This is a moat interesting specimen of transition architecture, and as 
such will be mentioned hereafter. So is the church oi St. Cunibert, 
dedicated in 1248, and hardly more advanced in style than the abbey 
of St. Denis near Paris, built at least a century earlier. The churches 


of St. George And of Sion in the same city afibrd interesting examples 
of the style; but even more 
important, however, than 
these are the noble church 
at Andernscb, the rem&ins 
of the abbey church of 
Heistecbach, and that of St. 
Quirinns in NeuBS. In the 
same neighbourhood the little 
church of Sinzig is a pleasing 
specimen of the age when 
the Oermans had laid aside 
the bold simplicity of their 
earlier forma to adopt the 
more elegant and sparkling 
contours of pointed architec- 
ture. A little farther up 
the Rhine the church of St. 
Castor at Coblentz agreeably 
exemplifies the later work 
(1157-1208), its apse being 
one of the widest and boldest 
of its class, though deficient 
in height, and the style m&y 
be said to have reached its 
zenith in the cathedrals of 
Limburg on the I^bn and 

The neighbourhood of 
Treves has also some excel- 
lent specimens of Komaneeque 
work, among which may be 
mentioned the abbey of Ech- 
temach, the chnrch trf St. . 

Mathios, and the interest 

ing and el^;ant churdt oft-. 

In Saxony there are mao^-j 
beautiful though no Yer^-a 
extensive examples of thE^ 
German style. Among thcrw . 
the two ruined abbeys •■ 
Faulinzelle and BflrgelL-^E: 
are remarkable for the aim[w _s 

CiTptitUiaihignL (From PuUricJi.) 

neither of tbem vaulted churches. 

elegance of their forma and details, showing bow graceful the sty" 

Bk. V. Oh. n. 

was becoming before the pconted arch was introdoced. The church 
at Wechselbnrg is also intereating, though eomewhat ^oom;, and 
retains a rood-screen of the 12th century (Woodcut No. 714), 
which is a rare and pleasing example of its class. The church 
at Hechlingen also deserves mention, and the fragment <ii the abbey 
at OSlIingen is a pleasing instance of the pore Itcdian class of design 
sometimes found in Germany at this age. Its crypt, too (Wood- 
cat So, 715), affords on example of vaolting of great elegance and 
lightness, obtained by introducing the horse-shoe arch, or an arch more 
than half a circle in extent, which takes off the appearance of great 

Tlf. FtvitottbtCtwdiaBa^tilm. (From Ch^iir.) 

pressure upon the capita of the pillar, and gives the vault that height 
and lightness which were afterwards sought for and obtained by the 
introduction of the pointed arch. It is still a question whether this 
was Dot the more pleasing expedient of the two. There was one 
objection to the use of this horseshoe shape, that considerable difficulty 
arose in using arches of different spans in the same roo^ which with 
pointed arches became perfectly easy. 

Another example, of more Lombardic design however, is found in the 
(^urch of Bceheim in Alsace, the facade of which (Woodcut No. 716) 
belongs as much to Verona as to this side of the Alps. Its interior is 
of pleasing design, though bolder and more massive than the exterior 
would lead us to expect. 



Pakt n. 

The fR^ade of the church of Marmontier in the same province, and 
of the cathedral tS Oebweiler, are two examples — very aimilar to one 
another — of a compromise between the purely German and purely 
Italian styles of design. The small openings in the former look almost 
like those of a southern clime, but in its present locality give to the 
church an appearance of gloom by no means usual. Still it has the 
merit of rigorous and purpose-like character. 

At Bamberg the church of St. Jacob is well worthy of attention. 

er (MBumOAStcT) (From Cbapaj ) 

and the Scotch church at Ratisbon is one of the best specunens in 
Germany of a smiple basdica without transepts or towers. Its 
principal entrance is a hold and elegant piece of design, covered with 
grotesque figures whose meaning it is difficult to understand Had 
it been placed at the end of the church, it might hare formed the 
basis of a magnificent fa^e , but stuck unsymmetncolly on one 
side — as la so usual in Oermany — it loses half its effect, and can 
only be considered as a detached piece of ornamentation, which is here 
— as it generally is — fatal to its eSect as an architectural composition. 

Bk. V. Cb. IL 


Double Ghubchbb. 

Before leaving ecclesiastical bnildinga, it ia necessary to allude to 
ft cluB of double churches and double chapels. Of the former the 
typical example ia the church <rf Schwartz Rheindorf, erected by 
Arnold von Wied, Archbishop of Cologne, on his return trom Con- 
atantinople in 114S, and dedicated in the year 1151. It is in itself a 
pleasing specimen of the style, irrespective ot its peculiarity. It is, 
however, simply a church in two storeys, and was originally built as 
a mausoleum, and in the form of a Greek cross without a tower at the 
intersection. After the death of the Archbishop, his sister Hedwig 
(Abbess of Essen) extended the nave two bays towards the west in 
order to form a junction with a nunnery which she had built on the 
west side. It is probable that the Byzantine plan first carried out 
exercised much influence on the churches at Cologne and the Bhins 
generally. At first sight, the lower church looks like an extensive 

have been its purpose so much as to 

crypt, but this does not 
afford an increase of accom- 
modation, to enable two 
congr^^tions to hear the 
same service at the same 
time, there being always in 
the centre of the fioor of 
the upper church an opening 
sofficient for those above to 
hear the service, and for 
scone of them at least to see 

the altar below. In castle chapels, where this method is most common) 
the upper storey seems to have been occupied by the noblesse, the 
lower by their retainers, ivhich makes the arrangement intelligible 

The chnrch at Schwartz Rheindorf is not large, being only 112 ft. 
long, over all, by 63 ft. wide across the transepts ; and the two western 

■ [Hncli hu been aald with regard to 
the nfe of double ohwcbes and ohapela 
in Qeniuui;. In the oaaea of the 
cbiipob at E^r, Ooalar, Naremberg, 
IjtAn, Landibeig, Freibarg on the 
Unrtmtti Cobnig, Stelnfnrt, and Vlan- 
dan, it is apparent, as thsy were in 
eoDoeotioii vith a oaatte or palace, tbat 
tbe Emperor (or Prinoe) with hii retinue 
ooold enter the apper chapel by a 
coDDBotiDg gallei; from the palace 
Bat Schwarti Blieindorf is so much 

larger than an; otbor donbln church or 
chapel known, that it would seem 
probable the object of (he upper ohnroh 
was to provide a plaoe of worship for the 
inhabitanta in the case of floodi, which 
in earl; times mnit have taknn place 
Tearlj : admiBaion being obtained thraagh 
a door on N. ndc, the gill of which ia 
abont 8 fL from groimil, and commnni- 
calcs with a stair-caie lending to upper 
church. — EdJ 


imEsisii AncniTECTrnE. 

Past II. 

l«iys apppjir to havp bi-en adiled afterwards. The walla of the lower 
storey are built of sullicicnt thickness to admit of a gallery being 
cirriitl all round the church externally on the level of the floor of the 
npper ehurch. This gives it n very peculiar but pleusing character ; 
and us thi- (li-titils are good and appropriately designed, it is altogether 

III. view (.f ide CliuRb of ScUttnrti KhflndoiT. (Fnm StmonO 

as cli.irncteristie and as original a design as can well he found of the 
purely German style of its age. 

In the castle at Nuremberg there is an old double chapel of tliit 
sort, but it does not appear in this instance that there was an opening 
between the two ; if it existed, it has been stopped up. There is 
another at Kger, and two are described by Puttrich in his beautiful 

*. T. ch. n. 



work on Saximy : one of these, the ch^>el at Landaberg near Halle, is 
given in plan and section in Woodcnts Sob. 720 and 721 ; and thongh 
small, being only 40 ft. by 28 internally, presents some beautiful com- 
binations, and the details are finished with a degree of elegance not 

generally found in larger edifices ; the other, that at Freibnrg on the 

Unstrntt, measnring 21 ft. by 28, is alt<%ether the best of the class, 

from the beaaty of its capitals and the finish of ereiy part of it. It 

belongs in time to the very end of the 12th, or rather perhaps to the 

13th century, and from the form 

of its vaults and the foliation of 

their principal ribs, one is almost 

inclined to ascribe to it a later 

period ; for it would be by no 

means wonderful if in a gem like 

this the lords of the castle should 

revert to their old German style 

instead of ad<^ing foreign inno- 

vatitRis. The windows are cJ 

pointed Gothic, and do not appear 

like insetti<ai8. Other examples 

exist at Qoslar, where, however, 

there is no opening between lower 

and upper chapel; at Cobnrg, 

liohra, Steinfurt in TVestphalia, ^2. vi*- >d>i pud of the Cttimdn] u Zortch. 

and Vianden in Luxemburg. ^'^ ^'-^> b-i. i«. ft. » i u.. 

Betoming again to Switzerland, with which this chapter b^an, we 
find several interesting buildings in that country during the whole 
round-arched Gothic period, many combining the boldness of the 
Northern examples with a certaia amount of Southern elegance of 
feeling in the details, which together make a very charming com- 

B 2 



Pabt n. 

bination. Among these, none are more remarkable than the cathedral 
at Zurich (Woodcut No. 722). Its date is not oorrectly known ; for 
though it seems that a church was founded here in the time of Otho 
the Great, it is rery uncertain whether any part of that building is 
incorporated in the present edifice, the bulk of which ia evidently ot 
the 11th or 13th century. The arrangement and details of the nave 

are so absolutely identical with those of San Michele at Paria, tlutt 
both must certainly belong to the same epoch. Bat in this chorch we 
meet with several German peculiarities to which attention cannot be 
too frequently drawn by those who would characterise correctly tim 
peculiarities of German Gothic. 

The first of these is the absence of any entrance in the west froat. 

Bk. V. Ch. n. SWISS CHURCHES. 245 

Where there is an apse at either end, as is frequently the case in the 
German churches, the cause is perfectly intelligible ; but the cathedral 
of Zurich has not, and never had, an apse at the west end, nor is it 
easy to suggest any motive for so unusual an arrangement, unless it is 
that the prevalence of the plan of two apses had rendered it more 
usual to enter churches in Germany at the side, and it was consequently 
adopted even where the true motive was wanting. In an architectural 
point of view, it certainly is a mistake, and destroys half the effect of 
the church, both internally and externally ; but it was very common 
in Crermany before they learnt from the French to make a more artistic 
arrangement of the several parts. 

Another peculiarity is the distinct preparation for two towers at 
the west end, as proved by the two great piers, evidently intended to 
support their inner angles. Frequently in Germany the whole west 
end was carried up to a considerable height above the roof of the nave, 
and either two or three small spires were placed on this frontal screen. 
This, however, does not appear to have been the case here ; for though 
the two towers that now adorn it are modern, the intention seems 
originally to have been the same. Had they been intended to flank the 
portal, and give dignity to the principal entrance, their motive would 
have been clear ; but where no portal was intended, it is curious that 
the Germans should so universally have used them, while the Italians, 
whose portals w^ e almost as universally on their west fronts, should 
hardly ever have resorted to this arrangement. 

The east end, as will be observed, is stjuare, an arrangement not 
unusual in Switzerland, though nearly unknown in the Gothic churches 
of Italy and Germany. The lateral chapels have apses, especially 
the southern one, which I believe to be either the oldest part of the 
cathedral, or to have been built on the foundations of that of Otho 
the Great. 

The most beautiful and interesting parts of this church are the 
northern doorway and the cloisters, both of nearly the same age, their 
date certainly extending some way at least into the 12th century. As 
specimens of the sculpture of their age, they arc almost unrivalled, 
and strike even the traveller coming from Italy as superior to any of 
the contemporary sculpture of that country. 

One of the doorways of the cathedral of Basle (Woodcut No. 723) 
is in the same style, and perhaps even more elegant than that of 
Zurich. Both in the simplicity of its form and in the appropriateness 
of its details it is quite equal to anything to be found in Italy of the 
11th or 12th century. Its one defect, as compared with Northern 
examples, is the want of richness in the archivolts that surmount the 
doorway. But, on the other hand, nothing can exceed the elegance of 
the shafts on either side, the niches of the buttresses, or of the cornice 
which surmounts the whole composition. 


These details of the Swiss buildings are well worthy of the most 
attentive consideration, inasmuch as they equal those of Provence or 
the North of Italy in elegance of feeling and design, while they are free 
from the classical tranmiels which so frequently mar their appro- 
priateness in those provinces. In Switzerland they are as original as 
in Northern Germany, and as picturesque, while they are free from 
the grotesqueness that so frequently mars the beauty of even the beet 
examples in that country. 

bk. V. ch. m. 






Aix-la-Chapelle— Nymwegen — Fnlda — Bonn — Cobem. 

If we are fortunate in having the St. Gall plan and Reichenau 
cathedral with which to begin our history of the basilican-formed 
churches in Germany, we are equally lucky in having in the Dom at 
Aix-la-Chapelle an authentic example of a circular church of the same 
age. As Emperor of the Romans, Charlemagne seems to have felt it 
necessary that he should have a tomb which should rival that of 
Augustus or Hadrian, while, as he was a Christian, it should follow 
the form of that of Constantine, or the most approved model of the 
circular church, which was that which had been elaborated not very 
long before at Ravenna. Though its design may have been influenced 
by Romano-Byzantine examples to some extent, the general arrangement 
of the building, and its details exhibit an originality which is very 
remarkable. The mode in which the internal octagon is converted 
into a polygon of sixteen sides, the arrangement of the vaults in both 
storeys, and the whole design, are so purely Romanesque in form, that 
it must be far from being the first example of its style. It is, however, 
the oldest we possess, as well as the most interesting. It was built by 
the greatest man of his age, and more emperors have been crowned and 
more important events have happened beneath its venerable vaults than 
have been witnessed within the walls of any existing church in Chris- 
tendom. Notwithstanding the doubts that have been thrown lately on 
the fact, I feel convinced that we now possess the church of Charle- 
magne in all essential respects as he left it.^ The great difficulty in 
fixing its age appears to arise from the circumstance that most of its 
architectural ornaments have been painted or executed in mosaic, 
instead of being carved, and time and whitewash have so obliterated 

> The building is as yet practically 
unedited, notwithstandiug its importance 
in the history of architectare. I have 
myself examined this edifice, but in too 

harried a manner to enable me to supply 
the deficiency. I speak, therefore, on 
the subject with diffidence. 


Pam IL 


these, that the remaming ekeletoa — it is little else — seema ruder and 
clumder thaa might be expected. 

As will be seen from the annexed plan, the church is externally a 
polygon of sixteen sides, and is abont 105 ft. in diameter ; internally 
eight compound piers support a dome 47 ft. 
6 in. in diameter. The height is almost 
exactly equal to the external diameter of 
the building. Internally this height is 
divided into four storeys ; the two lower, 
„ numing over the Bide-aiales, are covered 
^ with bold intersecting vaults. The tiiird 
t jM^ ^^f^ " gallery was vaulted with rampant conical 
1 *^e&i.*^i;'.'^.^ ^ vaults, and above that are eight windows 
giving light to the central dome. 

To the west was a bold tower-Uko 
building, flanked, as is usual in this style, 
by two circular towers containing staircases. 
To the east was a semicircular niche 
containing the altar, which ^vas removed in 
1353, when the present choir was built to 
replace it. 

There is a tradition that Otho III. 
rebuilt this minster, though it ia more 
probable that be built for himself a tomb-house behind the altar of 
that of his illustrious predecessor, where his bones were laid, and where 
his tomb till lately stood at the spot marked X in the centre of the 
new choir. What the architect seems to have done in the 14th 
century was to throw the two buildings into one, retainiiig the outline 
of Otho's tomb-house, which may still be detected in the unusual form 
shown in the plaa of the new building. 

The tradition is that this building is ft copy of Uta chorch of 
San Vitale at Ravenna, and on comparing its plan with that repre- 
sented in Woodcut No. 429, it must be admitted that there is a 
considerable resemblance. But there ia a bold originality in the 
German edifice, and a purpose in its design, that would lead us rather 
to consider it as one of a long series of similar buildings whidi there 
is every reason to believe existed in Germany in that age. At the 
same time the design of this one was no doubt considerably influenced 
by the knowledge of the Bomano-Byzantine examples of its class which 
its buUders had acquired at Rome and Ravenna. Its being designed 
by its founder for his tomb is quite sufficient to account for its droular 
plan — that, as has been frequently remarked, being the form always 
adopted for this purpose. It may be considered to have been also a 
baptistery — the coronation of kings in those days being reg&rded as » 
re-baptism on the entrance of the king upon a new sphere of life. It 

Bk. V. Ch. UL 


was in fact a ceremonial church, as distinct in its uses aa in its form 
from the basilica, which in Italy usually accompanied the circular 
church ; but whether it did so or not in this instance can only be 
ascertained when the spot and its annals are far more car^ully 
examined than has hitherto been the case. 

The circular churches at Nymwegen in Brabant and at Mettlach 
near Treves are even lose known than this one; the former was 

apparently built in imitation of Aix-Ia-Chapelle, and by the same 
monarch. From the half-section, half-elevation (Woodcut No, 725),' 

it will be seen that it is 

extremely similar to the one 
just described, both in plan and 
eleration, but evidently of a 
somewhat more modern date. 
It wants the facade which 
usually adorned churches of 
that age ; but it seems bo 
nnaltered from its original 
arrangement that it is well 
-worthy of more attention than 
it has hitherto received. The 

TlH Tbnrm, Uettluh. 

example at Mettlach (Woodcut Ko. 725a), near Treves, and known aa 
the Thurm, was built by Lioffinua, a British monk, 987-990. It is 
octagonal in plan, with a triforiiun gallery, the arches of which are 
carried on richly carved cubical capiUla (Woodcut No. 7256). The 

■ Taken tiom Schajea' 'HisUiiM de rAichitecture en Bolgique,' vol ii. p. 18, 
laken by him, I believe, froM TiimmtnlT 



Part II. 

building is 32 ft. in diameter and 61 ft. high, there being a tliird 

storey above the triforium gallery. 

The same design as that of Nymwegen was repeated in the choir 

of the nuns in the abbey church of Essen 
(c. 950 A.D.), where, however, there is a 
double range of columns in the upper gallery. 
Of the church of Otho the Great at 
Magdeburg we know nothing but from a 
model in stone, about 12 ft. in diameter, still 
existing in the present cathedral, and 
containing sitting effigies of Otho and his 
English Edith, who were buried in the 
original edifice. The model unfortunately 
was made in the 13th century, when the 
original was burnt down ; and as the artists 
in that day were singularly bad copyists, 
we cannot depend much on the resemblance. 
It appears, however, to have been a polygon 
of sixteen sides externally, like the two just 
mentioned ; and if it is correct to assume, 
as was generally the case, that the choir of 
the present cathedral is built on the f ounda- 

266. Cbiumn of Triforium, Mettuch. ^^^^ ^f the older church, its dimensions must 

have been nearly similar, or only slightly 
inferior to those of either of the two last-mentioned churches. The 
details of the model belong to the age in which it was made, and not 
to that of the church it was meant to represent. 

At Ottmarsheim, in Alsace, is another example which, both in 
design and dimensions, is a direct copy of the church at Aix-la-Chapelle. 
The only difference in plan is that it remains an octagon externally 
as well as internally, and that the gallery arches, instead of being 
filled with a screen of classical pillars borrowed from Italy, are orna- 
mented with shafts supporting eight arches designed for the place. 
There is no tradition which tells us who built this church, nor for 
what purpose it was erected. It is older than that at Nymwegen, 
but is certainly a copy of Charlemagne's church, and apparently not 
very much more modern. 

At the Petersberg, near Halle, is a curious compound example 
shown in the Woodcut No. 726. It is a ruin, but interesting as 
showing another form of circular church, differing from those described 
above, more essentially German in design, and less influenced by 
classical and Romanesque forms than they were. It never was or 
could have been vaulted, and it possesses that singular flat tower-like 
frontispiece so characteristic of the German style, which is found in no 
other country, and whose origin is still to l^ traced. 

bk. V. ch. nr. 



At Fnlda there u a circnlar church of a more complicated plan than 
this, though it is in fact only an exteouon of the same design. The 
cdrcolar part or choir is in this instance adorned with eight free- 
standing pillars of very classical proportions and design, very similar 
to thoee of Hildeaheim CWoodcut So. 699). There is a small 


transeptal entrance on one side of the circle and apparently a veatry 
to omrespond <m the other. It Ib altogether one of the most perfect 
buildings <d it« class, either in Germany or IVance, in so far at least as 
its plan U concerned. Its date is probably the beginning of the 11th 
ceotory, but it stands on a circular ctypt of still more ancient date.' 

At Drliggelte, near Soeat, there is a small circular church which 
deserves notice for the singularity of its plan. Externally it is a 
polygon of twelve sides. Internally it has four 
circular piers in the centre, two veiy large and 
strong two more slender, and around them a circle 
of twelve columns of rery attenuated form. As is 
usual in Qermon churches, the door and apse are 
not placed symmetrically as regards each other. 
Its dimensions are smalL being only 35 ft, across ^ ~ _ 

internally. The Oermui architects are not quite Drteii^ (Pnan Kngier.) 
agreed as to its date ; generally it is said that its 
founder brought the plan fr<Mn the Holy Land, and biult it here early 
in the 12th century in imitation of the Botunda which the Crusaders 
found on thxiii arrival in Jerusalem. 

Tbouf^ it is antidpating to some extent the order of the dates 
ot the buildings of Germany, it may be as well to complete here 

■ Sm paper b; Mr. Petit in the ' Arclueological Journal,' vol. x 

i. p. 110 

252 cmcniiAB churches. pabt n. 

the eubject of the circolor churches of that conntry; for after the 
beginning of the 11th oentmy they ceased to be used except in rare 
and isolated instances. At that date all the barbarian tribes bad been 
converted, and the baptism of infanta was a far lees important 
ceremony than the admission of adults into the bosom of the Church, 
and one not requiring a separate edifice for its celebration, and tombs 
hod long since ceased to he objects c^ ambition (unong a purely Aryan 
race. At the same time the immense increase of the ecclesiastical 
orders, and liturgical forms then established, rendered the circolar 
form c^ church inconvenient and inapplicable to the wants <d the age. 
The basilica, on the other hand, was equally sacred with the baptis- 
tery, and soon came to be considered equally applicable to the 
entombment of emperors and to other similar purposes. 

The circular church called the Baptistery at Bonn (Woodcut No. 
729), which was removed only a few years ago, was one of the most 

IK. BqitlslerT K Bonn. (From Bolnerta'a ■ Nl«d«i RhMn.*) 

interesting specimens of tlua class of monuments in the age to which it 
belongs. No record of its erection has been preserved, but its style is 
evidently of the Ilth century. Excepting that the straight or 
rectangular part is here used as a porch, instead of being inserted 
between the apse and the round church to form a c^oir, the building 
is almost identical with St. Tomaso in Limine, and other Iiomb^rd 
churches <£ the same i^e. Both externally and internally it is 
certainly a pleasing and elegant form of church, though little adapted 
either for the accommodation of a large congregation or to the 
oeremoniea of the Medieval Church. 

There is another small edifice called a Baptistery at Batiabon, 
built in the last years of the 12th century, which shows Ha* fwm 

bk. m. Ch. t. 


passing rapidly away, and changing into the rectangolar. It is in 
reality a square with apses on three ddeo, and vaulted with an 
octagonal dome. Aa we have just seen, the same arrangement forms 
the principal as well as the most pleasing characteristic of the Cologne 
churches, where on a larger scale it shows capabilities which we canaot 
but regret were never carried to their legitimate termination. The 
present is a angularly pleasing specimen of the class, though very small. 

and wanting the nave, the addition of which gives such value to the 
triapsal form at Cologne, and shows how gracefully its lines inevitably 
group together. On the spot it is still called the Baptistery ; but the 
correct tradition, I believe, is that it was built for the tomb-house <^ 
the bishop to whom it owes its erection. 

One more specimen will serve to illustrate nearly all the knovB 
forms of this class. It is a little cbapol at Cobem on the Moselle 
(Woodcut No. 730), hexagonal in plan, with an apse, placed most 
tmsymmetrically with reference to the entrance^ao at least we should 
r it ; but the Germans seem always to have been of opinion that 



Part n. 

a side entrance was preferable to one opposite the principal point of 
interest. The details of this chapel are remarkably elegant, and its 
external form is a very fayoorable specimen of the German style just 
before it was superseded in the beginning of the 13th century by the 
French pointed style. 

There is, besides these, a circular chapel of uncertain date at 
Altenf urt near Nuremberg, and there are many others at Prague and 
in various parts of Germany, but none remarkable either for their 
historical or for their artistic importance. This form went out of use 
before the style we are describing reached its acm6 ; and it had not 
therefore a fair chance of receiving that elaboration which was necessary 
for the development of its capabilities. 

A little farther on we shall have occasion again to take up the 
subject of circular churches when speaking of those of Scandinavia, 
where the circular form prevailed to a great extent in the early ages 
of Christianity in that country; never, however, as a baptistery or 
a tomb-house, but always as a kirk. It was afterwards introduced 
by the Danes into Norfolk and Suffolk, but there stOl farther 
modified, bedcnning only a western round tower, instead of a circular 
nave. \ 



Loneb — Palaces on the Wartbnig and at GelnbaiiBeii — Honsea — Wiadows. 

As might be expected, the remains of domestic architecture are few 
and insignificant as compared with those of the great monumental 
chnrobes, which in that age were the bnildrngs par excdUnee an which 
the wealth, the talent and the energy of the nation were so profusely 

The earliest building which haa been brought to light is certainly 
the portal of the Convent at Lorsch, near Mannheim It is now used 
as a store and has been a good deal defaced bat snfficient remains, not 
only to show its form, but the character <^ its details. These are so 

T31. PnnAofCunnDtULorKh. (PnmHulUr'i -Drakmller/AcO Nok*]*. 

classical as to justify us in calling the building Romanesque; and 
if it were not that we have buildings — such for instance as St. Faul- 
Trois-Chateaux (Woodcut No. 551), which may date in the 10th 
and 1 1th century — we might be inclined to assert most confidently that 
the date of this building must approximate nearly to the time of the 
departure of the Romans. On the other band, the purely classical 
details of such buildings as those found in Provence must render us 


cautious in judging of the age of any erection at that early time, from 
the style alone. No church in Germany is so classical in its details as 
this, but it will not do to rely on these alone for evidence of date ; for 
a hundred churches may have been built for one portal like this, and 
though ecclesiastical forms had become sacred, an architect may have 
felt himself justified in resorting to any amount of Paganism in a semi- 
secular building. On the whole there seems little doubt but that this 
porch formed part of the monastic building dedicated in the presence 
of Charlemagne in 774. It may, however, have been erected by an 
Italian architect, and consequently be more classical in its details than 
if the product of some purely Teutonic artist. 

Its dimensions are inconsiderable, being only 31 ft. by 24. It has 
three arches in each face, and above them a series of pilasters 
supporting straight-lined arches — ^if the expression may be used. These 
are interesting, as the same form is currently used in our Saxon 
architecture^ but never with such purely classical details as here. It 
is, in fact, only the elegance of these that gives interest to this 

Nothing now remains of the palaces which Charlemagne built at 
Ingelheim, or at Aix-la-Chapelle, nor of the residences of many of his 
successors, till we come to the period of the Hohenstaufens. Of their 
palaces at Gelnhausen (1170 a.d.) and on the Wartburg (1140-1190 
A.D.) enough remaios to tell us at least in what style and with what 
degree of taste they were erected, and the remains of the contemporary 
castle of Muenzenburg complete^ as far as we can ever now expect it 
to be completed, our knowledge of the subject. 

One of the earliest palaces still existing is that of the Imperial 
Palace at Gk)slar, founded by Henry III. It has suffered much from 
restorations, but probably retains its original plan, the chief feature 
of which is an immense hall on the upper storey measuring 181 ft. 
long by 52 ft* wide. Another example with similar hall of less size is 
found in the Palace of Dankwarderode, in Brunswick, 1150-70. Of 
the same date is the Palace of Eger, to which Frederic Barbarossa 
added a chapel in two storeys, similar to the double chapel of 
Landsberg, both of which are referred to on page 243. 

Besides these a considerable number of ecclesiastical cloistered 
edifices still remain, and some important dwelling-houses in Cologne 
and elsewhere ; but on the whole our knowledge is somewhat meagre, 
— a circumstance that is much to be lamented, as, from what we do 
find, we cannot fail to form a high idea of the state of the domestic 
building arts at that period. 

What remains of the once splendid palace of Barbarossa at Geln- 
hausen consists first of a chapel very similar to those described in the 
last chapter; it is architecturally a double chapel, except that the 
lower storey was used as the hall of entrance to the palace, and not 

Bk. V. Ch. IV. 


for diTinfl service. To the left of this were the principal apartments 
of the palace, presenting a facade of about 112 ft. in length, and 
probably half aa high. Along the front ran a corridor about 10 ft. 

AmdeoftbePiUHUaeknhuKD. (Fnm II311«r.) 

deep, a precaution apparently necessary to keep out rain before glass 
caoie to be generally used. Behind this there seem to have been 
three rooms on each floor ; the largest, or throne-room, being about 
50 ft. square. The principal architec- 
tural featores of what remains are the 
open arcades of the fa9ade, one of which is 
represented in the last woodcut (Ko. 732). i 
For elegance of proportion and beauty of 
detail they are unsurpassed by anjrthing 
ot the age, and certainly give a very 
hi|^ idea of the degree of excellence to 
which architecture and the decorative arts 
had then been carried, and, as will be 
observed, they are purely Bomanesque in 
detail, without any trace <d the classicality i- 
of Lorach. 

The castle on the Wartburg is historically the most important 
edi£ce of its class in Germany, and its size and state of preservation 
render it remarkable in an artistic point of view. It was in one of its 
h«.l]» that the celebrated contest was held between the six most eminent 



poets of Germany in the year 1206, which, though it nearly eaded fatally 
to one of them at least, shows how much importance was attached to 
the prof easion of literature at even that early period. Here the sainted 
Elizabeth of Hungary lived with her cruel brother-in-law ; here she 
practised those virtues and endured those misfortunes that reader her 
name so dear and so familiar to all the races of Germany ; and it was 
in this castle that Luther found shelter after leaving the Diet at 

Worms, and where ho resided under the name of Ritter George, *^ 
happier times enabled him to resume hia l.ibours abroad. 

The principal building iu the castle where these events took pl^ 
closely resembles that at Gelnhuusen, except that it is larger, b«*- 
130 ft. in length by 50 in width. It is three storeys in height, *i^ 
out counting the basement, which is added to the height at one eo<i 
the slope of the ground. 

All along the front of every storey is an open corridor leadii 
the inner rooms, the dimensions of which cannot now be easily 


tained, owing to the castle haying been always inhabited, and altered 
in modem times to suit the conyenienoe and wants of its recent occu- 
piers. In its details it has hardly the elegance of Gelnhausen, but its 
general appearance is solid and imposing, the whole effect being ob- 
tained by the grouping of the openings, in which respect it resembles 
the older palaces at Venice more than any other buildings of the clasSi 
It has not perhaps their minute elegance, but it far surpasses them in 
grandeur and in all the elements of true architectural magnificence. 
It has been recently restored, apparently with considerable judgment, 
and it well deserves the pains bestowed upon it as one of the best 
illustrations of its style still existing in Europe. 

The extensiye ruins of the castle on the MUnzenberg, Which, like 
those of Gelnhausen and Wartburg, belongs to the 13th century, though 
less important, is hardly less elegant than either. It deriyes a 
peculiar species of picturesqueness from being built principally of the 
prismatic basalt of the neighbourhood, the crystals being used in their 
natural form, and where these were not ayailable, the stones haye 
been rusticated with a boldness that giyes great yalue to the more 
ornamental parts, in themselyes objects of considerable beauty. 

None of these castles haye much pretension to interest or magni- 
ficence as fortifications, — a circumstance which giyes an idea of more 
peaceful times and more settled security than we could quite expect in 
that age, especially as we find in the period of the pointed style so 
many and such splendid fortifications crowning eVery eminence along 
the banks of the Rhine, and indeed in eVery corner of the land. These 
last may, in some instances, haye been rebuildings of castles of this 
date, but I am not aware of any haying been ascertidned to be so. 

There is no want of specimens of conyentual buildings and cloisters 
in Germany of this age ; but eyery one is singularly deficient both in 
design as a whole and in the elegance of its parts* The beautiful 
arcades of the palaces we haye just been describing nowhere reappear 
in conyentual buildings. Why this should be so it is difficult to 
understand, but such certainly is the fact. The most elegant that is 
known to exist is probably the cloister to the cathedral at Zurich. It 
is nearly square, from 60 to 70 ft. each way. Eyery side is divided 
into fiye bays by piers supporting bold semicircular arches, and these 
are again subdiyided into three smaller arches supported by two 
slender pillars. The arrangement will be understood from the wood- 
cut (No. 735). This cloister is superior in design to many in Franco 
and elsewhere of the same age ; its great beauty consists in the details 
of the capitals and string-courses, which are all difierent, most of them 
with figures singularly well executed, but many merely with conyen- 
tional foliage, not unlike the honeysuckle of the Greeks and not 
unworthy of the comparison as far as the mere design is concerned, 

s 2 


Part II. 

though the execution is rude- The same is the case with the Gcnlp- 
turea of the portal ; for though they display even lesa olaasical feeling, 
they show aa exuberance of fancy and a boldness of handling which 
we miss entirely in the succeeding ages, when the art yielded to make 
way for mere architectural mouldings, as if the two could not exist; 
together. The example of Greece forbids us to believe that anch is 


lU. CMMr It Zurich. <FnmClwpDj, 'Hojai-AcallODniDniUL') 

necessarily the case, but in the Middle Ages it certainly was, that as 
the one advanced nearer to perfection, the other declined in almost mn 
equal degree. 

The best collection of examples of German cloisters is found in 
Boisseree's ' Nieder Rhein.' But neither those of St, Gereon nor of 
the Apostles, nor St. Fantaleone at Cologne, merit attention as works 


oogh they are certainly curious as historical monuniflnta ; and 
il galleries of Sta. Maria in the CJapitol are even inferior in 
their resemblauce, however, to the style of Baveniia gives 
De value archeeologically. The same remarks apply to the 
at Heistcrbach, Mid even to the more elegant trausitiooal 
at Altenberg. Almost all these examples, nevertheless, 
ime elegant capitals and some parts worthy of study ; but 
badly put together and badly used, so that the pleasing effect 
tered court and conventual buildings is here almost entirely 
.e cause of this 
) explain, when 
a much beauty 
. in the build- 
vhich they are 
ly accompani- 

I are several 
g-houses in 
and elsewhere 
low how early 
the tall gabled 
bicb they re- 

a very late 
trough all the 

1 which took 
ihe details v, ith 
ay were earned 
. the illustra- 
odcut No. 'i 
ittle ornament, 

forms of the . 

and the general : 
n of the parts 

iing, and the "** D^sm^K-t^uK, Coiogn.. (1.-™p. Boi«rt..) 

>ffect produced certainly satisfactory. The size of the lower 
is remarkable for the age, and the details are pure, and are 
with a degree of lightness which we are far from considering 
ral characteristic of so early a style. 

windows at the back of the house illustrated in Woodcut 
are so large, that were it not for the unmistakable character 
in front, and of some of its details, we might be inclined to 
hat it belonged to a much more modern age. As shown in 
Icut No. 737, the details are as light and elegant as anything 
in architecture of the pointed style. 

^ A A ^ iH 

' ^ ^ m. m m., 


Part 1L 

There are several minor peculiarities which perhaps it might be 

more regular to mentioa here, but which it will be more convenient 

to allude to when speaking of the pointed stjle One, however, cannot 

thus be passed over — and that la the form which windows m churches 

and cloisters were 

beginning to assnme 

just before the period 

when the transition to 

the pointed style took 

Up to that period 
the Germans showed 
no tendency to adopt 
window tracery, in 
the sense in which 
it was afterwards 
understood, nor to 
divide their windows 
into oompartments by 
mnllions. I do not 
even know of an 
instance in any church 
of the windows being 
so grouped together 
as to suggest such an expedient. All their older windows, on the 
contrary, are simple round-headed openings, with the jambs more or 
less ornamented by nook-shafts and other such expedients. At the 
end d the 12th and beginning of the 13th century they seem to have 
desired to render the openings more ornamental, probably because 

tracery had to a certain extent been adopted in France and the 
Kecherlands at that period. They did this first by foiling circles 
and semicircles ; the former a pleasing, the latter a very onpleasing, 
form of window, but not so bad as the three-quarter windows — 
if I may so call them — used in the church <tf Siou at Cologne 
(Woodcut Ko. 738) and elsewhere: these, however, are hardly so 

Bk. V. Ch. IV. WINDOWS. 263 

objectionable as the fantastic shapes they sometimes assumed, as in the 
examples (Woodcut No. 739), taken from St. Quirinus at Neuss. Many 
others might be quoted, the forms of which are constructively bad 
without being redeemed by an elegance of outline that sometimes 
enables us to overlook their other faults. The more fantastic of these, 
it is true, were seldom glazed, but were mere openings in towers or 
into roofs. These windows are also generally found in transition 
specimens, in which men try experiments before settling down to a 
new course of design. Notwithstanding this, they are very objection- 
able, and are the one thing that shakes that confidence which might 
otherwise be felt in the power of the old German stylo to have perfected 
itself without foreign aid. 




History of style — St. Gereon, Cologne — Churches at Gelnhausen — Marburg — 
Cologne Cathedral —Freiburg — Strasburg — St. Stephen's, Vienna — ^Nuremberg 
— ^Miihlhausen — Erfurt. 

It is scarcely necessary to repeat — what] has been already perhftps 
sufficiently insisted upon — that the Germans borrowed their pointed 
style from the French at a period when it had attained its highest 
degree of perfection in the latter country. At all events^ we have 
already seen that the pointed style was commonly used in France in 
the first half of the 12th century, and that it was nearly perfect in all 
essential parts before the year 1200; whereas, though there maj be 
here and there a solitary instance of a pointed arch in Germany (though 
I know of none) before the last-named date, there is certainly no church 
or building erected in the pointed Gothic style the date of which is 
anterior to the first years of the 13th century. Even then it was 
timidly and reluctantly adopted, and not at first as a new style, but 
rather as a modification to be employed in conjunction with old forms. 

This is very apparent in the polygonal part of the church of St. 
Gereon at Cologne (Woodcuts Nos. 740 and 741), commenced in the 
first year of the 13th century, and vaulted about the year 1212.^ The 
plan of the building is eminently German, being in fact a circular nave, 
as contradistinguished from the French chevet, and is a fine bold 
attempt at a domical building, of which it is among the last examples. 
In plan it is an irregular decagon, 55 ft. wide over all, north and south, 
and 66 ft. in the direction of the axis of the church. Notwithstanding 
the use of the pointed arch, the details of the building are as unlike the 
contemporary style of France as is the plan ; and are, in fact, nearly a 
century behind French examples in the employment of all those expe- 
dients which give character and meaning to the true pointed style 

Another church in the same city, St Cunibert, is a still mora 
striking example of this. Commenced in the first decade of the 13th 

* Boissere'e, * Nieder Rhein/ p. 36. 

Bk. V. Ch. V. 



century, and dedicated in 1248, the very jesr in which it is said the 
foundation-stones of the cathedral were laid, it still retains nearly all 
the features of the old German style, and though pointed arches are 
introduced, and even tracery to a limited extent, it is still very far 

'"^'Oioved from being what can be considered an example of the new 

-More advanced than either of these is the choir of the cathedral of 

"^^^debni^, said to have been commenced in 1208, and dedicated in 

^4. This was built, as before mentioned, to supply the place of the 


Part U. 

old circular sepulchral church of Otho and his English queen Edith. 
Hence it naturally took the French chevet form, of which it is, 
probably, the earliest example in Germany, and which it copies rudely 
and imperfectly in its details. It possesses the polygonal plan, the 
graduated buttresses, the decorative shafts, and other peculiarities of 
the French style, and, if found in that country, would be classed as 
of about the same age as St. Denis. The upper part of the choir and 
the nave are of very much later date, and will be mentioned here- 

A more interesting example of transition than this is the church at 
Gelnhausen, unfortunately not of 
well-known date, but apparently 
built in the middle of the 13th 
century, though the choir, it is 
said, was not finished till 1370. 
Its interest lies in its originality, 
for though the pointed arch is 
adopted, it is in a manner very 
different from that followed by 
the French, and as if the 
architects were determined to 
retain a style of their own. In. 
general design its outline is very 
like that of the church at Sinzig 
(Woodcut No. 713). In it 
attempts are even made to copy 
its Bpsidal galleries, but their 
purpose is misunderstood, and 
pillars arc placed in front (rf 
windows,- — a blunder afterwards 
carried, at Strasburg and else- 
where, to a far more fatal extent. 
Taken altogether, the style hero 
exhibited is tight and graceful ; but it neither has the stability of 
the old round-arched Gothic, nor the capabilities <d the French 
pointed style. The Liebfrauen church attached to the cathedral 
at Treves is another of the anomalous churches of this age (1227 
to 1243) : its plan has already been given (Woodcut No. 696), and 
was probably suggested by the form of the old circular building 
which it supplanted. Perhaps from its proximity to France it 
shows a more complete Gothic style than either of those already 
mentioned ; still the circular arch continually recurs in doorways 
and windows, and altogether the uses of the pointed forms and the 
general arrangement of ports and details cannot be said to be well 
understood. There is, however, a novelty, truly German in its plan 

Bk. V. Ch. V. 


and a simplicitj about its amuigement, which make it the most 

pleasing specimeti of the age, and standing 

on the foundation of the old ohurcb of Sta. 

Uelena, and grouped with the Dom or 

cathedral, it yields in interest to few 

chupoheB in Germany. 

From these we may pass at once to 
two churches of well -authenticated date, 
and slightly French in style. The first, 
that of St. Elizabeth at Marburg, whose 
name has been already mentioned (p. 258) 
as adding interest and sanctity to the old 
castle on the Wartburg. Four years after 
her death she was canonised, and in the 
same year, 1235, the foundation was laid 
of this beautiful church, which was com- 
pleted and dedicated forty-eight years , 
afterwards, viz., in 1283. 

It is a small church, being only 208 ft. 
in length by 69 in width internally, and though the details a 

e all of 


Pabt n. 

good earl; French style, it still exhibits several Gertnanums, being 
triapsal in plan, and the three aisles being of the same height. The 
latter most be considered as a serious defect, for besides the absence 
of contrast, either the narrow side-aisles appear too tall or the central 
one too low. This has also caused the defect of two storeys of 
windows being placed throughout in one height of wall, and vithout 
even a gallery to give meaning to euch an arrangement. No French 
architect ever fell into such a mistake, and it shows how little the 
builders who could not avoid such a solecism understood the spirit of 
the style they were copying. The west front with its two spires is 
somewhat later in date, but of elegant design, and is pleasingly 
proportioned to the body of the church, 
which is rarely the case in Germany. 

The other church is that at Altenberg, 
not far from Cologne, on the opposite side 
of the river Rhine. The foundation- 
stone was laid in 1255, and the chapels 
round the choir completed within a few 
; years of that time, but the works wen 
I then interrupted, and the greater part 
of the church not built till the succeeding 
century. Like all the early churches of 
the Cistercian Order it is without towers, 
and is extremely simple in its outline and 
decorations. It is, in fact, almost a 
copy of the abbey of Pontigny (Woodcut 
No. 643), which was built fully a century 
earlier, and though it does show some 
advance in style in the introduction of 
tracery into the windows and more 
variety of outline externally, it is 
remarkable how little progress it evinces in the older parts. In the 
subsequent erection there are some noble windows filled with tracery 
of the very best class, which render this church the best counterpart 
Germany can produce of our Tintem Abbey, which it resembles in 
many respects. Indeed, taken altogether, this is perhaps the most 
satisfactory church of its age and style in Germany, and in the 
erection of which the fewest faults have been committed. It was 
rescued from ruin by Frederick William IV, <rf Prussia, but its 
extensive conventual buildings have been destroyed by fire. 

These examples bring us to the great typical cathedral of Odrnwny, 
that of Cologne, which is certainly one of the noblest temples ever 
erected by man in honour of his Creator. In this respect Germany haa 
been more fortunate than either France or England ; for though in the 

IK. V. Cu. V. 


number of edifices in the pointed style and ia beauty of design these 
countries are far superior, Germany alone possesses one pre-eminent 
example in which all the beauties of its style are united. 

Generally speaking, it ia assumed that the building we now see is 
that commenced by Conrad von Hochstetten in the year 124S, but 
more recent researches have proved that what he did was to rebuild 
or restore the double-apse cathedral of earlier date. The examples just 
quoted, however, were 
no other proof available, 
are suHicient to show 
that the Gothic style 
"Was hardly then intro- 
duced into Germany, 
^nd but very little 
"Understood when prac- 
tised. It seems that 
~the present building 
was begun about the 
year 1270-12(0, and 
that the choir was com- 
pleted in all essentials 
as we now find it by 
the year 1322.' Had 
thenav^e been completed 
at the same rate of 
progress, it would have 
shown a wide deviation 
of style, and the western 
front, instead of being 
erected according to the 
l>eautiful design pre- 
served to us, would 
have been covered with 
A tinmp tracery, and 
'^t.ber vagaries of the 

'■^.te German school, alt i4b. pbnrfdhedraiucoogM. (From st 
^*^ which are even now So»ie looFrtncn n. wiin. 

-*V»erv»ble in the part of the north-west tower actually erected. As 
"^ «3e church is now complete according to the original design, one of its 

' The be«t rAmn^of the argataeut» on 

*3is qaeation will be found in the contro- 

^^^nj carried on by P. da Verneilh, the 

^^uon de Botier, uid H. BoiMeree, in 

^-kidton'i 'Aanales Archpolagiqnef,'ToI. 

' There is & alight error id the icaJa 
of this plan, the artist in reducing it 
baviog need the ecalo of FrcDch instead 
of Eugliab feet. It ought to be l-16tii 


principal beauties is the uniformity of style that reigns throughout, 
contrasting strongly as it does with the greater number of Northern 
cathedrals, whose erection spreads over centuries. In dimensions it is 
the largest cathedral of Northern Europe ; its extreme length being 
468, its extreme breadth 275, and its superficies 91,464 ft., which is 
20,000 ft. more than are covered by Amiens, and one-fourth more than 
Amiens was originally designed to cover* On comparing the eastern 
halves of these two from the centre of the intersection of the transept, 
it will be found that Cologne is an exact copy of the French cathedral, 
not only in general arrangement, but also in dimensions, the only 
difference being a few feet of extra length in the choir at Cologne, 
which is more than made up at Amiens by the projection of the Lady 
Chapel. The nave, too, at Cologne is one bay less in length. On the 
other hand, the German building exceeds the French by one additional 
bay in each transept, the two extra aisles in the nave, and thef 
enormous substructures of the western towers. All these are decided 
faults of design into which no French architect would have fallen. 

Looking at Cologne in any light, no one can fail to perceive that 
its principal defect is its relative shortness. If this was unavoidable 
at least the transept should have been omitted altogether, as at 
Bourges, or kept within the line of the walls, as at Paris, Rheims, and 
elsewhere. It is true, our long low English cathedrals require bold 
projecting transepts to relieve their monotony ; but at Cologne their 
projection detracts both internally and externally from the requisite 
appearance of length. Indeed, this seems to have been suspected at 
the time, as the facades of the transepts were the least finished parts 
of the building when it was left, and the modern restorers would have 
done well if they had profited by the hesitation of their predecessors, 
and omitted an expensive and detrimental addition* 

Another defect before alluded to is the double aisles of the nave. 
It is true these are found at Paris, but they were an early experiment. 
At Bourges the fault is avoided by the aisles being of different heights ; 
but in none of the best examples, such as Rheims, Chartres, or Amiens, 
would the architects have been guilty of dispersing their effects or 
destroying their perspectives as is done at Cologne, and now that the 
whole of the interior is finished these defects of proportion are become 
more apparent than they were before. The clear width of the nave is 
41 ft. 6 inches between the piers, its height 155 ft., or nearly four times 
the width — a proportion altogether intolerable in architecture. And 
this defect is made even more apparent here by the aisles being 
together equal in width to the nave, while they are only 60 ft. in 
height. Besides the defect of artistic disproportion, this exaggerated 
height of the interior has the further disadvantage of dwarfing to a 
painful extent the human beings who frequent it Even the gorgeous 
ceremonial of the Catholic Church and their most crowded processions 


lose all their effect by comparison with the building in which they are 

performed. Were a regiment of Life Guards on horseback to ride 

down the central aisle at Cologne, they would be converted into 

pigmies by the 148 ft. of height above them. Lateral spaciousness 

has not the same dwarfing effect ; when all are standing on the same 

iloor, distance does not diminish in a building more than in the open 

SLiTy and with that effect we are familiar, but great height in a room is 

unusual, and in proportion as it affects the mind with awe or astonish- 

nent does it diminish the appearance of those objects with which we 

£fcre familiar. Perhaps, however, the most striking defect of the 

m ntemal design is the want of repose or subordination of parts : 50 

_pillars practically identical in design, and spaced nearly equally over 

he floor, and beyond them everywhere a wall of glass. If the four 

ntral piers had been wider spaced, or of double the section they now 

ire, or had there been any plain wall or any lateral chapels anywhere, 

t would have been better. Notwithstanding all these defects, it is a 

lorious temple ; but so mathematically perfect, that not one little 

mer is left for poetry, and it is consequently felt to be infinitely less 

teresting than many buildings of far less pretensions. 

Externally the proportions are as mistaken, if not more so than 

^^.hose of the interior ; the mass and enormous height of the western 

^towers (actually greater than the whole length of the building), now 

^hat they are completed, have given to the whole cathedral a look of 

shortness which nothing can redeem. With such a ground-plan a true 

architect would have reduced their mass one-half, and their height by 

one-third at least. ^ 

Besides its great size, the cathedral of Cologne has the advantage of 
living been designed at exactly the best age ; while, as before re- 
iiiarked, the cathedrals of Rheims and Paris were a little too early, St. 
Ouen's too late. The choir of Cologne, which we have seen to be of 
almost identical dimensions with that of Amiens, excels its French 
Hval internally by its glazed triforium, the exquisite tracery of the 
Windows, the general beauty of the details, and a slightly better 
Prx)portion between the height of the aisles and clerestory. But this 
^<lvantage is lost externally by the forest of exaggerated pinnacles 
^iiich crowd round the upper part of the building, not only in singular 
^iiscord with the plainness of the lower storey, but hiding and con- 
sing the perspective of the clerestory, in a manner as objectionable 
a constructive point of view as it is to the eye of an artist. 
J^«corated construction is, no doubt, the great secret of true archi- 
*^^<3tiire ; but like other good things, this may be overdone. One-half 
*he abutting means here employed might have been dispensed with, 
*^^ the other half disposed so simply as to do the work without the 

W'ithin the last few years also the 
^'^^vlrBl has been isolated on all sides, 

so that it has now the appearance of an 
overgrown monster. — Ed. 


ro Fa;»l(r>fCiai«lnlcfCol(i(n. (From Ilalmtit*.) 


oonfnsion produced. When we turn to the interior to see what the 
vault is, which this mass of abutments is provided to support, we find 
Tt ^th all the defects of French vaulting — ^the ribs few and weak, the 
ridge undulating, the surfaces twisted, and the general effect poor and 
feeble as compared with the gorgeous walls that support it. Very 
Judicious painting might remedy this to some extent; but as it now 
stands the effect is most unpleasing. 

The noblest as well as the most original part of the design of this 
csathedral is the western fa9ade (Woodcut No. 747). As now com- 
pleted, it rises to the height of 510 ft. This front, considered as an 
Sjidependent feature, without reference to its position, is a very grand 
cx>nception. It equals in magnificence those designed for Strasburg 
wkud Louvain, and surpasses both in purity and elegance, though it is 
^^ery questionable if the open work of the spires is not carried to far 
^^KK) great an extent, and even the lower part designed far too much by 
'^rule. M. Boisser^ says, 'Hhe square and the triangle here reign 
^rapreme ; " and this is certainly the case : every part is designed with 
^^he scale and the compasses, and with a mathematical precision perfectly 
•^astonishing : but we miss all the fanciful beauty of the more irregular 
IPrench and English examples. The storeyed porches of Rheims, 
<]Jhartre8, and Wells comprise far more poetry within their limited 
^mensions than is spread over the whole surface of this gigantic 
^frontispiece. Cologne is a noble conception of a mason, but these were 
the works of artists in the highest sense of the word. 

It is certainly to be regretted that there is no contemporary 

French example to compare with Cologne, so that we might have 

been enabled to bring this to a clearer test than words can do. St. 

Onen's comes nearest to it in age and stylo, but it is so very much 

smaller as hardly to admit of comparison ; for though the length of 

the two churches is nearly identical, the one covers 91,000 square 

feet, the other little more than half that, or only 47,000. Yet so 

judicioiis is the disposition of the smaller church, and so exquisite 

its proportions, that notwithstanding the late age of its nave, and 

the inappropriateness of its modem front, it is internally a more 

beautiful and almost as imposing a church as that of Cologne, and 

CiKtenially a far more pleasing study as a work of art. Had Marc 

d' Argent oommenced his building at the same time as the builder of 

Gologoe, and seen it completed, or had he left his design for it prior 

^o 1322y even with its smaller dimensions, it would have been by far 

tbi^ nobler work of art of the two. These, however, are after all but 

^cain speculations. We find in Cologne the finest specimen of masonry 

^ti^li^eiiipted in the Middle Ages ; and notwithstanding its defects, we 

see in the completed design a really beautiful and noble building, 

''(hy of its builders and of the religion to which it is dedicated. 

-4.t Freiburg, in the Breisgau, there is a contemporary example 

^^^^ II. T 



oommenoed in 1283, and finished in 1330^ This fine spire is identical 
in style with the Cologne examples, and perhaps on the whole even 
better, certainly purer and simpler both in outline and detail, though 
it is not clear that the richer ornament of Cologne would not bo more 
in accordance with this description of lace-work. 

The total height of the spire at Fi*eiburg is 385 ft. from the ground, 
and is divided into three parts. The lower portion is a square, plain 
and simple in its details, with bold prominent butti*esses, and con*- 
taimng a very handsome porch. The second is an octagon of elegant 
design, with four triangular pinnacles or spirelets at the angles, which 
break most happily the change of outline, and out of this rises, some- 
what abruptly, the spire, 155 ft. in height. An English architect 
would have placed eight bolder pinnacles at its base ; a French one 
would have used a gallery, ot taken some means to prevent the cone 
from merely resting on the octagon. This junction between the two 
is poor and badly dianaged ; but after all, the question is, whether 
the open spire is not a mistake, Which even the beauty of detail 
found here cannot altogether redeem. It is not sufficient to say it 
is wrong, because a spire is and ought to be a roof, and this is not. 
It is true a spire was originally a roof, and still retains the place of 
one, and should coilsequently suggest the idea ; but this is not abso* 
lately indispensable; and if the tower be insufficient to support the 
apparent weight of a solid spire, or for any such reason, the deviation 
would be excusable, but such is not the case here, nor at Cologne. 

Indeed, it seems that the whole is only another exemplification oi 
the ruling idea of the Grerman masons, an eitcessive love of tours de 
foreey and an inordinate desire to do clever things in stone, which 
soon led them into all the vagaries of their after Gothic ; here it is 
comparatively inofiensive, though I still feel convinced that if one-> 
half the openings dt the tracery were filled up, or only a central 
trefoil or quatrefoil left open in each division, the effect would be far 
more pleasing and satisfactory. 

In the spires that flank the transepts, the open work is wholly 
unobjectionable, owing to the smallness of the scale ; but in the main 
and principal feature of the building the case is very different : dignity 
and majesty are there required ; and the flimsiness, as it might almost 
be called, of the open work, goes far to destroy this. 

The nave of this church is a fair specimen of the German Gothic 
of the age, being contemporary with the spire, or perhaps of a little 
earlier date ; but the Want of the triforium internally, and the conse- 
quent heavy mass of plain wall over the pier-arches, give it a poor and 
weak appearance. The choir, a work of the 15th century, runs into 
all the extravagance of the later German stylo, its only merits being 
its size and lightness. 

Of the other open-work spires of Germany, one of tjhe most beau- 

T 2 



Part II. 

tifal is that ot Thaan in Alsace, in which the octagonal part is ao 
light that anything more solid than the tracery that forms the ^im 
would seem to crush it. 

Besides these, there Ls a pleasing example at Esalingen ; another 
attached to the cathedral at Meissen, in favour of which nothing can 
be said; and those adorning the two towers of the facade of the 
cathedral of Berne, which, because they are so small relatively to the 
towers they sunnount, and are tn fact mere ornaments, are pleasing 
and graccfnl termina- 
tions to the front. 

Next in rank to 
Cologne among Ger- 
man cathedrals is 
that at Strasbnrg. 


much smallcv aa 

hardly to admit oC 

coming, eren vith 
its subsidiary ad- 
juncts, little more 
t^ian 60,000 square 
ft. The iriiole cC 
the eastern part cf 
this church bdcmgs 
to an older basilic^ 
built in tbe llth and 
I2th centurion and is 
by no means reDoa^- 
able eitiwr lor it^ 
beanty oc its ni^ 
besides being so over — 

r«. w«rfst«.bQrsc.a.toi. Sco. i» n. lo i in. powered by the navw 

which has been addo^B 
to it, as to render its appearance somewhat inaigaJfioant. ^Hie nav^S 
and the western front are the glory and the boast of Altamn, anr^^ 
possess in a remarkable degree all the beauties and defect of th^^ 
German style. 

It is not known when the nave was commenced, but probably i^:^ 
the early half of the 13th century, and it seems to have been finiah t-^ * 
about the year 1275, a date which, if authentic, is in itself qui^t^ 
BofScient to settle the controversy as to whether any part of Oolog^r^^ 
is of an earlier age, everything we see in Strasburg being irf an olA--^ 
style than anything in that church. 


WM FroDl of CiUiidnJ nt SniboTt. 


Be this as it may, the details are pure and beautiful, and the 
design of singular boldness. The central aisle is 55 ft. wide from 
centre to centre of the piers, and the side aisles 33 ft. wide, while the 
corresponding dimensions at Cologne are only 49 ft. and 25 ft. respec- 
tively. Notwithstanding this, the vault at Strasburg is only 101 ft. in 
height against 155 ft. at Cologne. The coni^uence is, that measured 
from centre to centre the central aisle at Cologne is more than three 
times as high as it is wide, while at Strasburg it is less than twice. 
The whole width of the more northern example is practically equal to 
the height — at Strasburg it is oi^e-fifth less ; but the one having only 
three aisles, while the other has five, makes all these discrepancies still 
more apparent. Had the architect at Cologne, instead of introducing 
«^n external aisle, only increased the dimensions of Strasburg by one- 
fifth, retaining all its proportions, he would both externally and 
Internally have produced the noblest building of the Middle Ages. As 
it is, the smaller nave of Strasburg is infinitely superior in proportion 
and apparent dimensions to that of the larger building. 

This compcM^ative lowness of the nave at Strasburg is greatly in its 
flavour, as the length, which is only 250 ft., is made th& most of, and 
the shortness of the cathedral is not perceived. 

It does not appear that Erwin von Steinbach had anything to do 
with this part of, the structure, beyond repairing the vault when 
damaged by fire in 1298, at which time he also introduced some new 
^tures of no greati importance, but sufficient in some degree to confuse 
the chronology. What he really did, was to commence the western 
facade, of which he laid the foundation in 1277, and superintended the 
erection till his death, 41 years afterwards, when he was succeeded by 
his sons, who carried it up to the platform in 1365. 

The Germans, however, wishing lio find a name to place in their 
Walhalla^ and mistaking entirely the system on which buildings were 
carried out in the Middle Ages, had tried 1^ exalt Erwin into a genius 
of the highest order, ascribing to him not only the nave, but also the 
design of the spire as it now stands. If he had anything to do with 
the former, he must have been promoted at a singularly early age to 
the rank of master-mason, and have been a most wonderfully old man 
at the time of his death ; and if he designed the spire, he must have 
had a strangely prophetic spirit to foresee forms and details that were 
not invented till a century after his death ! The fact is, Erwin did no 
more than every master-mason of his ckge could do. There is no novelty 
or invention in his design, and only those mistakes and errors which all 
Germans fell into when working in pointed Gothic. In the first place, 
the fa9ade is much too large for the church, which it crushes and hides ; 
and instead of using the resources of his art to conceal this defect, he 
made the vault of the ante-chapel equal in height to that of Cologne, 
the result being that the centre of the great western roso-window is 


just as high as the apex of the vault of the nave. It is true it can be 
seen in perspective from the floor of the church, but the arrangement 
appears to have been expressly designed to make the church look low 
and out of proportion. 

The spiral staircases at the angles of the spire are marvels of work- 
manship, and the whole is well calculated to excite the wonder of the 
vulgar, though it must be condemned by the man of taste as very 
inferior in every respect to the purer designs of an earlier age. 

It is not known whether the original design comprised two towers, 
like those of the great French cathedrals, or was intended to terminate 
with a flat screen-like facade. Probably the latter was the case, as 
mass, and not proportion, seems to have been this architect's idea of 

The spire that now crowns this front, rising to a height of 468 ft. 
from the ground, was not finished till 1439, and betrays all the faults 
of its age. The octagonal part is tall and weak in outline, the spire 
ungraceful in form and covered with an unmeaning and constructively 
useless system of tracery. 

Besides the fault of pn^rtion for which the design of Erwin is 
clearly blamable, all his work betrays the want of artistic feeling which 
18 characteristic of the German mason. Every detail of the lower part 
of the front is wire-drawn and attenuated. The defect of putting a 
second line of unsymmetrical tracery in front of windows, the first 
trace of which was remarked upon in speaking of Gelnhausen, is here 
carried to a painful extent. The long stone bars which protect and 
hide the windows are admirable specimens of masonry, but they are no 
more beauties than those which protect our kitchen windows in modern 
times. The spreading the tracery of the windows over the neighbouring 
walls, so as to make it look large and uniform, is another solecism 
found both here and at Ck)logne, utterly unworthy of the art, and not 
found in, I believe, a single instance in France and England, where the 
style was so much better understood than in Germany. 

Altogether the facade of the cathedral at Strasburg is imposing 
from its mass, and fascinating from its richness ; but there is no 
building in either France or England where such great advantages 
have been thrown away in so reckless a manner and by so unintelligent 
a hand. 

The cathedral at Hatisbon is a far more satisfactory specimen of 
Crerman art than that of Strasburg. It is a small building, only 
272 ft. in length, and 114 in breadth internally, and covering about 
32,000 sq. ft. It was commenced in the year 1275 ; the works were 
continued for more than two centuries, and at last abandoned before 
the completion of the church. 

As will be seen from the plan (Woodcut No. 751), it is much more 
German than French in its arrangements, having three apses instead 


Past IL 

o( a cheret. The side-aislea are iride in proportion to the central one, 
the transept subdued, and alb^ther it is more like the old round-ardied 
Gothic basilica than the French church. It has two storejB of windows 
in the apse, as at Marburg, where the 
arrangement is unmeaning and ofienBive, 
while here the nave has side-aisles and a 
clerestory : tiius the upper windows of the 
apse are a continuation of the clerestory 
windows of the nave, and the effect is not 
unpleasing. The details of this chnrch are 
singularly pleasing and elegant through- 
out, and produce on the whole a harmony 
not commonly met with in German 
churches of this age and style. 

If size were any real test of beauty, 
the cathedral at Ulm ought to be one of 
the finest in Germany, being just twice 
as large as that at Ratisbon, covering 
63,800 ft. So far also as oonstmctiTO 
merit is concerned, it is perhaps the best ; 
for though I have no plan I can quite 
rely upon, I believe that not more than 
one-fifteenth of the area is occupied by 
the supports ; nor is this chnrch sarpasBed 
by many in sharp and clever mechanical eiecation of the details. 
With all this it would be difficult to find a colder and more niiiinprea- 
sire design than is here carried out ; both internally and externally, it 
is the work of a very clever mason, but of a singularly bad artist. 
The freemasons had, when it was founded (1377), got poaseanon of the 
art in Germany ; and here they carried their system to its mami, and 
with a result which every one with the smallest appreciation of art 
can perceive at once. It is said that, in the original demgn, the outer 
range of pillars, dividing the side-Msle into two, was to have beea 
omitted, which would have made it even worse than it ia. Iti one 
western tower, now that it is completed, is perhaps more beaatiftil 
than that at Strasburg ; and, besides, being actually higher (S39 ft.), 
appears taller from standing alone. Its form, too, is more pluaring ; 
and, though its details are far more suited for execution in oast ma 
than in stone, rivals, and perhaps even surpasses, those at Antirarp or 

St. Stephen's of Vienna (Woodcut No. 763) ranks fourth or fifth 
among the great churches of Germany, both for siw and richness 
of decoration. Its length, internally, is 337 ft., its width 116, and 
it covers about 52,000 square ft. It is situated too near the eastern 
edge of the province for ns to expect anything very pure or perfect is 


(Fiwn 'ChW PriDdpill i' Eutoiml') 


an example of Gothic art, and it certainly sins against every canon 
that a purist would enact. The three aisles are nearly equal in width 
and height, — ^there is no clerestory — ^no triforium. There are two 
very tall windows in each bay. The pillars are covered with sculpture, 
more remarkable for its richness than its appropriateness, and the 
tracery of the vaults is very defective. Yet, with all these faults, 
and many more, no one with a trace of poetry in his composition 
can stand under the great cavernous western porch and not feel that 
he has before him one of the most beautiful and impressive buildings 
in Europe. A good deal of this may be owing to the colour. The 
time-stain in the nave is untouched, the painted glass perfect, and 
the whole has a venerable look, now too rare. The choir is being 
smartened up, and its poetry is gone. Meanwhile^ no building can 
stand in more absolute contrast with the cathedral at Cologne than 
this one at Vienna. The former fails because it is so coldly perfect 
that it interests no one ; this impresses, though offending against all 
rules, because it was designed by a poet. We feel as if the Rhenish 
architect would certainly have been Senior Wrangler at Cambridge 
had he tried, but that his Danubian brother was fit to be Laureate 
at any court in Germany. 

It is the same with the exterior. The one great roof running over 
the three aisles, and covering all up like an extinguisher, ought to be 
abominable, but it gives a character to the whole that one would be 
sorry to miss, and is not out of harmony with the exceptional character 
of the whole building. The great glory of this church consists in its 
two spires, one of which is finished, the other only carried up to about 
one-third of its intended height. Their position is unfortunate, as they 
are placed where the transepts should be, so that they neither form a 
facade nor dignify the sanctuary ; they occupy, in fact, the position of 
the lateral entrances which the Germans were so fond of, and are the 
principal portals of the building. In itself, however, the finished spire 
is the richest, and, excepting that at Freiburg, perhaps the most 
beautiful of all those in Germany. Its total height, exclusive of the 
eagle, is 441 ft., rising from a base about 64 ft. square^ gradually sloping 
from the ground to the summit, where it forms a cone of the unpre- 
cedently small angle of little more than 9 degrees. The transition from 
the square base to an octagonal cone is so gradual and so concealed by 
ornament, that it is difficult to say where the tower ends and the spire 
begins. This gives a confusion and weakness to the design by no 
means pleasing. Indeed the whole may be taken as an exemplification 
of all the German principles of design carried to excess, rather than as 
a perfect example of what such an object should be. It deserves to be 
remarked that there is no open work in the spire, though, from its own 
tenuity and the richness of the tower, there is no example whore it 
would have been less objectionable. 

Bk. V. Ch. V. 


Had the architects of Eastern Qermany continued to practise the 
style a little longer before the introduction of the Benaissance art, it 
is probable they ironld hare gone further 
from the French fomu than they did even in 
St. Stephen's. Among the novelties they did 
employ, one of the most remarkable was th^ 
invention of flat-ro(rfed choirs. The plan of 
the Franciscan church at Salzburg (Woodcut 
No. 753) will explain what la meant by this.' 
The nave (^ the church is a very beautiful 
example of the round-arched style, so pure 
and elegant in its details as to betray its 
proximity to Italy, and without a trace of 
pointed architecture, though dating as late as 
1230-1260. In the year 1470 it was deter- 
mined to rebuild the choir. In France this 
would haye been e&cted by an extended 
range of chapels round a chevet ; in England 
by several bays added to the length. In 
Germany they did better : they placed five slender piers on the floor ; 
these, though 70 ft. in height, are less than i ft. in diameter, yet they 
appear sufficient for the task they have to perform, while their slender- 
ness prevents them from interrupting the view in any direction. 
From these rose a vault, extending on the same level from wall to wall 
with a tree-like growth, from each of these pillars — without any ex- 
ertion or constructive difficulty ; the choir thus forma a hall 66 ft. 
wide by 160 in length, exclusive of the side-chapels which surround it 
in two storeys. A dome in that position might have been more 
sublime ; but passing through the confined vestibule of the nave the 
expansion into the U^t and airy choir produces one of the most 
magical effects to be found in any church in Europe. The details ai 
the vault, as is only too uaual at that age, are not constructively 
correct ; but if this design had been carried out with English fan- 
tracery nothing could well be more beautiful. In plan and dimensions 
this choir very nearly resembles Henry TIL's Chapel at Westminster ; 
but in design the German surpasses the EInglish example to a greater 
extent than it falls short of it in beauty of detail. 

St. Lawrence's Chu)*ch at Nuremberg is a larger and better known 
example of the same class of design. It was commenced in 1275, and 
finished after 202 years' labour. The style of this church is conae- 
quentJy much more uniform ; and though not large, being only 300 ft. 
long by 100 in width, its proportions are so good that it is a very 

' From the * Jahrbach der Ccntntl Conunisdoii 
i. ii. p. 37- 

ir £rhaltnDg dcr Bandouknialo,' 



beantiful and impresuve example of the style. It is a little too late 
in its details, but beautiful in its arrangements. The view, standing 
by the pulpit and looking towards the east, is 
as poetic as that of St. Stephen's, and as 
spacious as at Salzburg. The two rows at 
windows raund the apse are k defect that 
might easily have been avoided, but which 
the beauty of the painted ^taa goes far to 

Externally, the western front, though on 
1 a small scale, only 250 ft. in height, is better 
proportioned and more pleasing in its detail 
than almost any other double-spire facade in 
Qermany that can be named. The real defect 
of the exterior is the overwhelming nx^ of 
the nave and the wont of external buttresses, 
which, with bold pinnacles, would have gone 
far to correct its heaviness. 

St. Sebald's Church at Nuremberg seema 
originally to have been a chevet turned the 
wrong way, to the eastern end of which a 
choir of somewhat exaggerated dimenuonjs was 
added at a later age (1303-1377). This choir 
was not only placed onsynunetrically as regards 
the axis of the older part, but also as regards its own parts. It is, 
however, lofty and airy, with the same arrangement as to vaulting as 
the two last examples, but, being lighted 
by a single row of tall windows, it avoids 
the defect of the two«toreyed arrange- 
ment. These windows are 60 ft. high, 
and barely 8 ft. in width, which is far 
too narrow in proportion. Their mnlliona ^ 
are nearly 40 ft. in height ; and, though 
triumphs of German masonic skill, ar^^ 
most nnpleasing features of arohitectural — 

When the Germans bad once mastered 
this invention in vaulting they applied it» 
wherever an opportunity presented itself, 
and in one instance at least, to & five' 
aisled basilica, It is tme the church o£ 
St. Barbara at Kuttenberg,^ in B^bumifcp 
'} a very remarkable erne. The building ■ 

1 only a fragment, but it i. 

■ See 'MittcUlloilichc Etmstdcnkmsla OaUrcicIu,' vol. i. p. 171. 


WM apparentlj commenced about the year 1358, and completed, as far 
as we now see it, in 1548. Its dimensioiiB are smaller than those of 
Cologne^ being only 126 ft. across its five aisles instead <d 150 ; bat 
its great peculiaritj is that the roof of the first aisle next the oentral 
one on each side is converted into a great gallery, as shown in the 
■ectioQ (Woodcut So. 7&6), and the vaolt carried flat above the 

IhaChnlchof SI.BuUn,KaltHibgrK< Sod* H It. lo 1 Id. 

three. To a certun extent this prevents the clerestory windows from 
being BO easily seen frcoa all parts of the floor of the chnrch, but when 
seen it b at a better angle ; and, altc^^her, a play of light and shade 
and a poetry d eflect is introduced which more than compensates for 
thia. The doable apse may be the most characteristic feature of 
German MediKrval churches, but this seems to be the highest and most 
poetic of their inventions. 

The church of St. Veit at Prague is very similar to that at 
Euttenberg. It was commenced about the year 1346, and, like it, 
was meant to imitate and rival Cologne. Its proportions, however, 
are better, being only 105 ft. high, internally, with a width of 130 ft., 
bat its details, as might be expected from its date, are very far inferior 
to those of its northern rival. Like Euttenberg, it is now only a 
choir^a fragment <d what was intended ; and it neither possesses the 
poetry of its Bohemian rival, nor the perfect masonry of Cologne and 
perhaps more resembles Beauvais than any other church of its age. 

In Bavaria there are several churches erected later in the style, 
which, in sjnte of many defects of detaU, are still very imposing 


edifices. The cathedral at Munich is a well-known example of this 
style, but a better specimen is the St. Martin's church at Landshut 
(1404). As in almost all these examples, the three aisles are the same 
height, and outside are covered by one gigantic roof. Internally this 
gives great spaciousness, but externally the exaggerated height of the 
windows and the size of the roof > are great defects. The most 
beautiful feature at Landshut is the spire, which rises to the height of 
425 ft., and is as gracefully and appropriately designed as any other 
which has been completed in Germany of its age. Though not so rich 
as St. Stephen's at Vienna, it has not its confusion of outline, and it 
also avoids the somewhat ambiguous beauties of the open-work spires 
so frequent in this country 

In adopting the pointed-arched style^ the Germans generally aban- 
doned their favourite double-apse arrangement; and though they 
seldom adopted the whole of the chevet, preferring their own simple 
apse to it, it seems to have been only, or at least generally, where an 
old round Gothic double-apse church existed previously, that this 
arrangement was continued after the commencement of the 13th cen- 
tury. Naumburg, the nave of which was commenced about the year 
1200, is an instance of this. This Was no doubt inserted between two 
older apses, both of which were rebuilt at a later age, forming two very 
beautiful and extensive choirs. The whole makes a very pleasing and 
interesting church, though there certainly is an architectural incon- 
gruity in entering by the side, and the double^pse arrangement is 
unfamiliar and nearly unintelligible to us at the present time. 

A still better example is the cathedral at Bamberg, which, judging 
from its date, ought to be in the complete pointed style. Though its 
east end dates from 1220, and the west 1257, it is still so completely 
transitional, and the pointed form so timidly used, that in France it 
would certainly be said that there was a mistake of at least a century 
in these dates. It is nevertheless a very fine church; and its four 
elegant towers flanking the two apses give it a local and at the aune 
time a dignified character which we often miss in the imitations of 
French churches, too common at this age. At Naumburg unfortunately 
only three towers exist, the fourth never having been erected, which 
considerably mars the effect when comparing it with the more complete 
edifice at Bamberg. 

Augsburg is another example of this class ; although of good age, 
the rebuilding having commenced in 1366, it is one of the ugliest and 
worst-designed buildings in Germany, with nothing but its size to 
redeem it. It is peculiar in having a chevet at one end and an apse at 
the other. 

The principles of the French schools of art seem to have prevailed 
to a much greater extent in the North of Germany, and we have in 
consequence several churches of more pleasing design than those last 

Bk. V. Ch. V. SOUTH GEEMANT. 287 

raentioaed. Among these ia the cathedral at Halberstadt, a simple 
bat beautiful church, not remarkable for an^ very striking peculiari- 
ties, bat extremely satisfactory in general effect. The great church, 
too, at Xanten may be quoted as another very favourable specimea, 
though far more essentially Qerman in its arrangement. The western 
front is older than the rest, and is German, wholly without French 
inSuence. It has no central entrance, but has two bold mossire towers. 
The church behind these is of the latter part of the 13th and the 14th 
centuries. It is generally good in detail and prc^rtion, but is 
arranged, as seen in the plan, in a manner wholly different from the 
French method, though in a form common in all parts of Qermany. 
The polygonal form is retained both for the apse and for the chapels, 
but without adopting the chevet with its -^ 

surrounding aisle, nor the absolute seclusion y^; *{ 

rf the clKor as a priestly island round *«»[ 'BW-f- 

which the laity might circulate, but within . 

whoae sacred precincts they were not , / 
permitted to enter. It is observable that 'y-' 
in those districts where cbevets are most --y- 
frequent, generally speaking, the Catholic ,. . .. 
religion has had the firmest hold. On the • 
other hand, where the people had declined '~.' 
to adopt that arrangement, it was a sign /■■ 
that they were ripe for the Reformation, 
which accordingly they embraced as soon ',/ 
as the standard of rebellion was raised. 

In the South of Qermany we have 
already had occasion to remark on the ''\ . ,, 

tendency to raise the side-aisles to the same . 

height as the central one, which eventually T«. Pi»«rM 

^ ~i J ZanUo. 8ala 104 ft. M 1 in. 

became the rule in the great brick churches 

of Munich and other parts of Bavaria, the piers or pillars becoming 
mere posts suiqKirting what was practically a horizontal roof. In 
the north the tendency seems to have been the other way — to 
exaggerate the clerestory at the expense of the aisles. A notable 
example of this ia found in the nave at Magdeburg, where the side- 
aisles are practically little more than one-third of the whole height of 
the church ; and there being no triforinm, the clerestory windows rest 
a|:^>arently on the vault of tho side-aisle. This has now no doubt a 
disagreeable effect, but when filled with painted glass the case must 
have been different, and the effect d this immense screen of brilliant 
colours must have been most beautiful. 

A better example of this arrangement is found in the cathedral at 
Metz, where, from its proximity to France, the whole style was better 
understood, and the details are consequently more perfect. Externally, 


it must be conf eased, the immense height of the clerestory gives to the^ 
church a wire-drawn appearance, very destructive of architectural 
beauty ; but internally, partly from the effect of perspective and partly 
from the brilliancy of such glass as remains, criticism is disarmed. 
The result, however contrary to the rules of art, is most fascinating ■_ 
and at all events, though an error, it is in a far more pleasing direction 
than that of the southern architects. 

These may perhaps be considered the great and typical examples of 
the pointed style as applied to church architecture in Germany ; but 
besides these there are numerous examples scattered all over the 
country, many of which, as being less directly under French influence, 
display an originality of design, and sometimes a beauty, not to be 
found in the larger examples. 

Among these is the Cathedral of St. George at limborg on 
the Lahn. This building belongs to the early part of the 13th 
century, and exhibits the transitional style in its greatest purity, 
and with less admixture of foreign taste than is to be found in almost 
any subsequent examples. Though measuring only about 180 ft. by 
75, it has, from its crown of towers and general design, a more 
imposing appearance externally than many buildings of far larger 
dimensions. The interior is also singularly impressive. 

The church of St. Emmeran at Ratisbon, a square building of about 
the same age and style, is chiefly remarkable for the extensive aeries of 
galleries which surround the whole of the interior, being in fact* the 
application of the system of double chapels (see p. 241) to a pariah 
church ; not that vaulted galleries are at all rare in Germany, but that 
generally speaking they are insertions ; though here they seem part of 
the original design. 

At Schulpforta in Saxony there is a very elegant church of the best 
age, and both in design and detail very different from anything else in. 
Germany. Its immense relative length gives it a perspective rarely 
found in this country, where squareness is a much more common 

At Oppenheim, in the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate, is a church 
the choir of which is a simple and pleasing German apse with 
elongated windows. The nave, four bays in length, is an elaborate 
specimen of German ornamentation in its utmost extravagance, and, 
considering its age, in singularly bad taste, at least the lower part. 
The clerestory is unobjectionable, but the tracery of the windows and 
walls of the side-aisles shows how ingeniously it was possible to 
misapply even the beautiful details of the early part of the lith 
century. In St. Werner's Chapel, Bacharach, on the Rhine, this is 
avoided, and, as far as can be judged from the fragment that remains, 
it must, if it ever was completed, have been one of the best specimens 
of German art in that part of the country. The nave of the cathedral 

Bk. V. Ch. V. 


at Meissen, though marked by many of the faults of German design, 
is still a beautiful example of well-understood detail. 

Aa a purely German design nothing can surpass the Maria Kirche 
at Miihlhausen (Woodcut No. 759). The nave is nearly square, 87 ft. 
by 105, and is divided into five aisles by four rows of pillars aupport- 


1S>, PUn of Mull Kirche it UUbltuuUD. Suta 100 fL u I la. 

ing the vaults, all at the same level. To the west is a triple frontis- 
piece, and to the east (Woodcut No. 759) the three apses, which form 
so fftvonrite an arrangement with the Germans. Externally its 
attenuation is painful to one accustomed to the more sober work of 
French architects ; but this fault is here not carried to anything like the 


Past II. 

excess found in other churcheB. Internally the effect is certainly 
pleasing, and altogether there are perhaps few better specimens <rf 
purely (joniian design in pointed architecture. The church of St. 
Blasius, in the same 
town, is far from being 
so good an example of 
the style. 

The cathedral at 
Erfurt is a highly 
ornamented building, 
but though possessing 
beautiful detula in 
parts, yet it shows 
the slendemess of con- 
struction which is so 
frequent a fault in 
German Gothic build- 
ings. The church of 
St. Severus in the same 
town resembles that at 
Miihlhausen, but pos- 
sesses so characteristic 
' a group of three spirea ' 
over what we would 
- condder the transept 
— or just in front of 
the apse — that it is 
illustrated (Woodcut 
No. 760). It certainly 
looks like a direct 
lineal descendant from 
the old Roman basili- 
can apse grown into 
Gothic tallDess. 
Though common in 
Germany, placed either 
here or at the west 
front, I do not know 
of any single example 
<d such an arrangement either in France or England. 

To the same class of E<]uai-e churches with slightly projecting 
chancels belongs the Fr;iui'n Kirche at Nuremberg, one of the most 

' Tho fa^Io clceignnl for the cutlic- i in amiDgcacnt, though on a mach larger 
dnil at LouTnin (mentioned p. 196) Bcale, and inflnitely richer in ciiiiaiDCBt. 
was identical with this group of spires | 


ornate of its kind, and possessing also in its triangularly formed porcb 
another peculiarity found only in Germany. The principal entrances 
to the cathedrals of Ratisbon and Erfurt are of this description — the 
latter being the richest and boldest porch of the kind. 

One of the best known examples of the daring degree of attenuation 
to which the Germans delighted to carry their works is the choir 
(Woodcut No. 724) added in 1353 and 1413 to the old circular church 
of Charlemagne at Aix-la-ChapeUe. As we now see it, the effect is 
certainly unpleasing ; but if these tall windows were filled with painted 
glass, and the walls and vaults coloured also, the effect would be widely 
different. Perhaps it might then be even called beautiful ; but with 
scarcely a single exception all those churches are now deprived of this 
most indispensable part of their architecture, and, instead of being the 
principal part of the design, the windows are now only long slits in the 
masonry, giving an appearance of weakness without adding to the beauty 
or richness of the ornament. 

The same remarks apply to the Nicholai Kirche at Zerbst, and the 
Petri Kirche at Gorlitz, both splendid specimens of this late exagge- 
rated class of German art. By colour they might be restorcid, but as 
seen now in the full glare of the cold daylight they want almost every 
requisite of true art, and neither their size nor their constructive skill 
suffices to redeem them from the reproach. 

U 2 




Giroulor Chnrehes — Church Furniture — Ciril ArehileetoM. 

Circular CiirRciiES. 
In adopting the pointed 8t3le, the Germans almost wholly abandoned 
their old favourite circular form ; 
the Liebfrauen Church at Treves 
(Woodcut No. 695) beingal most the 
only really important example of 
a church in the style approaching 
to a rotunda. Chapter-houses are 
as rare in Genuany as in France, 
and those that are found are not 
generally circular in either conn- 
try. There is a baptistery attached 
to the cathedral at Meissen, and 
one or two other insignificant ex- 
amples elsewhere ; but the most 
pleasing object of this class is the 
Anna Chapel, attached to the 
principal church at Heiligenstadt. 
It is said that it always was 
dedicated to the sainted mother of 
the Virgin, but it would require 
more than tradition to prove that 
it was not originally designed as 
a baptistery or a tomb-hoose. Be 
this as it may, it is one of the 
most pleasing specimens of its 
class anywhere to be found, and 
so elegant as to make us regret 
the rarity of such structures. 

Chdrcr Furnitdbe. 
The churches of Oermaay are not generally rich in architectural 
furniture. Few rood-lofts are found spanning from pillar to pillar of 
the choir like that at the Madeleine of Troyes (Woodcut No. 669) ; 

. V. Ch. VI. 


and though some of tho scroeoB that separate the choirs of the ehurchoa 
are rich, thej are seldom of good design. The two at Kaumburg are 
perhaps as good as any of their class in Gortrianj. Qenecaliy they were 
Med as the leclorinm — virtually the pulpit — of the churches. In moat 
inataaces, however, the detached pulpit in tho nave was substituted for 
these, and there are numerous examples of richly-carve<l pulpits, but 
noue uf beautiful design. la most instances 
they are overloaded with ornament, and many ' 
of them disfigured with quirks and quibbles, 
and all the vagaries of later German art. 

The fonts are seldom good or de.scrving of 
attention, and the original altars have nliiiii!<t 
n,l[ been removed, either from having fallen tu 
decay, or to make way for some more favourite 
arrongernent of modem times. 

Tho " Sacraments Hiiuschun " (tho receptacle 

for the sacred elements of the Communion) is a 

j^eculiar article of furniture frequently found in 

German chnrches, and in some of those of 

3telgium, though very rare in France and 

^inknown in England, but on which the 

<Jcrman artists seem to have lavished more 

jiains than on almost any other article of 

«hurch decoration. Those in St. Lawrence's 

Church at Nuremberg and at Ulm are perhaps 

<;he most extraordinary pieces of elal>orate 

architecture ever executed in. atone, and have 

always been looked on by the Germans as chefs- 

li'oBUvre of art. Had thoy been able, they 

■would have delighted in introducing the same 

extravagances into external art : fortunately 

the elements forced them to confine them to 

their interiors. Nothing, however, can show 

S'Ore clearly what was the t«ndency of their 

"t, and to what they aspired, than these 

lingular erections, which, notwithstanding ,gj siMMnsnn HUiiwhea it 

'heir absurdity, considering their materials, f-uremberg. (Krom cmpuj.) 

^**U8t excite our wonder, like the concentric balls of the Chinese. To 

****inc extent also they claim our admiration for tho lightness and the 

^I«ig»nce of their structure. Simplicity is not the characteristic of tho 

^"*^rmac mind. A difficulty conquered is what it glories in, and 

"^**^tient toU is not a means only, but an end, and its expression often 

■^tcitea in Germany more admiration than either loftier or purer art. 

It can scarcely be doubted but that much of the extravagance 

%3ich we find in later German architecture arose from ttic rct^'tiou <d 




tiie glass-paint era on the builders. When first painted glass waa 
extensively introduced, the figures were grouped or separated bj 
architectural details, such as niches or canopies, copied literally from 
the stone ornaments of the building itself. Before long, however, the 
painter, in Germany at least, spurned at being tied down to copy SQch 
mechanical and constructive exigencies ; he attenuated his columns, bent 
and twisted his pinniicloa, drew out hia t^nopies, and soon invented for 
himself an architecture bearing the same relation to the stone Gothic 
around him that the architecture shown on the paintings of Pompeii 

Iwjara to the temples and buildings from which it is derived. 
Germany, paintern .tnd builders alike were striving after lightness, 
in this the painter was enabled by his material easily to outstrip 
mason. The essentially atone character of architecture waa soon ^^•*^ 
sight of. With the painter, the finials, the crockets, and the foUag^^^ 
the capitals again became copies of leaves, instead of the convention ^^ 
representations of nature which they are and must be in all true ^^^ 
Like Sir James Hall in modern times, the speculative mind in 
was not long, when adi'anced thus far, in suggesting a vegetablt 
for the whole art. AH these steps are easily to be traced in 


bk. V. ch. vl civil architecture. 295 

sequenoe of German painted glass still preserved to us. The more 
extravagant and intricate the design, the more it was admired by the 
Crermans. It was, therefore^ only natural that the masons should 
strive after the same standard, and should try to realise in stone the 
ideas which the painters had so successfully started on the plain surface 
of the glass. The difficulty of the task was an incentive. Almost all 
the absurdities of the later styles may be traced more or less to this 
source, and were it worth while, or were this the place, it would be 
easy to trace the gradual decay of true art from this cause. One 
example, taken from the church at Chenmitz (Woodcut No. 763), must 
suffice, where what was usual, perhaps admissible, in glass, is represented 
in stone as literally as is conceivable. When art came to this, its 
revival was impossible among a people with whom such absurdities 
could be admired, as their frequency proves to have been the case. 
What a fall does all this show in that people who invented the old 
Bound-Grothic style of the Rhenish and Lombard churches, which still 
excite our admiration, as much from the simple majesty of their details 
as from the imposing gp-andeur of their whole design ! 

Civil Abchitecture. 

If the Germans failed in adapting the pointed style of architecture 
to the simple forms and purposes of ecclesiastical buildings, they were 
still less likely to be successful when dealing with the more complicated 
arrangements of civil buildings. It is seldom difficult to impart a 
certain amount of architectural character and magnificence to a single 
hall, especially when the dimensions are considerable, the materials 
good, and a certain amount of decoration admitted ; but in grouping 
together as a whole a niunber of small apartments, to be applied to 
various uses, it requires great judgment to ensure that every part shall 
express its own purpose, and good taste to prevent the ^hole degene- 
rating into a mere collection of disjointed fragments. These qualities 
the Germans of that age did not possess. Moreover, there seems to have 
been singularly little demand for civil edifices in the 13th and 14th 
centuries. It is probable that the free cities were not organised to the 
same extent as in Belgium, or had not the same amount of manufac- 
turing industry that gave rise to the erection of the great halls in that 
country ; for, with the exception of the Kauf Haus at Mayence, no 
example has come down to our days that can be said to be remarkable 
for architectural design. Even this no longer exists, having been 
pulled down in 1812. It was but a small building, 125 ft. in length by 
92 in width at one end, and 75 at the other. It was built in the best 
time of German pointed architecture, and was a pleasing specimen of 
its class. At Cologne there is a sort of Guildhall, the Giirzenich, and 


Pabt IL 

a tower-like fragment of a town-hall, both built in the best age of 
architecture; and in some of the other Rhenish towns there are 
fragmentfl of art more or less beautiful actxirding to the age of their 
details, but none 
that will beat com- 
parison with the 
Belgian edifices of 
the sanie class. 

Some of the 
castles in which the 
feudal aristocracy of 
the dajr resided are 
certainly fine and 
picturesque build- 
ings, but they are 
seldom remarkable 
for architectnral 
beauty either of de- 
sign or detail. The 
aame remarks apply 
to the domestic resi- 
dences. Many of the 
old high-gabled 
houses in the streets 
are most elaborately 
ornamented, and pro- 
duce picturesque 
combinations in 
themselves and with 
one another ; but as 
works of art, few 
have any claims to 
notice, and neither 
in form nor detail 
. are they worthy of 
\ admiration. 

Among more 
miscellaneous monu- 
ments may be named 
the weigh-tower at Andemach, with its immense crane, showing how 
any object may be made architectural if designed with taste. The 
Schone Bnumen, or "Beautiful Fountains," in the market-place at 
Nuremberg, is one of the most unexceptionable pieces of German design 
in existence. It much resembles the contemporary crosses erected 
by our Eldward I. to the memory of his beloved queen Eleanor, but 

Mherg. (Froi 

Bk. V. Ch, VI. 



it ia larger and taller, the aculpture better, and better disposed, 

and the whole design perhaps unrivalled among monumentH of ita 

class. The lightness of the upper part and the breadth of the basin at 

its base give an appearance of stability which contributes greatly to 

its effect 

Scarcely less elegant than this is the cross or " Todtenleuchtcr," 

I^nteme des Morts, 

in the cemetery of 

Kloster Neuber^ near 

Vienna. Its height 
is about 30 ft.; the 
date engraved upon it 
is 1381. There ia a 
Bmall door at a height 
of about 5 ft. from 
the ground, and near 
the sununit a chamber 
-with six glazed win- 
do'ws, in which the 
light was exhibited. 

In France, some 
ten or twelve of these 

lanterns have recently 

been brought to light 

and described. In 

Germany about as 

many, besides number- 
less little niches in 

which lamps wpro 

placed in churches, 

showing a prevalence 

in Christian countries 

of a custom which 

'W>w only prevails 
SQiong Hahcanedans, 
°£ placing lights at 
"ight in the tombs of 
^*^intB or of relatives, 
«0 long as their 
**i«inoiy is preserved, 
-^orhaps, however, the '**' 

T«ll«i1eiicbl(r U KJ«tar Kmboi. 

i point of interest attached to their investigation arises from 
^-c^e light these foreign examples may be expected to throw on the 
***~igin of the Bound Towers in Ireland. Their form is not unlike this 
^'^ Kloster Neuberg. Their destination seems the same, though the 



Part II. 

dimeasioiiB of the Irish towers are greatly in excess of any similar 
moixumenta found on the continent of Euroffe.' 

In the town of Kuremberg ore several houses preseatiiii; Tety 
elegant specimens of art in their details, though few that now at least 

aSbrd examples of complete designs worthy of attention. The t^ 
parsonages or residences attached to the churches of St. Sebald i^ 

' Tdt. Hodder WoBtmpp waa, 1 brlievD. i tlie most pUiuiUc BUggettioa yet tn^ 
tho flnt to sngf^gt this idciitity of tlio tbuugh far from meeting the whole f^ 
Bound Towora with thcBo " Fnnnla." or j culty. 
Lantcmes des 9Ior(cii. It scums (u tiu i 

Bk. V. Ch. VI. 


St, Lawrence are among the best. The bay window (Woodcut No. 
766) from the facade of the former is as pleasing a feature as is to be 
found of its class in any part of Germany. 

A more characteristic specimen, however, is to be seen at BrUck on 
the Mur, in Styria, where there still exists a large house, the front of 
which is ornamented with a verandah in several bays, one of which is 
represented in the annexed woodcut No. 767. It is in two storeys, 
the upper containing twice the number of openings of the lower. The 
whole design is singularly elegant, but betrays the lateness of the 

■t Drttck-un-llu 

date (1305) in every detail; and, moro than this, exhibits those 
peculiarly German features which are so characteristic of the later 
Gothic in that country. In the lower storey, for instance, the ogee 
arch, instead of being filled up with a decorative piece of construction, 
is made circular by a plain piece of stone, which completes the con- 
struction but violates the decoration. Above this we have a balustrade 
in stone^ imitating wood in a manner the Germans were so fond of, 
but which is certainly wrong in principle, as it b in taste ; but 
notwithstanding these defects, we cannot but regret that mora 
examples of the same class have nut come down to our time. 


The town-hull at Brunswick (Woodcut No. 76f*) is one of the most 
picturesque aud cbarnctrristic of these buildings, and perhnps niso the 
most artistic. It is dilKcult, however, to rrcoucilo our feelings to tlic 

1 ght ft ch a ppo t g the tracery of tho upper part of the upper 
gftll ry If tho four m 1 ns Iwen bnmght down, they would 
ot h vc n p dxl tl ] r,l t Of ;iir lu an ujipreciublc extent, und if 


more space had been wanted for addressing people in the platz, the 
omission of the central muUion would have sufficed. Notwitlistanding 
this, it is a picturesque and appropriate building, more so than any 
other known out of the Flandrian province. The fountain, too, on 
the right hand of the cut, is a pleasing specimen of its class ; a little 
heavier at the base than quite comports with the style, though that is 
a fault quite on the right side. 

It is true that in all countries the specimens of domestic art are, 
from obvious causes, more liable to alteration and destruction than 
-works of a more monumental class. Making every allowance for this. 
Germany still seems more deficient than its neighbouring countries in 
domestic architecture in the pointed style, and one can hardly escape 
the conviction that this form was never thoroughly adopted by the 
people of this country, and that it therefore, never having had much 
hold on their feelings or taste, died out early, leaving only some 
wonderful specimens of masonic skill in the more monumental 
buildings, but very few evidences of true art or of sound knowledge 
of the true principles of architectural effect. 




(Baltic Provinces.) 



Churches ai Lubcck — in Brandcnbarg — in Ermcnland — Castle at Marienburg. 

Along the whole of the southern shores of the Baltic extends a vast 
series of sandy plains, now composing the greater part of the kingdom 
of Prussia, with Hanover and Mecklenburg and the duchies of Bran- 
denburg and Brunswick. This district was to a considerable extent 
cultivated during the Middle Ages, and contained several cities of 
great commercial and political importance, which still retain many of 
their ecclesiastical and civil buildings. 

These plains are almost wholly destitute of any stone suitable for 
building purposes, and brick has alone been employed in the erection 
not only of their houses, but of their churches and most monumental 
buildings. This circumstance has induced such a variation in the 
character of the architecture as to justify the Btiltic provinces being 
treated separately. The differences which are apparent may also 
be owing to some extent to ethnographic differences of race, though 
it is not easy to say how much may be owing to this cause. 
In early Christian times the whole province was inhabited by the 
Wends, a race of Sclavonic stock ; they have been superseded by 
the Teutonic races and their language has disappeared, but their 
blood must still remain, and a knowledge of this fact would at once 
account to an ethnologist for the absence of art. A Teutonic race, 
based on a Celtic substratum, would have wrought beauty out of 
bricks, and the constructive difficulties would not have prevented 
the development of the art. But a Teutonic formation overlying a 
Sclavonic base is about as unfortunate a combination for architectural 
development as can well be conceived. This, added to the deficiency 
of stone as a building material , will more than suffice to account for 
the special treatment we meet with on the southern shores of the 

Bk. V. Ch. vil lubeck. 303 

It is true that in the bimds oE a refined and art-loving people like 
the inhabitantB of the north of Ital^, brick architecture may be made 
to possess a considerable amount of beauty. Burnt clay may be 
moulded into shapes aa elegant, and as artistic as can be carved in 
stone-; and the various colours which it is easy to import to bricks 
may be used to form mosaics of the moat beautiful patterns ; but to 
cany out all this with success requires a genuine love of art, and an 

tM. PlumtCiUiedn] Lubeck. (tTnm Sch Umi (nd TlKbHeiD Deakoitle Lubtck.'} 
SCJil* 100 tt. lo 1 la. 

energy in the prosecntion of it, which will not easily be satisfied. 
"Without this the facilities of brick architactore are such that it can 
be executed by the commonest workman, and is beat done in the least 
artistic forms. While this is the case, it requires a very strong 
feeling for art to induce anyone to bestow thought where it is not 
needed, and to intermpt construction to seek for forms of beauty. In 
brick architecture, the best walls are those with the fewest breaks 
and projections, so that if relief and shadow are to be obtained, they 



must be added for their own sake ; and more than this, walla may be 
built so thin that they must always appear weak as compared with 
atone walls, and depth o£ relief becomea almost impossible. 

Another defect is, that a brick building almost inevitably suggests 
a plaster finishing internally ; and every one knows bow easy it ia to 
repeat by costing the same ornaments over and over again, and to 
apply Buch ornaments anywhere and in any way without the least 
reference to construction or propriety. 

All these temptations may of course be avoided. They were so at 
Granada by the Saracens, who 
loved art for its own sake. 
They were to a considerable 
extent avoided in the valley of 
the Fo, though by a people far 
less essentially art-loving than 
the Moors. But it will easily 
be supposed that this taste 
and perception of beauty 
exerted less influence in the 
valley of the Elbe. There the 
public buildings were raised aa 
simply aa the necessities of 
conatruction would allow, and 
ornaments were applied only to 
the extent abaolutely requisite 
to save them from absolute 
plainness. Thus the churches 
represent in size the wealth 
and population of the cities, 
and were built in the stylo 
of Gothic architecture which 
*" ' '"■ prevailed at the time o£ their 
erection ; but it is in vain to look in them for any of the beauties of the 
stone Gothic buildings of the same period, though the variety which they 
gave to their moulded brickwork, and the dexterity with which they 
treated it, imparted a character to it which is not without its interest. 
The principal group of churches in the district ia found at Lubeck, 
which was perhaps, in the Middle Ages, the wealthiest town on the 
shores of the Baltic. The largest of these is the Dom Kirche or 
Cathedral (Woodcut No. 7G9), a building 427 ft. loug over all. The 
nave is 120 ft. wide externally. The vaults of the three aisles apring 
from the some height, the central one being 70 ft. high, those of the 
side-aisles a little less. This, with the wide spacing of the piers, gives 
a poor and bare look to the interior. The choir is better, showing a 
certain amount of variety about the chevet ; but even this ia leaner 

Bk. V. Ch. VII. 



than in ftnj' stone building, and dispUys all the poverty bo character, 
istic of the style. 

The Marien Kirche is a more favourable specimen of its class, 
though not so large. It is of a somewhat earlier i^e, and is built 
more in accordance with the principles of Oothio design. The 


central aisle is 130 ft. high ; the sidfr^isles only half as much. This 
allows space for a veiy splendid clerestory, which, if filled with 
stained glass, would redeem the flatness c^ the mouldings and the 
general poverty of the architecture of the interior. 

The church of St. Catherine is smaller than either of these, though 
of about the same age as that lost mentioned, and of as good a design. 
It poasessea the somewhat curious peculiarity <^ haviog a double 
choir one above the other like that of St. Gereon at Cologne CWoodcut 
Na 740), but more complete and extensive than in that example. 
The whole of the lower choir is vaulted over, and a second, at a height 
of 20 ft., forms on upper choir over its whole extent. 



As iiHuiil i 

Therf! nre serernl smnller churches in Lulieck, none of which show 
any peculiuritks not found in the larger. The some faults which 
characterise the iuterior of these churches are also found in the 
exterior. The Marien Kirche (Woodcut No. 771) b the best of them 
in this respect, but though its outline ia good, it ia far from being a 
pleasing specimen of architecture. Its two western towers are of the 
form typical in Lubeck. They are just 400 English ft. in height, and 
with these diuienBionu ought to be imposing objects, but they certainly 
are not so, being in fact as bad Bpeciiueos as could be of Gothic 

n Germany, there is no door at the west end of any of 
thcao churches, and the principal entrances are 
in all cases lateral ; one of those attached to the 
cathedral is an elaborate ami beautiful piece of 
st^ne architecture, but it is the only one 
apparently that is at all remarkable. 

Some of the rood-screens are covered with 
carving, and the tabernacles, or receptacles for 
the holy elements, are, as in most parts of 
Germany, elaborately ornamented. They are 
nearly of the same ^e and of the same style 
i those at Nuremberg, one of which ia r^>re. 
lEited in Woodcut No. 762. 

Dantzic possesses several large ehuK^tes very 
! similar, both in style and arrangement, to those 
of Lubeck. The principal (A these is the 
I cathedral, or Marien Kirche, commenoed in its 
present form in 1343, and completed in the ye^ 
1502. It is 3IG ft. long and 105 in width, with 
a transept extending to 206 ft. The whdie are* 
of the church is about 42,000 ft., so that tiunigfa 
not among the largest, it may still be oooudered 
, as a lirstM^lass church ; and, being of a good ag^ 
e,H»nowr. it is as effective in design ae any of the brick 
churches of the province. It has one tower at the west end 230 ft. 
in height. 

The church of St. Catherine is in part older than the cathedral, 
having been founded in 1 1 8.^, though it was to a great extent rebuilt 
at a subsequent period. Its dimensions as it now stands are 210 ft, 
long, and 120 ft. wido over all. Neither it nor any of the other 
churches of the town seem to have any remarkable feature of design or 
construction worthy of being alluded to. 

Other churches of less imp-irtance but of similar style are found in .^ 
the Marien Kirche and St. Nicolas at Stralsund ; in the Marief^Rv-: 
Kirche at Stargard, which has its west front richly ornamented witt^.^ 

Bk. V. Ch. VII. 



monlded-brick traoei7 ; in the churcliea of Wisniar, in the Marien 
Kirche at Preazlau, whore the west galilo is the moat elaborate in 
North Oermanj, and in other churches in Neii-Rinnclenburg, Anclnm, 
and other towoa. 

The form of church tower found in Liincberg, and inileed generally 
in the district, is a modification of that at Paderborn (Woodcut No. 
706), and is well excniplilied by that in the K<i:blingcr Strasse at 
Hanover (Woodcut No. 77'.'). It ia an honi^st and purpose-like piece 
of architecture, but without much pretension to beauty 'if dcaiKn. 

)I3. ChDreta a Fniunbgrg. (t'l 

Further east in Ermeland, as Eastern Prussia used to be called, 
there aro many brick buildings, which from their picturesqui nesa and 
'he appropriateness of their form half disarm the critic Among these, 
'Or instance, such a church as that of irauenhurg (Woodcut No 773), 
*'th its light graceful spires and its brick tracery in its gables, is an 
""ject, if not of grandeur, at least of considerable beauty in itself, and 
'a this instance is grouped with ao many others as to form a more 
PictDresque combination than is usually to be met with on the shores 
<^ t-te Baltic. The church itself ia 300 ft. long by 80 in width, and 
^* 'firee aisles in the nave, of equal height but unequal width. Its 

3 and bulk of the octagonal piers which 


worst defect ia in the plai 
support the vault. 

The nest illustration, of the church at Santoppea (Woodcut Ko. 
774) is of a type infinitely more common in Ermeland. In Quost's 
work ' are some dozen churches varying only slightly from this in 
design, but in many the western tower is more like a many-storej'ed 
warehouse than a building designed either for ornament or any church- 

like uuc. They all, however, possess some character and charm fro~> 
their novelty, being very unlike anything found elsewhere. 

The Marien Church at Brandenburg (Woodcut No. 775) exlubi-S 
this style carried to an excess which renders it almost bizarre. T* 
lower part is unobjectionable, the ornament around the doors ai^= 
under the windows being appropriate and well placed; but the windo^^ 
themselves are too plain even in this style, and above this the omaine^"-' 
is neither constructive nor elegant. The building mig^t be either—^ 
dwelling or a civil building, or anything else, as well as a church, im " 

' Deulnjiitlor dcr Bnukiinst in Emiclaiu].' Berlia. 


it is difficult to find on what principle the design b varied of arranged. 
Id tme Art the motive is apparent at a glance, and sbonld always be so. 
At Hamburg, fires, and the improvements consequent on modem 
activity and prosperity, have nearly obliterated all the more important 
buildings which at one time adorned that city. 

Fifidg of HarisD Klirhe, BnndeDbnrE. (From Knengutcn.) 

At Eonigsberg, at the opposite eitremity of the district, there 
seems to be little that is remarkable, except a cathedral, possessing an 
enormous facade of brickwork, adorned with blank arches, but without 
the smallest pretenaiona to beauty, either internally or externally. 


Civil Buildings. 

The most reiimrkable among the civU buildings of the proviace is 
ihe castle at Mnrienburg, which was for aearljr a ceatory and a half 
the residence of the musters of the once powerful knights of the 
Teutoaic order. The Alte Schloss was built in 1376, the middle 
castle in 1309; so that it belongs to the best age of Gothic art; 

and, being half palace, half castle, ought to possess both dignity 
and grandeur. It betrays, however, in every part the faults of 
brick architecture in this province, and though curious, is oerttdnly 
not beautiful. All the windows are square-headed, thouf^ filled with 
tracery, and the vaultings of the principal apartments are without - 
grace in themselves, and do not fit the lines of the openings; even. 

Bk. V. Cfl. Vn. CIVIL BUILDINGS. 311 

the boldly projecting machicolations, which in stone architecture 
give generally such dignity to castellated buildings, here fail in 
producing that effect, from the tenuity of the parts and the weakness 
of their apparent supports. 

The town-hall at Lubeck is imposing from its size, and singular 
from the attempt to gain height and grandeur by carrying up the 
main wall of the building high above the roof, and where no utilitarian 
purpose can be suggested for it. Indeed there are few towns in the 
province that do not possess some large civic buildings, but in all 
instances these are less artistic than the churches themselves ; and, 
though imposing from their mass and interesting from their age, they 
are hardly worthy of notice as examples of architectural art. 

The town of Luneburg retains not only its public buildings, but its 
street architecture, nearly as left from the Middle Ages ; and its 
quaint gables and strange towers and spires give it a character that is 
picturesque and interesting, but cannot be said to be beautiful. 

The town-halls of Tangermiinde, Rostock, and Stralsund, have 
facades of similar style to that of Lu))eck. In all these ciises as a rule 
these facades are mere decorative screens, which, like the churches in 
Italy, rise high above the roofs of the main building. The Rathhaus 
at Stralsund is surmounted by six lofty gables with large circular 
openings in them open to the sky, so that there is no attempt at 
concealment, the fact probably being that, proud of their dexterity in 
the moulding of the brickwork, and repcjtition being eivsy and in- 
expensive, they were not content with the small elevation which the 
height of their buildings gave them. In this respect the Rathhaus at 
Hanover is an exception, and here the decorative features are confined 
to the gables of the principal hall and the lofty dormer windows — to 
deep friezes or bands of boldly-modelled terra-cotta work — enriched 
plate tracery in the windows of the great hall, and (in contrast to the 
simple brickwork of the two lower storeys) to elaborate detail in their 
gables and dormer windows, which are divided up by vertical buttresses 
placed anglewise, composed of five or six semicircular shafts grouped 
together, and in alternate bands of yellow and green glazed bricks. 
The effect of these blight colours must have been somewhat startling 
when the buildings were new, but, in the unrestored portions, their 
brilliance has been toned down by time, and their effect is now 
harmonious and agreeable. 

The most interesting series of structures in the Baltic provinces 
*re the gateways of their towns, which are not only extremely 
picturesque objects both in outline and colour, but display great 
fertility of invention and variety in form. Among the more important 
tnay be noticed the Holstein Thor and Burg Thor of Lubeck ; the 
two gates at StendaL and the four gates of Ncu-Brandenburg. 

As the examples just enumerated are types of the best buildings 


which exist in tho province, they are sufficient to characterise the 
style, and at the same time to show how much can be done even with 
the restriction imposed by the absence of stone. As many of the 
towns were populous and wealthy during the Middle Ages, they of 
course had large and commodious churches; and although they ore 
wanting in those high qualities which we find in the French cathedrals, 
their size and the excellence of their vaulting render them well worthy 
of study. 

In addition to the buildings above referred to, in many of their 
towns, such as Anclam, Lubcck, Dantzic, and others, will be found 
fine examples of tho pointed style of Ilanscatic architecture. 

Bk. VI. Cfl. I. SWEDEN. 313 




Sweden — Norway — Denmark — Gothland — Bound Churches — Wooden Churches. 

No one who has listened to all that was said and written in Germany 

before the late war about " Schles wig-Hols tein Stamiu verwandt," can 

very well doubt that when he passes the Eyder going northward, ho 

will enter on a new architectural province. He must, however, be 

singularly deficient in ethnographical knowledges if he expects to find 

anything either original or beautiful in a country inhabited by races 

of such purely Aryan stock. If there is any Finnish or Lap blood in 

the veins of the Swedes or Danes it must have diied up \'ery early, for 

no trace of its effect can be detected in any of their architectural 

utterances ; unless, indeed, we should ascribe to it that peculiar 

fondness for circular forms which is so characteristic of their early 

churches, and which may have been derived from the circular mounds 

and stone circles which were in use in Sweden till the end of the 

lOth century. The country in fact was only converted to Christianity 

in the reign of Olof Skot Konung— 1001 to 1026 ; and then, and for 

* long time afterwards, was too poor and too thinly inhabited to 

'^uire any architectural buildings, and when these came to be erected 

^^© dominant race was one that never showed any real sympathy for 

^•"O art in any part of the world. 


-tlie largest and most important monument in the province is the 

^*^cdral of Upsala, (Woodcut No. 777) measunng 370 ft. by 330 ft., 

^h it can hardly be quoted as an example of Scandinavian art ; 



Pabe IL 

for whea tlio Swedes, la the end of the 13th century (1287), deter- 
mined oa the erection of a cathedral worthy of their coontry, they 
employed a Frenchman of the name of Stionne Bonnueill, to famish 
them with a design, and to saperintend its erectioo. This he did 
till his death, though how far the work 
was advanced at that time there is now 
no means of knowing The chnrch is only 
330 ft in extreme length by 145 ia 
width, with two western towers, and 
the pnncipal portal between them The 
whole IS of bnck, except the doorways, 
the gable of north transept, the interior 
nna, and some smaller ornamental 
details The building was in progress 
) during 200 years,' and after Bonnneill's 
death the French principles of detail 
were departed from , and, in addition to 
I this, the upper parts <d western towers 
were rebuilt during the last century, and 
other disfigurements have taken place, so 
that the building would hardly be deemed 
worthy of a visit farther south, and is 
only remarkable here from the meanness 
of its rivals. 

The church at Linkoping (1260-1500) 
ranks next in importance to that of 
Upsala. It baa, however no western 
towers or other ornaments externally, bat 
otherwise it far surpasses the latter in 
interest and the beauty of its details. 
It is said to have been founded in 1150, and the oldest portions are 
the transept and crossing of the choir, where the arches are semi- 
circular resting on piers with angle shafts and half-cylindrical 
columns. Early in the 12th century the nave was continued, the 

PUa of npuU Citlwdnl, 

' Mi. Tavenor Peirj, in his papei on 
the ' Medieval Architectnre in Bwedon' 
(B.I.B.A. Transaetions, vol. vii. new 
BerisB, 1891), points out that the archi- 
tecture oF the choir ia of much earlier 
date than ^tieime da BonnneUrB advent, 
that the foundation nas laid in 1258, 
and already in 1273 was well advanced. 
He takes objection aUo to the asBumed 
French origin of tho plan, which is 
more like German i*oik. The plan 
bears somo reseniblanco to the chevet 

of Wettminater Abbey, the lady-chapel 
of irhich, pulled down by Heniv Til., 
was commenoed in 1220 by HcDrj 
Itl. There are only Ave chapels, as in 
Westminster Abbey, and they are of 
greater width than any French exam- 
ples, fitienne's work was probably 
oonflned to the three great portals, 
thongh Hr. Perry believes that ho did 
mncb to improve the design, and pro- 
bably helped to " foDDd a new school of 
KDJptots." — En. 

Bk. VI. Ch. I. 



work, according to Mr. Feny, having spread over a long period, as at 

the west end of the nave the work is as late or later than any of the 

\rork at XTpsala. The 

wall arcading in the 

north and south aisles is 

bold in design, nobly 

moulded and carved. 

The choir, with its three 

eastern chapels, was 

commenced late in the 

13th or early in the 

14th century, but not 

completed till 1499. 

The cathedral at 
Lund is both older and 
better than either of 
these. It was com- 
menced apparently 
about the year 1072, 
and consecrated in 1 1 45 
by Archbishop Eskill, 
who had presided over . 
its construction, and 
to whom may be at- 
tributed its purely 
German character, as 
hfl had been brought '' 

Bp In Hildesheim. The church has been n ago i ci 
Dofortnnately at too early a late tu ha o pi esc 
Wtorical features. 

The church of St Nicholas at Orebro is chiefly interesting on account 
(4 its strong resemblance to English work. The fine south porch 
bears a strong likeness to the now destroyed porch of St. Mary Overie, 
{Published in Mr. Dolbnaa's work,* and is not dissimilar to the porch of 
tt»e north transept of Westminster Abbey. 

There are other churches in Sweden, at Westeriis, Stregnas, and in Fioland, all largo* — viz., about 300 ft. east and west by 100 to 
X 20 in width, — and founded in the 12th and 13th centuries ; but, like 
"the nave at Lund, they have been altered and improved so frequently 
<lmjriiig the last 600 years, that very little remains of the original 

»» g by M r no P rrj. 

' tly restored, but 

rvt.d uuch of its 

"'The Priory of St. Mary OTerio, i ' These churches are nearly all brick : 
^''''ttiwark.* F. T. Dollman, London, tliosu of Luud and LiTikopiug arc in 
^ ***'i. I stone. 


desigQ : whatever that may have been, in their present state they are 
hardly worthy of mention. 

Perhaps the moat pleasing objects in Sweden are the country 
churches, with their tall wooden spires &nd detached belfries. If 
these do not poesesB much architectural beauty, they at all events are 
real purposelike erections, expressing what they are intended for in 
the simplest manner, and with their accompaniments always making 
up a pleasing group. 

ud Belfry. (Ftom Hinjil, • 0» Teu la SmdHL'J 


The Norwegians are more fortunate than either the Danes or 
Swedes in possessing at Trondhjem a national cathedral of great beauty 
and interest, even in its present ruined state. 

Its history is easily made out from a comparison of local traditions 
with the style of the building itself. Between the years 1016 and 
1030 St. Olaf built a church on the spot where now stands St, 
Clement's church, the detached building on the north, shown in plan 
at A (Woodcut No. 780). He was buried a little to the south of his 
own church, where the high altar of the cathedral is now situated. 
Between the years 1036 and 1047, Magnus the Good raised a small 
wooden chapel aver St. Olof s grave ; and soon afterwards Harold 
Haardraade built a stone church, dedicated to Our Lady, immediately 
to the westward of this, at b. This group of three churches stood in 
this state during the troubled period that ensued. With the return of 
peace in 1160, Archbishop Gysteen commenced the great transept c c 
to the westward of the Lady Chapel, and probably completed it about 
the year 1183. At that time either he or his successor rebuilt the 
church of St. Clement as wo now find it. During the next sixty or 

Bk. VI. Ch. L 



soTonty years the whole of the eaatera part of the cathedral was 
rebuilt, the tomb-house or shrine being joined on to the apse of the 
Lady Church, as was explained in speaking of the origin of the French 
cheret (p. 73). In 1248 Archbishop Signrd commenced the nave, 
but whether it was ever completed or not is by no means certain. 
In 1328 the church was damaged by fire, and it must have been after 
this accident that the internal range of columns in the circular part 
was rebuilt in the style of our earlier Edwards. 

Thus completed, the church was one of the largest in Scandinavia, 
being 350 ft. long internally ; the chmr 64, and the nave 84 ft, wide. 
But its great merit lies more in its 
details than in its dimensions. 
Ifothing can exceed the richness 
with which the billet-moulding is 
used in the great transept. Ita 
employment here is so vigoroua and 
so artistic, that it might almost be 
suspected that this was its native 
place, and that it was derived from 
some wooden architecture usual in 
this country before being translated 
into stone. 

The greatest glory of the place 
is the tomb-house at the east end. 
Externally this presents a bold 
style of architecture resembling the 
early English.* Internally it is a 
dome 30 ft. in diameter, supported 
on a range of columns disposed 
octagonally, and all the details cor- 
respond with those of tbe best 
period cd decorated architecture. 

As will be observed from tbe plan 
(Woodcut No, 780), the architect had considerable difficulty with all 
these rebuildinga to bring the old and new parts to fit well together, 
and in consequence the walls are seldom straight or parallel with 
one another, and, what is most unusual, the choir expands towards 
the east. This is not, however, carried to such an extent as to be a 
blemish, and with a double range <tf columns down tbe centre would 
hardly be perceived, or if perceived, the effect would be rather pleasing 
than otherwise. 

1 orCubfdnl of Trondhjsn 

' Both in design and purpose this air- 1 tistaiy and bwial-place for the arch- 
cnlar part <^ Trondhjem Cathedral U an biahope, and seems to have been attcr- 
eioct counterpart of Becket's Crown at wards inoorpoTated in tbe cathedral, m 
Canterbury. That was erected as a bnp- | ~ 


Had the western front been completed, it would li»ve been one of 
the moat beautiful anywhere to be found, not only from its extent 
(120 ft.), but also from the richness and beauty of its deteuls, belonging 
to the very best period of art — about the year 1300. In design and 


detail it resembles very much the beautiful facade of Wells Cathedral. 
Like the rest of the cathedral, it is now in a very ruinous state, and, 
as will be seen by the view (Woodcut No, 781), the whole is so 
deformed extcmnlly by modem additions, that its original effect can 
only be judged of by a careful examination of its details. 

The most interesting church in Denmark is that at Boeskilde, in 
Jutland, which is now the burial-place of the kings, and the principal 
cathedral of the country. The original church was founded in tbe^£ 
year 1081, and was then apparently circular, and of the same dunen — ._^ 
sioDs as the east end of the present edifice. This latter was com— ,m 
menced after tho middle of the 12th century, and does not Bean tt^a^^ 
have been completed as wy now Kce it till towards the end of the ISth^rrd 
The east end is probably one-half of the old round church rebuilt, th-^^c 
required enlargement of space having been obtained by a considenbLF- 
extension of length towards the west. 

' The octagoDSl dome on the ewt end boa been Utelf re*t(aed, but d^^ez 
Improred. — Ed. 

e. VI. Ch. I. DENMARK. 319 

Its general dimensions, as shown in the pltm (Woodcut Ko. 783), 

•4. Fr» KIkIh, lirhou. (Frmo lluiJU'a' JuUiDil uid Iha DuiIbIiIbIh.') 

e 265 ft. long by 75 in breadth internally. The whole area is only 


about 21,000 ft., and consequently not more than h&U that of most 
English cathedrals. 

From the elevation (Woodcut So. 784), it appears umple and 
elegant in its design, and ooDtoina the germ of much that is found 
afterwards in the churches of the neighbourhood, especially in the 
range <d small gables along the aide of the aisles, marking externally 

C3iarchotK4llaDdbarg. (From Ilui^u'i • JuUud ud the Dulah bin.') 

each bay of the nave.* This arrangement is almost universal in tbe 
North of Germany, but seldom, if ever, found in France or England. 

At Aarus is a somewhat similar church, commenced about the 
year 1200, but rather larger, being 300 ft. in length by 80 in breadth, 
la its present state, however, it ia only a very ugly and uninteresting 

' Tha plan and elevation are taken from a deBcription of the choioh by Steen Friia, 
pablished at Copenhagen, 16S1. In both cuts the modcni additions ate omitted. 

Bx. YL Gh. L GOTHLAND. 321 

brick building in an indifferent state of repair.^ The Frue Elirke, in 
the same town, is a far more pleasing specimen of art, and is a fine 
example of the style prevalent on the southern shores of the Baltic, 
from which province the design is evidently borrowed. like every 
specimen of honest art^ it is pleasing; bat neither its form nor 
arrangement will bear any very close analysis. 

The cathedral at Bibe, on the northern limits of Schleswig, with an 
apse something like that of Land Cathedral, bat of slightly more 
noodem date^ and wanting the gallery under the roo^ and the Cathedral 
of Yiborg, rebuilt between 1130 and 1170, and said to be one of the 
finest specimens of Continental Norman, also deserve mention. 

Sometimes, we get a touch of originality even in this province, 
as in the church of Kallundborg (Woodcut No. 785), built in the 
form of a cross, with one square tower in the centre, and four 
octagonal towers, one at the end of each of the arms of the cross 
transept. Was it a caprice f or is it borrowed from any other form f 
Except in the Kremlin at Moscow, I do not know where to look for 
any such type, and even then the likeness is very remote. A larger 
octagon in the centre, with four square towers around it, must have 
been a happier arrangement, and, if properly subordinated, have 
fcHrmed a picturesque group. In this example the church itself is lost 
sight o^ and the towers are not remarkable for beauty. 


The island of Gothland, though politically attached to Sweden, 
deserves to be treated as' a little province of its own in an architectural 
view, inasmuch as it possesses a group of churches within its limits 
as interesting as any in the North of Europe; and peculiar, if not 
exceptional in design. Their existence is owing to the fact, that 
during the 11th and 12th centuries a great portion of the Eastern 
trade which had previously been carried on through Egypt or Con- 
stantinople was diverted to a northern line of communication, owing 
principally to the disturbed state of the East, which preceded and 
in fact gave rise to the Crusades. At this time a very considerable 
trade passed through Bussia, and centred in Novogorod. From that 
place it passed down the Baltic to Gothland, which was chosen 
apparently for the security of its island position, and its capital, 
Wisby, one of the Hanse towns, became the great emporium of the 
West. After two centuries of prosperity, it was gradually superseded 
by the rise of other Hanseatic towns on the mainland, and a final blow 
was struck by Yaldemar of Denmark, who took the town by storm in 

* It has lately been well restoxed (1881).— Ed. 


Past U. 

1361. Since then it has gradually become depopulated. The con- 
sequence has been that, no additional accommodation being required, the 
old churches have remained unaltered ; many also have entirely dis- 
appeared, the materials having been used for other buildings and foi 
converting into lime ; so thiit in Winby, the capital, only eleven 
remain of the eighteen or twenty churches she formerly possessed, 
and the only reminiscence of the locality of those destroyed 
consists in the streets and houses to which they have bequeathed thui 


The cathedral church of St. JIary was originally founded about tTT 
year 1100, burnt down in 1175, and rebuilt as we now find it aboM 
1225. Like all the others it is small, being only 171 ft, 6 iiL long 
99 ft. in width. It is the only church now used for divine service, t^ 
remainder being in ruins. 

Ono of the most remarkable churches in Wisby is that <£ 9^ 
Helgc-Anders (church of the Holy Ghost), founded originally, it is s^3 

. VI. Ch. I. 


1046,' This, however, must refer to an earlier church, for the 
dal building^ belongs to the transitional period both in its con- 
iction and in its details ; it cannot, therefore, according to Mr. 
lig, "have been erected earlier than at the beginning of the 13th 
rtury," and this may apply only to the chancel, the north wall of which 
^tna to indicate an earlier date than the rest of the building — in all 
ftxibility about 1250 would be the date of the church, generally 

^king. The nare is an octagoa of about 48 by 45 ft., somewhat 
Knlar in Its settii^ out and owing to want of space was built in 
' storeys, both of which are vaulted, the vaults being carried by 
^ Octagonal piers on ground floor and circular piers on second floor 

«>thland was ChriBtianiifid by St. I Aknlmch anil Ala, whirh ilatc from 1149, 
>lkl028: theRret cliarchGe,iti w<khI, 'An cleTation nn<l Btction of the 
' aoon bnmt down, anil the cnrlicst , dmrch by Mr. Haig ia given iu the 
' example! now known are those of ; K.I.B. A-Transartions, new series, vol. ii. 

Y 2 




ia the vault of the lower storey there is on opening in the oentn 
about 7 ft. in diameter, which is said to have been formerly filled with 
an iron grating. The chonoel (which ia sqoare externally and inter 
nally, having a small apse and two amall vestries) opens into both lowar 
and upper church by semicircular arches, and thus serves for both. 

{ Fmn Uuryat'i ■ On* Tau Is Sndao .') 

There was a third storey in the roof with stone gables on east f^ 
of the octagon ; the roof is gone, but it may have terminated as tlfl 
of the church of Eallundborg (Woodcut No. 785). 

The church most like this in Germany is perhaps that at Sdiw^^ 
Rheindorf (Woodcuts Nob. 718 and 719). It also resembles the eh^: 
at Landsberg (Woodcut No. 730) ; but the most extended and ind^ 
the typical example of a church of this class is St. Gereon's at Cdft^ 
(Woodcuts Nos. 740 and 741). 

. TL Ch. I. 


The churchea of St. Lara and St. Drotbeiu, the so-oalled sister 
churches (probably from the resemblance of their plans), belong 
probably to the 11th century, but the pointed work in them ia 
evidently at a later period. About the same date, 1097, b given for 
St. Nicholas, the chnrch of a Dominican convent, but the whole haa 
been remodelled at a later period, the main arches of Ihe nave rebuilt. 

and probably the whole church revaulted in the 13th century, at 
which period also the octagonal chancel was built. 

The church of St. Katharine, belonging to the Fraacisoans or Groy 
Friars, was also wholly remodelled in the pointed period. It is said to 
have been founded in 1225. The choir, with its polygonal apse, was 
built in 1376-1391, and the piers and arches of the nave were rebuilt 
about the year 1400, the chnrch being reconsecrated in 1412. 

One peculiarity found in some erf the churches of Ciothland is the 
bisection of the nave by two or more arcades carried on columns and 
placed in the centre of the church, the easternmost arch being sup- 
ported by a corbel built in above the keystone of the ehuicel 


arch.' Oae of these churches, St. Goran, or St. George, outside the 
wftlla of Wiaby, consists ctf » nave of three bays divided by a central 
arcade (the western pier being Bqu&re,the eastern circular), and a chaocel 
of two square bays. A second example is found at Gothom, about 
twenty miles east of Wisby. Here the eastern portion of the nave, 
only consisting of two bays, is bisected ; the western portion was 
probably intended to carry a tower, the walls being much thicker than 
the rest of the church. The arches thrown across the western part ot 
the nave under the tower 
are semicircular and carried 
on twin columns; the 
column in the centre of the 
nave is circular, tnaeb 
loftier than the twin 
columns, and carries pointed 
arches (Woodcut No. 787). 
The great height of these 
arches allows of their 
being carried on a corbel 
above the chancel arch 
instead of its forming, as 
at Fold, the keystone of 
the chancel arch. In this 
latter church the nave b 
also divided by three 
arches carried on circular 
columns which Himinigh in 
diameter as they rise, but 
not to the extent as shown 
in Marryat's work * (Wood- 
r*" cut No. 788). A fourth 
example is given in Major 
Heales' work,^ in which the 
arched ribs of the vault 
are carried on a clustered capital carved with foliage of early English 
type, the pier or column being circular. 

The portals of the churches at.Sandeo (Woodcut No. 789) and 
Hoitte (Woodcut No. 790), dating probably from the middle of the 1 4th 
century, and two other examples at Stanga and Garde (about 30 miles 
from Wisby), are interesting on account of the singular blind cuspings 

' Two FiampleH ore iKjiotuil out by i Cliurcli, LioooliiBliire. 
Mr. Cktpenter (K.I.B.A Ttbiibih: lions, | * 'One Yearin 8wedeD,'Mum)r, 1861 
new aerius. vol. ii. t)JS6) an etistmg * 'The Eccleaiologj of Gotblutd and 
in KugUiid, viz. : Iluuuiuglou Chuiab, the Cburclioa of Bonholm,' bj Major 
NorthamptouBhire, unil CaylboriKi Alfred Heales, F.S.A, 1889. 


round the inner order, a treatment which seems peculiar to the Gothland 
style. They are singularly elegant specimens of the art, and worthy <^ 
being quoted if for that reason alone. 

Another peculiarity seems to be that the Gothland cburdies are all 
small bgildinga, like the Greek churches. There does not appear to 
have been any metropolitan basilica, or any great conTentua! establish- 
ment, but an immense number of detached cells and chapels scattered 
in groups all over the island, with very few that could contain a con- 
gregation of any extent. 

RocND Cbdbcbes. 
To the arclueologist the Bound Churches form the most interesting 

group in the Scandinavian province, though to the architect they can 
hardly be deemed of much importance. They are, however, so 
remarkable that many theories have been formed to account for 
their peculiarities. The most general opinion seems to be that the 
circular form was adopted for defensive purposes ; and this seems 
to be borne out by the description given in Major Heales' work, 
who, referring to the four examples in Bomholm (which are of the 
same type as others in the Scandinavian provinces), states, pp. 26 
and 29 : " Each consists of a circular nave, a chancel, and on apse." 
The dimensions are always moderate ; the internal diameter of the 
naves being, Olska, 34 ft. 2 ins., Nyska, 35 ft. 4 ins., NyUrska, 
38 ft. 2 ins., and Oester Larsker, 42 ft. 3 ins. (Woodcut No. 793), 


pabt n. 

" In tvo oases even the chanod wall are oonvex in plan, so that their 
ground plan is formed without a single straif^t line." The nave is 
oorered with a vault carried on a central piar (except in the case of 
the Oester Laraker, where there are biz piers, the space in the centre 

being open to an upper storey). TheVsecond store; is similarljr vaulted, 
and the central pier rises to carry tnf i^^of timbers of the third or 
upper storey. " The walls of the nav\ vary in thickness from S to 
^ ft." — " beyond a small doorway and ayfew loopholes measurable bj 
inches there are no external openings except io the upper storey, which 

Bk. TI. Ca. I. BOUND CHUItCHES. 329 

consists of a gallery formed in the thickness of tb« vail &nd lighted by 
loopholes Arranged not to correspond with the openings by which the 
gallery is entered from the central chamber." The approach to this 
upper chamber as well as to that of the first floor is by narrow, steep, 
and crooked staircases in the thickness of the wall, which could be 
easily defended, at all events for a time, the assomption being that 
the church might be attacked by freebooters coming by sea whose 
onslaught would not be of long duration. 

The circular form of church would seem to have been much more 
common in Northern Europe in the early centuries of the Christian 
f sith than afterwards. In the richer and more populous South they 

(Fivm MuTTif* Jntlud ud tht DuM btM.*} 

were superseded as has above been pointed out by basdicas of more 
extended dimensions, into which they were frequently absorbed In 
the poorer North they have sufficed for the scant population and 
maained unchanged 

Mr Marryat enumerates eight examples in Denmark ' and there 
ve at least as many if not more in Sweden. All are of Teutonic 
type — naves with small apses — as contradistinguished from the French 
or Celtic form, where the drctdar part became the chinr to which the 
Dave was added afterwards. 

> Two ia Zesland — BtoTehedinge and i four in Bomholm — Oeatei Lanker, 
Aianiede ; one in Fimeii— Home, at Fas- Nykeni, 01^ and Ny, (Vol. U. p. 49.) 
^Mrg; one in Jatland — ThorMger: and | 


That at Thoraager, in Jutland, though not one of the oldest, m&y 
be taken u a ^TP^ *>' i*^ class, and its arrangement and appeonuice 
will be understood from the preceding view, section, and plan (Woodcuts 
Nos. 791 and 792). The building ia not large ; the diameter of the 
circle internally being only 40 ft., and the floor encumbered by four 

IM. VlaauHlFUnof HigbjChnidi.EindeD. (Fn>iDHui7U'i 'Oi» Hurla Swedn.') 

great pillars ; the total length over all is 90 ft. Originally it seems 
to have been intended as a two^torey church, the vault being omitted 
over the central compartment, as was the case in the Helge-Anders 
Church at Wisby (Woodcut No. 786). The whole design ia certMnly 

Bk. TL Ch. L 



pleasing and picturesque, though there is » little awkwardness in the 
way the various parts are fitted together. 

The round Church at Oester Larsker, in Bomholm (Woodcut 
No. 793), is of exactly the same type as that at Thorsager, but older, 
and having more the appearance of being fortified than the other ; 
there being a range of small openings immediately under the roof. 

In Sweden there are some examples of round churches, the most 
typical being that at Hagby (Woodcut No. 794} ; though it ia not so 
picturesque as the two last quoted, it difiers in reality very little from 

I*S. LU bro Cbnrcta and Wipenhiu, OothluxL (From Xwrjal ■ One Tew In Sndo. 

them, showing a permanence and consistency of type throughout the 
whole province where they are found. 

So great a favourite was this circular or octagonal form of nave, 
however, that it clung to the soil long after its meaning was lost, and 
we find it stretched into a tall octagonal spire in Laderbro Church, but 
still serving as a nave to a small choir, the foundation of which is said 
to date as far back as 1086. The octagon as we now see it certainly 



Past II. 

belongs to the 1 3th or 1 4th century. Something of the same feeling 
may have led to the peculiar arrangement of Kallundborg Church 
(Woodcut No. 785). There four octagonal naves lead to as many 
choirs joined together in the centre. If we had more knowledge, 
perhaps we could trace the affiliation of all these forms, and complete 
a little genealogy of the race. 

Wooden Chubches. 

Curious as these circular edifices certainly are, there is a group 
of wooden churches still existing in Norway which are as peculiar 
to the province and as interesting to the antiquary at least, if not to 
the architect, as anything found within its limits. They are not large, 
and, as might be expected from the nature of the materials with which 
they are constructed, they are fast disappearing, andlin a few years not 
many probably will remain ; but if we may judge from such accounts 
as we have, they were at one time numerous, and indeed appear to have 
been the usual and common form of church in that country. Every- 
where we read of the wooden churches of Saxon and Norman times in 
our country, and of the contemporary periods on the Continent ; but 
these have almost all been either destroyed by fire or pulled down 
to make way for more solid and durable erections. That at Little 
Greenstead in Essex is almost the only specimen now remaining in 
this country. 

The largest of those now to be found in Norway is that of Hitterdal. 
It is 84 ft. long by 57 across. Its plan is that usual in churches of 

the age, except that it has a gallery all 
round on the outside. Its external 
appearance (Woodcut No. 797) is very 
remarkable, and very unlike anything of 
stone architecture. It is more like a 
Chinese pagoda, or some strange creation 
of the South Sea islanders, than the sober 
production of the same people who built 
the bold and massive round Gk>thic edifices 
of the same age. 

Another of these churches, that at 
Burgund, is smaller, but even more 
fantastic in its design, and with strange 
carved pinnacles at its angles, which give 
it a very Chinese aspect. 

That at Umes is both more sober and 

better than either of these, but much 

smaller, being only 24 ft. wide by 65 ft. from east to west. As may 

be seen from the view (Woodcut No. 798), it still retains a good deal 



90 aO 40 fiOfM 

I I 1 I I I 

T9«. Plan of Church MHitterdAL 

Be VI. Ch. L 


of tbe Runic carving that once probably odomod all the panels of 
the exterior, as well as the various parts of the roof. An these 
decayed they seem to have been replaced by plain timbers, which of 
course detract very much from the original appearance. 

All the doorways and principal openings are carved with the same 
elaborate omameats, representing entwined dragons fighting and 
biting each other, intermixed occasionally with foliage and figures. 

This style of carving is found on crosses and tombstones, not only 

A M HIUOiUI (From Dital 

Bukuut la KoTwagtn. ) 

in Scandinavia, but in Scotland and Ireland. It is only known to 
exist in its original form on wood in these singular churches. 

There can be no doubt about the age of these curious edifices, 
for not only does this dragon-tracery fix them to the llth or 12th 
century, but the capitals of the pillars and general character of the 
mouldings exactly correspond with the details of our own Norman 
architecture, so far as the difference of materials permits. 

With the circular churches, and those at Wisby, these wooden 
churches certainly add a curious and interesting chapter to the history 
of Christian architecture at the early period to which they belong, and 
are well deserving more attention than they have rocoivcd. 



Pabt n. 

When our knowledge of tbe examples is more complete, we may 
perh^B be able to trace some curious analogies from even so &ail » 
style of architecture as that of wood. Something very like these 
Norwegian chnrches is found in various parts of Russia. The mosqties 
and other buildings erected in Cashmere and Thibet of the Deodar 
pinewood are curiously like them. The same forms are found in China 
and Burmah, and much of the stone architecture of these countries is 
derived directly from such a wooden architecture as this. It maj 

perhi^ only be, that wherever men of cognate race strive to attain a 
given well-defined object with the same materials, they arrive inevit- 
ably at similar results. If this should prove to be the cose, such a 
uniformity of style, arising without intercommunication among pec^le 
80 differently aitaated, would be quite aa carious and instructive as 
if we could trace the steps by which the invention was carried from 
land to land, and could show that the similarity was produced by 
one nation adopting it from another, which all research has hitherto 
tended to prove was in reality the case. 

bk. vn. Ch. L ENQLAND. 335 




It is perhaps not too much to assert that during the Middle Ages 
Architecture was practised in England with even greater success than 
among any of the contemporary nations. In beauty of detail and 
elegance of proportion the English cathedrals generally surpass their 
Continental rivals. It is only in dimensions and mechanical construc- 
tion that they are sometimes inferior. So lovingly did the people of 
this country adhere to the Art, that the Gk>thic forms clung to the soil 
long after they had been superseded on the Continent by the classical 
Renaissance ; and the English returned to their old love long before 
other nations had got over their contempt for the rude barbarism of 
their ancestors. It is now more than a century since Horace Walpole 
conceived the idea of reproducing the beauties of York Minster and 
Westminster Abbey in a lath and plaster villa at Strawberry Hill. 
The attempt, as we now know, was ridiculous enough ; but the result 
on the Arts of the country most important. From that day to this, 
Gk>thic villas, Gk>thic lodges, and Gk>thic churches have been the 
fashion — at first timidly, and wonderfully misunderstood, but now 
the rage, and with an almost perfect power of imitation. The result 
at this revived feeling for Mediaeval art which interests us most in 
this place is, that every Gothic building in the country has been 
carefully examined and its peculiarities noticed. All the more im- 
portant examples have been drawn and published, their dates and 
histories ascertained as far as possible, and the whole subject rendered 
complete and intelligibla The only difficulty that remains is, that 
the works in which the illustrations of English art are contained range 
over 70 or 80 years — the early ones published before the subject was 

» ' 


properly understood \ and that they are in aU shapes and sizes, from 
the most ponderous folios to the most diminutive of duodecimos. 
Their number too is legion, and they therefore often go over the 
same ground. The one book that now- seems wanted to complete the 
series of publications on the subject, is a clear and concise, but com- 
plete narrative of the rise and progress of the style, with just a suffi- 
cient amount of illustration to render it intelligible. Two volumes 
in 8vo, of 500 pages each, might suffice for the distillation of all that 
is contained in the 1001 volumes above alluded to : and with 1000 
illustrations, if well selected, the forms and pecuUarities of the style 
might be rendered sufficiently clear. But less would certainly not 

Under these circumstances, it will be easily understood that 
nothing of the sort can be attempted in this work. With only one- 
tenth of the requisite space available, and less than that proportion 
of illustration, all that can be proposed is to sketch the great leading 
features of the subject, to estimate the value of the practice of the 
English architects as compared with those on the Continent, and to 
point out the differences which arose between their methods and ours, 
in consequence of either the local or social peculiarities of the various 

This compression is hardly to be regretted in the present instance, 
since any one may with very little trouble master the main features of 
the history in some of the many popular works which have been pub- 
lished on the subject, and aU have access to the buildings themselves. 
It need hardly be added, that these are far better and truer exponents 
of the feelings and aspirations of those who erected them than aU the 
books that ever were written. Unless a man learns to read the lessons 
these stone books so vividly convey, by an earnest personal investiga- 
tion of the monuments themselves, of one style at least, he will 
hardly ever be able to understand the subject ; but for the purpose of 
such a study, the English Mediaeval architecture is perhaps the most 
complete and perfect. Nowhere else can aU the gradations of change 
be so easUy traced ; and in no other style was there so little inter- 
ference from extraneous causes. Throughout, the English sought only 
to erect the building then most suitable to its destination, with the 
best materials available for the purpose; and the result is therefore 
generaUy more satisfactory and more harmonious than in ether 
countries where the architects were more tranmieUed by precedents, or 
more influenced by local pectdiarities. 

Bk. VII. Ch. I. 





of style. 


Departure oft 
Romana . ./ 

Arthur. . . .i -^ ' 

To esublisb-t 
mentofHep-> 700 
tarchy . . .) 

To Conquest • 

WiiiUml. . . 1066 

WaiiAmlL. . 1087 

Henry I. . . . 1100 

^phen . . . 1135 

HenrxlL. . . 1151 

Henry II. . . 1175 

Hichard I. . . 1189 

/ohD 1199 

''enryllL . . 1216 

300 (Stone Rude Monu- 

_^- /Early round-arched, 
^® I or Saxon style. 

109 I Ko'ittd-arched Style, 
^ Norman. 

Early pointed Lan- 
07 < cet, or Flanta- 
genet style. 


of style. 

Edward I. 
Edward II. . 
Edward III. . 
Richard II. . 

Henry IV. . 
Henry V. . . 
Henry VI. . 
Edward IV. . 
Edward V. . 
Richard III. . 

Henry VII. . 
Henry VI II.. 
J'Mward VI. . 
Mary . . . 
Klizabeth . . 
To. . . . 

* Wni) (perfected pointed 

' iQQ«J 105 I I>ecorated, or 
' \l^^ I Edwardian style. 

I Late pointed Per- 
108 < pendicular, or 
Lancastrian style. 

I Fan- vaulted Tran- 
117 < sitioual, or Tudor 

After the departure of the Romans, the various trilx3s that in- 
*^»bited the island were left so feebly organised, and so unequally 
t^lanced, that they could find no better occupation for their time than 
^liat of cutting each other's throats ; in which they were afterwards 
^o ably seconded by the Saxons and Danes, that it is in vain to look 
^"Or any development of the arts of peace among them. They were 
^K|aal to the erection of a Stonehenge or an Avebury in honour 
^z^f those who fell in the struggles against their foreign invaders ; 
V^ut beyond this their architectural aspirations do not seem to have 

With the establishment of the Heptarchy, and more especially after 
^^iired's glorious reign, we might expect something better. The 
try was then converted to Christianity. Churches were wanted ; 
d there were Italian priests to be found who could tell the inhabit- 
nts what was being done at Rome and elsewhere on the Continent. 
ut against this we have the knowledge that the dominant race was 
on or Danish — Aryan pur sang — and art had consequently no place 
their affections. Their churches were probably small and rude, just 
efficient for their purposes, and no more ; and designed, like railway 
Nations, to last only till necessity compel an enlargement. Most pro- 
bly, too, the greater number were built of wood ; and for the true 
on style we ought perhaps to look to the Norwegian wooden churches 
escribed in the last book — as types of the style, rather than to the 
ers erected, probably, as additions to the original wooden churches. 
these towers, many still remain in our island ; but in almost every 
the wooden nave has been superseded by one of stone and generally 
^he pointed-arch style of architecture, 
^ith the Norman Conquest a new state of things was inaugurated. 
^^«t tracts of country and great part of the wealth of the conquered 



races escheated to the Conqueror, and in the division of the spoil the 
clergy seem in some cases to have been even more fortunate than the 
laity. But however this may have been, it will be easily understood 
that a French hierarchy vowed to celibacy would be able to find no 
btftter way of employing their easily acquired wealth than in the 
display of architectural magnificence. During the century which 
succeeded the Conquest, the Saxon cathedrals, with scarcely an ex- 
ception, were swept away to make room for nobler buildings designed 
by foreign architects, and all the larger abbey churches were like- 
wise rebuilt. All this was done with such grandeur of conception, 
and so just an appreciation of the true principles of architectural 
effect, that even now the Norman nave, in spite of its rudeness, is 
frequently a more impressive specimen of art than the more poUshed 

• "Hi' . . j'v •, the good work proceeded steadily 

t ' at ra^ itl . v . !» .j • i m - t I • v v • t ; iiries which succeeded the Conquest^ 

'•''»!« .»i.i inr.>li<M»t i-t '.1 ! n seems to have been concentrated 
on this one art. Poetry hardly existed, and Painting and Sculpture 
were only employed as the handmaids of architecture. But year by 
year new and improved forms of construction were invented and 
universally adopted. New mouldings, and new applications of carvings 
and foliage, were introduced ; and painting on opaque substances and 
even on glass was carried to an astonishing degree of perf ectiom All 
this was done without borrowing and without extraneous aid, but 
by steadily progressing to a well-understood object with a definite 
aim. It is true that occasionally, as at Westminster Abbey, we detect 
the influence of French arrangements; but even there the design is 
carried on in so essentially English a manner, with details so purely 
English, as to make us feel even more strongly how essentially native 
the style had become. 

The Ethnic combination, which led to the marvellous perfection of 
Gothic art during the Edwardian period, was as fortunate as can well 
be conceived. It was a Celtic hierarchy and aristocracy steadied by a 
Saxon people ; with the substratum of an earlier Celtic race, held in 
absolute subjection by the Saxons, but rising again, at least partially, 
to the surface, under the Norman domination. It was something like 
what happened in Athens when a Dorian race was superimposed on one 
of Pelasgic origin; and, although the conditions were here reversed, 
and the field far more limited, the result was still most successful. 
Within the limits of a century, the French had jumped from the ten- 
tative example of St. Denis (1144) to the perfection of the Sainte 
Chapelle (1244). Our St. Stephen's Chapel was not finished till a 
century afterwards; but while the French hardly ever went beyond 
their great 13th century effort, in the 16th century we were building 
the Royal Chapels at Windsor, Westminster, and Cambridge. 

Bk. VIL Cn. I. HISTORY. 393 

The French wars and the wars of the Roses seem to have altered 
the original state of affairs to a very considerable extent. The Norman 
nobility were decimated — almost, indeed, destroyed — and another stra- 
tum of society came gradually to the surface, but this time certainly 
not Celtic On the walls of the churches of the Lancastrian period we 
read — ^faintly, it must be confessed — the great Saxon motto, "The 
greatest possible amount of accommodation at the least possible 
expenditure of money and thought." During this period, too, the 
cathedral and conventual hierarchies were yielding before the develop- 
ment of the parochial system. It may be wrong to assert that the 
Reformation began as early as 1400, but it is true that the seeds were 
then sown, which afterwards ripened into the explosion of the 
Commonwealth. Some very grand churches were no doubt erected 
during the Lancastrian period, and some beautiful additions made to 
existing edifices ; but they were hard and mechanical as compared with 
that which preceded them. They were the work of accomplished masons, 
not wrought out with the feelings of educated gentlemen ; and, though 
we may admire, we cannot quite adore even the best and noblest pro- 
ductions of their age. 

Under the Tudors the style went out in a blaze of glory. Nothing 
can be more gorgeous and fascinating than the three Royal Chapels, and 
the other contemporary fan-roofed buildings ; but they are like the 
fabled dying hues of the dolphin — bright and brilliant, but unnatural 
and fleeting. It was the last spasmodic effort of an expiring style, and 
soon passed away. 

After the reformation was complete there was no longer any want 
of new churches, and the great incentive of making a house worthy of 
the service of God was taken away ; so that during Elizabeth's reign, 
architecture was almost wholly occupied in providing new and more 
extensive mansions for the nobility and landed gentry. Spacious rooms, 
well-lighted galleries, comfortable chambers, and good accommodation 
for servants were the demands of the time, with sufficient stateliness, 
but at the least possible outlay. Comfort and economy are the inherent 
antitheses of architectural effect ; and then, as now, brought the art 
down from its exalted pedestal almost to the level of a mere useful 
art. But the Bodleian Library and other buildings in our Universities 
show that the art lingered even in the 17th century, and that men 
still looked upon mullions and pinnacles as objects on which a little 
money might be advantageously spent. But it was no longer the old 
art : of course there are exceptions, but that was struck down on the 
battlefield of Towton in 1461, only to be partially galvanised into life 
at Bosworth, twenty-four years afterwards. 

Although €k>thic architecture continued to be employed in the 
Universities and in remote corners of the land long after it had ceased 
to be practised abroad, it must not therefore be assumed that the 

z 2 


people of England generally regarded it with admiration. To them it 
was, the symbol of a superstition from whose influence they gloried in 
escaping, or the emblem of a feudal tyranny from which they were just 
emerging into partial freedom. During Elizabeth's reign the straggle 
was hardly over ; the wounds of the combatants were still fresh and 
bleeding, the anger of the contest had by no means subsided, and they 
looked with hate and abhorrence on whatever recalled the stem realities 
of the past. We can now afford to look on the Middle Ages with far 
different feelings ; our wounds have long since been healed, and hardly 
a scar remains. Time has thrown its veil of poetry over what was then 
a mere prosaic matter of fact, hiding those features which were once so 
repulsive, and softening much which even now it is impossible to forget. 
They shrunk from what they felt as a reality ; we cherish it because 
it has faded into a dream. 

Bearing in mind the prevalence of these feelings, we should not be 
surprised that so soon as classical art was presented to them the people 
rushed to it with avidity. The world was then ringing with pnuse of 
the newly disseminated poetry of Virgil, the eloquence of Cicero, and 
the glorious narratives of livy. A new light was dawning, and the 
cry arose on all sides, '' Away with the Middle Ages, with their super- 
stition and their tyranny. Roman greatness, Roman literature, and 
Roman art are to regenerate the world ! " We are now convinced that 
the Classical Renaissance was not successful ; but is it quite clear that 
a Medieval revival will not prove even a greater and more disastrous 


Be this as it may, in the whole range of artistic history it would be 
difficult to find any single monograph that might be made so complete 
in itself, or all the details of which are so well known, as that of 
Mediaeval art in England. We know its birth and parentage ; we can 
follow it through youth to the bloom of manhood. We can admire it 
in the staid maturity of its power, and in the expiring efforts of its 
failing strength ; and we know the cause of its decay and death. To 
those who are able to grasp it, no story can be more interesting ; while 
to those who desire to understand what architecture reaUy is, how it 
can be cultivated so as to insure success, and by what agencies it is 
sure to decay and finally to die, no subject is capable of being more 
instructively treated. 

Bk. VII. Ch. IL 




So few and indiBtinct are the tracea of architectural art in England 
before the Norman Conqnest, that for a long time it was a moot point 
among antiquaries whether or not 
an; such thing existed as true I 

Saxon architecture. The question ^ 

may now be considered as settled 
in the affirmative. In his last edi- 
tion, Rickman enumerates twenty 
churches in which fragments are 
found which certainly belong to the 
pro-Norman period, though no 
complete example can be pointed 
to as illustrating the style then 
prevalent. Since Hickman's death 
ten to fifteen more specimens have 
been discovered. Generally they 
are towers or crypts, as St. Wini- 

fred's at Hipon, or the pillars of 
a chaocel-arch, as at Reculvor. 
Sometimes it is a doorway, at 
others only a piece of rude walling. 
On a review of the whole, it is 
evident that architecture in Eng- 
land was certainly ruder and less | 
developed than that on the Con- 
tinent at the same age ; both were, 
of course, based on the Roman art 
*hich preceded them ; but, owing 
probably to our insular position, ,„ 
^he attempted reproduction of 
I^man work was of so barbaric a character as to have suggested 
^t first a wooden origin for some of the features. Mr. G. G. Scott, 
however, in hia essay on the history of 'English Church Archi- 
tecture' (1871), says: "What we term Saxon architecture is in 


reality but an Eoglisli versioa of the contempcwaiy art ctf Italy 
with which the Boman missionaries and their successors were well 
acquainted, and which they endeavoured with imperfect success to 
naturalize here." On this subject Mr. Scott says, p. 42 : " There is 
no feature more characteristic of Saxon architecture than the use 
<£ rude pilaster strips. The imitation <^ the mode of bonding of 
snob pilasters, in the construction of groins, and in the jambs 
d doorways and other openings, constitutes what is known as ' long 
and short work.' This has sometimes been supposed to be a tradition 
of wooden construction. It is certainly nothing of the kind. It 
represents simply the manner in which a classic pilaster is ordinarily 
constructed as distinguished from the medisToI method oi forming a ^ 
quoin." It should be observed also that the method of placing upright ^ 
poets of timber at intervals for the sake of economy in filling in ,m~^ 
between with briclc-nogging or forming plaster surfaces or battens, is a ^^ 
much later type of construction ;. the earliest timber church 
(and it is doubtful if that was built before Norman times), 
Oreensted Church, Essex, is constructed of huge balks of timber pli 
side by side, and is entirely unlike the disposition of the upright band^Eadf 
of stone found in Saxon work. Triangular heads to doorways an ^i~t r 
windows are found in St. Jean of Poitiers, in St. Front at PoWgnon-^ — ■»• 
and elsewhere in France, " where the scientific mode of the constructiaE:=^3>i 
and the perfection of the details, forbid us to attribute it to the bab^i=>± 
of bnilding in wood." The baluster shafts also, Mr. Soott si 
were copied from Roman balusters. The projecting hood-mould ov 
doorway and window openings, which is not an independent rii 
ai masonry as in Norman and Gothic work, is celled frwn the out 
moulding of the Roman archivolt. In fact, as Mr. Soott obeerr 
p. 43 : " Our ruder Saxon churches exhibit, in however 
the principles of a style distinctly arcuated — a style, that is, of 
the typical forms are determined by scientific masonry. However ru^B^^ 
and even barbarous in execution they may be, they are not rigl^ '^'j' 
termed even debased R<»n^'K>- 
"They exhibit a purely arcu*.-*>^*^ 
style, true in its science, howo'V^ 
imperfect in its art." 

Although interesting to En^l*^' 
antiquaries, the specimens of 
art are so insignificant as hardly 
deserve mnch notice in a 
history of the art, and one or ^~ 
examples will suffice to explain 
peculiarities of the style. The tower of Earl's Barton in Kwth**=^*P~ 
t<mahire contains in itself more undoubted Saxon 
than any other specimen yet described : its angles, 

'<B«non. (From Brlllon.) ' ' _ i. 


Woodcut No. 799, are constructed with that peculiar form of quoin 
known as " long and short," while its faces are ornamented hy long 
pilaster-like slips connected by semicircular arches or more frequently 
by straight-lined cross-bracing which mi^t be regarded as wooden in 
its character were it not for the through bond stones which mark 
their junction. The windows (Woodcut No. 600) are formed by gouty 
balusters, looking very much as if thej were turned in a lathci and the 
whole arrangements bear out that character. Even more character- 
istic of the style than this, is the doorway under the tower <^ the 

Buoo Doumf ix UonkvcviiKiiiUb (Fi 

^liurch at Monkwearmouth in Diurham (Woodcut No. 801). There 
^eems no doubt but that it is part of the church which Benedict Biscc^ 
^t-ected there in the 7th century. According to the chronicles, when 
Ike 'was enabled by the liberality of King E^gfrid to found a monastery 
^liere, he went, in 674, to Oaul to procure masons who could erect it 
^tk tbe " Roman manner " that is, in imitation of the basilicas in Rome. 
^C*he twined serpents with birds' beaks, on the right doorpost, are, as 
^»'e know from manuscripts of that age, singularly characteristic of the 
^tyle, but not, so far as I know, found elsewhere engraved in stone on 
^ church door. Though quaint and interesting to the antiquary, it 
XkiDBt be confessed there is not much grace or beauty in any feature of 



Part XL 

the style, or even an approach to grandeur of dimensions in any 
example which has been spared to the present day. 

Had any great conventual church or cathedral survived we might 
perhaps be forced to modify this opinion : ^ but the only one of which 
we know anything is that which was erected at Canterbury by Arch- 
bishop Odo in the years 940-960, to replace the older church of St. 
Augustine.^ Even this, however, we only know from the description 
of Edmer, the singer, who saw it before it was destroyed by fire in 
1067. like the German churches of that age, it seems to have had 
two apses. The principal one, towards the east, was appropriated to 
the clergy; while the western one belonged to the laity, or, as we 
should now say, was devoted to parochial purposes. 

Its walls and structure probably resembled the nave of Montier-en- 
Der (Woodcut No. 610), or the Basse CEuvre at Beauvais (Woodcut 
No. 608) — ^plain piers supporting round arches below, and smaU 
circular-headed windows in a plain wall above. 

Outside the original church of St. Augustine to the eastward — at 
what distance we unfortunately are not told — Guthbert, the second 
archbishop, about the year 750 erected a second church, '*as a bap- 
tistery, and in order that it might serve as the burying-place of future 
archbishops ; *' ' thus combining the two rites in a ceremonial church 
apart from the basiUca, exactly as was done in Italy during the 
Romanesque age. It is by no means improbable that the eastern, 
termination of the present cathedral known as Becket's Grown stands 
on the site of this old baptistery, and retains its dimensions ; but it is 
difficult to prove this, so completely have all the features of the church 
been altered by subsequent rebnilduigs. 

From what we know of Saxon MSS. and other indications, it would 
seem that painting was a favourite mode of decoration among the 
Saxons ; and if so, their interiors may have been more successful as 
works of art than their external architecture would lead us to expect. 
But as no specimen of Saxon painted mural decoration has come down 
to our time, it is hardly safe to assume much with regard to this. 

> Documentary evidence now estab- 
lishes the fact that the nave of Waltham 
Abbey was Harold's original work, 
though subsequently enriched by carving. 

' This has been restored, as far as the 
materials admit, by Professor Willis, in 
his * Architectural History of Canterbury 
Cathedral,' published in 1845. 

' " Qui eoclesiam in orientali parte 
majoris easlesin eidem pene contiguam 
in honore Beati Johannis Baptist» fabri- 
cavit ; ut et Baptisteria et examinationea 
Judiciorum, &c. — et Archiepisooporum 
corpora in e& sepelirentur." — * Anglia 
Sacra,' vol. ii. p. 75. 




An entirely new state of affairs was inaugurated in 1066 by the 
Norman Conquest of England. A new aristocracy, new laws, and 
« new language infused new life and energy into every department of 
^he State, and an age of unwonted activity and brilliancy superseded 
the lethargic misrule of the Saxon period. 

In nothing was this more manifestly evident than in architecture. 
Inste-ad of a barbaric and debased style, a real lithic art was introduced 
and adopted at onco, on a scale of magnificence but little known 
even in France at that time. Almost all our great cathedrals were 
either rebuilt, or at least remodelled, at that time, and great monastic 
institutions were founded all over the countiy, demanding chlirches 
and buildings on a scale undreamt-of before that time. The impulse 
thus given lasted for nearly ^ve centuries, till the Saxon clement in 
the population again came to the surface at the Refonnation ; but 
during that long period it continued without break or drawback, and 
forms a style complete and perfect in itself, — imported, it is true, in 
the first instance, but taking root in the soil, and with little aid from 
abroad growing into a thoroughly vigorous and acclimatised style. 
So completely is this the case, and so steady and uninterrupted was 
its progress, that it is impossible to separate its various stages one 
from another, but it is proposed to treat it as one style and in one 
chapter in the following pages. In a larger work it might be neces- 
sary to divide it into parts, but within our limits it will certainly be 
found more convenient, as it certainly is more logical, to treat it as 
** whole. 

Plans op English Cathedral Churches. 

The most remarkable and universal peculiarity in the arrangement 
-•^ English churches, when compared with those on the Continent, is 
■'-■"^eir extraordinary length in proportion to their breadth. In this 
**"— «pect they seem to stand alone when compared with any buildings 
isting in other parts of the world. The ancients atfected a double 
\ uare ; in other words, their temples were generally twice as long as 
^y were broad. In the Middle Ages, on the Continent, this proper- 



Pabt n. 

tion wail generally doubled. Practically the internal width was 
multiplied by 4 for the length. This at least seems to have been the 
proportion generally aimed at, though of course it was often modi- 
fied by circumstances. In England the larger churches generally 
reached the proportion of 6 times their width for their length. Most 
of our cathedrals have been so altered and modified by subsequent 

I IBB • I ^ 



Plan of Norwich Oiiliedral. Scale 100 11. to 1 in. 

additions that it is difficult now to trace their original arrangements, 
but Norwich exists in plan almost exactly as originally erected (^.d. 
1096-1135), as will be seen from the plan (Woodcut No. 802). The 
nave to the west of the intersection is more than 4 times its width 
(70 X 295). The rectangular part of the choir is more than a square, 
and with the apse and its aisle, exclusive of the chapels, makes alto- 
gether a length of 410 ft. internally, or nearly 6 squares. At Peter- 



f ** 



' 1^4 

•_. _jr 9 

••- A-*-— —*»•.. ^L«» 

,, n « 

a a 

a a 






borough and Ely the proportion seems to have been as 5 to 1 to the 
centre of the apse ; but if there was a circumscribing aisle or chapel, 
the longer proportion would obtain. At Canterbury and Winchester, 
and generally in the south-eastern cathedrals, as built more imme- 
diately under French influence, the 
original proportion was somewhat 
shorter; but so impressed were the 
English architects with the feeling that 
length was the true mode of giving 
effect, that eventually the two cathe- 
drals last named surpassed it. Canter- 
bury (Woodcut No. 803) attained an 
internal length of 518 ft. while the 
width of the nave is only 72, or as 
7 to 1. At Winchester (Woodcut 
No. 806) these dimensions are 525 and 
82, or something less than 7 to 1, owing 
to the greater width of the nave. 

It is extremely difficult to assign 
a satisfactory reason for this pecu- 
liarity of English plans. It arises so 
Suddenly, however, in the English 
churches of the Norman age that it 
tiust have pre-existed in those of the 

Saxons ; though why they should have 

^^opted it is by no means clear. If 

t^liese churches had wooden roofs, 

^^irhich was almost certainly the case, 

't^lieir naves might easily have been 

^Mrider, and it can hardly have arisen 

^rom any aesthetic motive. As we now 

judge them, these early naves were 

V^ully proportioned for hearing an 

^iddress from the bishop or prior, and 

^ui ill adapted for a multitude to see 

"^v^hat was passing at the altar ; but for 

pictorial effect they surpass everything 

erected on the Continent, unless with 
greatly increased dimensions of height 8«*^ loo lu tb i 1d. 

or width. Whether, therefore, it were hit upon by accident or by 
fieaign, its beauty was immediately appreciated, and formed the 
^veming principle in the design of all the English cathedrals. It 
a discovery which has added more to the sublimity of effect which 
most of our cathedrals than any other principle 
introduced during the Middle Ages. 




803. Plan of Canterbury Cathedral. 



Part IL 

All the cathedrals above enumerated^ indeed most of those which 
were designed by Norman prelates during the first half-century after 
the Conquest, were erected on very nearly the same plan as that at 
Norwich. Durham (1095-1133) was the first to show any marked 
deviation from the type ^ (Woodcut No. 804). The nave and choir 

became nearly proportioned to one 
another, and for the first time we 
see a distinct determinatum horn 
the first that the building should 
be vaidted. All this involved an 
amount of design and contrivanoe 
which entirely emancipated us from 
the Continental type, and may be 
considered as laying the foundation, 
of the English style. 

In addition to what was doing 
at Durham there prevailed an 
extraordinary activity in church- 
building in the North of England 
during the whole of the 12th 
century, owing to the erection of 
''"'^ the great abbeys whose gigantic 
fossils still adorn every main valley 
in Yorkshire. As this part of the 
country was more remote from 
foreign influence than the South, 
the style developed itself there 
with a vigour and originality not 
found elsewhere ; but its effect was 
appreciated, and when Lincoln was 
rebuilt, about the year 1200, the 
JJTT English style was perfected in all 
essential parts. This is even more 
remarkably shown, however, at 
Salisbury, commenced in 1220 and 
completed in 1258, with the excep- 
tion of the spire, which does not 
appear to have formed part of the 
original design. 
In this church we have a plan not only extremely beautiful, but 
perfectly original. There is scarcely a trace of French or foreign 
influence ; everything is the result of the native elaboration during 

804. PUn of Dnrb&m Cathedral. 

(From Billings.) Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 

* The internal dimensions of Durham 
Cathedral arc 41310 feet, exclasive of 

the Galilee. The naye is 81 feet wide, 
the choir, 77-2. (Billings.) 



the previous century and a half. The internal dimensions, according 
to Britton, are 450 ft. by 78 — a little under the English standard, but 
sufficiently long for effect. The apsidal arrangement, so universal in 
Norman cathedrals, has dis- 
appeared never to return, 
except in Westminster 
Abbey (1245-1269), and in 
some readjustments, as at 
Tewkesbury; and the square 
eastern termination may 
henceforth be considered as 
established in this country 
— the early symbol of that 
independence which eventu- 
ally led to the Reformation. 
Once the Salisbury plan 
came to be considered the 
true English type, the Nor- 
man cathedrals were grad- 
ually modified to assimilate 
their arrangements to it. 
The nave and transept of 
Winchester were already 
too extensive to admit of a 
Second transept, but the 
choir was rebuilt on the 

tievr model ; and when 

^terwards the nave was 

^'^modelled by William of 

^7'ykeham it became one of 

t^lie most beautiful, as it 

Continued to be the longest, 

of Bnglish cathedrals (556 

^^et- over alH ^^^' ^**" ®' Saltobury CatbedraL Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 

About the same time Ely had a choir and presbytery added to it in 
lieu of the old Norman choir, which raised it to the very first rank 
^mong English churches ;^ and when, in 1322, by a fortunate accident 

* The proper effect of this part of Ely 

C^athedral has been seriously marrod by 

the erection of the now reredos. In itself 

a fair specimen of modern Gothic, it is 

placed so far from the choir as to lose its 

proper effect. It is painfully dwarfeil by 

the largo plain area in front of it. Bu t 

woriic Uian this, it cuts up unci dostruys 

the most beautiful presbytery in England 

after the Angul Choir nt Lincoln. Tho 
architects of Walsin^j^ham's time glazed 
two compartments of the triforium to 
throw light ujion the principal object in 
the choir, which was intendeil to stand 
two bays further forwanl. It would have 
l)ecu well if the 19th-ceutury restorers 
ha. I taken the hint. 



Part 1L 

ihe old Norman tower fell, the intersectioD. was rebuilt man 
that rendered it excAptionally pre-eminent among its rivals. There is 
perhaps no feature in the whole range of Qoihic architecture either 
i; r^ here or on the Con- 

tinent more beautiful 
than the iictagoD of 
Ely (Woodcut Na 
808), as rebuUt by 
Alan of Walsingham, 
the sacrist at the 
time the tower fell. 
He, and he alone of 
all northern archi- 
tects, seems to have 
conceived the idea of 
abolishing what was 
in fact the bathos of 
the style — the narre'w 
tall opening of the 
central tower, which, 
though posaeeaing ex- 
aggerated height, gave 
neither space oar 
dignity internally to 
the central feature of 
the design. On the 
other hand, the 
necessity of stronger 
supports to carry the 
tower frequently con- 
tracted still more the 
one spot where, 
according to archi- 
tectural propriety, an 
extended area was d 
vital importance to 
the due harmony of 
the design. 

In the present 
instance the architect 
took for the base of his design the whole width of the nave and 
aisles, constructing in it an octagon, the sides of which are respec- 
tively 25 and 30 ft., and the diameter 65 ft. in one direction east 
and west, and 70 ft. transversely. By this arrangement a central 
area was obtained more than three times the extent of that 


FUnsfWIIKliHterCuhaln]. (FnHO BtitKin.) 



<»-igmallj existing, and, more than this, a propnety and poeti; 
(tf design which are not to be found elsewhere All this too was 
carried out with the exquisite detads of the best age of English 
Gothic, and the effect 
in consequence ia aur- 
paesingl; beautiful. 
"CTofortunately, either for 
'^rant of funds, or of con 
£dence in their abdity to 
execute it, the vault, like 
-tihat of York, is only in 
'^ttood, though, from the 
xnuneose atreagth of the cz^ 
supports, and their ar r ^-jr- -f '>' 
x^ngement, it is evident '-' ^ 

~thst B atone vault was 
originally intended The 
~very careless — one might 
almost say ugly— way m 
"which the lantern was 
^nished externally, shows 
unmistakably that it was 
not intended to last long 
in its present form. Be 
that as it may, this 
octagon is in reality the 
only true Gothic dome 
in existence; and the 
vender is, that being 
OQce suggested, any 
cathedral was ever after- 
wards erected without it. 
Its dimensions ought not 
to have alarmed those 
^ho had access to the 
<)cnnes of the Byzantines 
** Italians. Its beauty 
*>i]ght to have struck hi. 
tliem as it does us. 
•**erhap6 the true explanation lies in the fact that it was invented late 
*-Kk. the style. New cathedrals or great churches were very rarely 
Commenced after the death of Edward the Third ; and when they 
'^''«re, it was more often by intelligent masons, than by educated 
gentlemen, that they were designed. 

After this, very little novelty was introduced into the design of 


English cathedrals. York, however, was almost entirely rebuilt in th« 
fonn towards which the architects were tending during the whole of 
the Middle Ages, and it may consequently be considered as the type at 

if CuhednJ. (Fnii 

which they were aiming, though hardly the one to which we can gire 
the most unqualified praise. The nave was erected between the years 
1291 and 1331, the choir between 1361 and 1405 ; the length internally 
is 486 ft. ; the width of the choir, 100 ft. ; of the nave, 106 ft. ; both 


these last were, unfortunately, dimensions which the architects did 
not feel themselves equal to grappling with in stone, so that the roof, 
like the lantern at Ely, was constructed of wood, in imitation of a 
stone vault, and remains so to this day. 

Owing to the great width attempted for the nave, York has not the 
usual proportion of length affected by other English cathedrals, and 
loses in effect accordingly. Its great peculiarity is the simplicity and 
squareness oi its plan, so unlike what is found anywhere abroad. The 
church is divided into two equal parts ; one devoted to the laity, one 
to the clergy. There are no apsidal or other chapels. Three altars 
stood against the eastern wall, and it may be 3 or 4 in the transept. 
Beyond this nothing. There is none of that wealth of private chapels 
which distinguishes Continental cathedrals and churches, or even Can- 
terbury, the most foreign of our English examples. The worship even 
at that early period was designed to be massive and congregational, 
not frittered away in private devotion or scattered services, and 
marks a departure from Continental practices well worthy the atten- 
tion of those who desire to trace the gradual dcjvelopinent of the 
feelings of a people as expressed in their architecture, and the archi- 
tecture only. 

The abbey church at Westminster is exceptional among English 
examples, and is certainly, in so far at least as the east end is con- 
cerned, an adaptation of a French design. The nave, however, is 
essentially English in plan and detail, and one of the most beautiful 
examples of its class to be found anywhere. So, too, are the wide- 
fipreading transepts ; but eastward of these the form is decidedly that 
of a French cathedral. Henry VII. 's Chapel now stands over the space 
formerly occupied by the Lady Chapel ; but before it was pulled down 
t^he circlet of apsidal chapels^ was as completely and as essentially 
^Trench as any to be found in the country where that feature was 
invented. In the choir, however, the architects betrayed their want 
of familiarity with the form of termination they had selected. The 
i^ngle at which the three bays of the apse meet is far from pleasing, 
^nd there is a want of preparation for the transition, which tends to 
detract from the perfection of what would otherwise be a very 
'beautiful design.^ 

* The fbundations of the Lady Chapel ; French chevet, the width of the other 

of Henry in. were found a few years ago chapels would seem to have been gov- 

^Imost at the extreme east end of Henry > emed by that of the Lady Chapel. This, 

^II.'s Chapel, so that it can scarcely be i however, was 30 ft. wide — much greater 

^aid to have formed part of a circlet. ! than any French chapel. To complete 

' It should be remembered, however, j the ring, therefore, he was obliged to 

"^hat the first addition, made in 1220, ; carry them further west, so that the five 

"^vas the original Lady Chapel ; when ' chapels occupy a space equal in compari- 

^enry III. determined to rebuild the son to the seven chapels of Amiens, where 

ohurch and to adopt the plan of the the width of each is only 25 ft A com- 

VOL. II. 2 A 



Afl the choir was sepulchral, to accommodate the shrine of the 
Confessor, the design was 
appropriate, and its intro- 
duction in this instance 
cannot be regretted ; but 
on the whole, there is 
nothing in the church of 
Westminster to make us 
wish that this feature 
had become more com- 
mon on this side of the 

Notwithstanding the 
beauty of the result, it 
may still be considered 
as open to discussion 
whether the English 
architects were always 
correct in adhering to 
length in preference to 
height as the modulus 
of their designs. When, 
however, we reflect how 
immensely the difficulties 
of constructing a stone 
roof are increased bj 
every addition to the 
width or height of the 
vault, we cannot but ac- 
knowledge their wisdom 
in stopping at that poiat 
where sufficient spacious- 
ness was attained, with- 
out increasing construc- 
»c.. Pi«-rfW»uui»..« Abbey, s^i. luo I., u. 1 tn. ^j^^ difficulties. No- 

where in English cathedrals are we ofiended by mechanical toun de 
force. Everywhere there is suflicient solidity for secmity, and a 

parison of tho two cbovots will show | " Here the eridenco of the building 
bow iumuiou^ w^ the Esgliah arraoge- ititelf soema to be coDclogive that tbe 
moot ; and aa the vaalting is GBBcntialiy | king bod reaolviid to build > church 
Engliab in its seltiDg out and in its after tbe model of tbe great French 
design, it i« on]]' tbe idea of tbe plan ' churchen, but employed an bngliah 
which naa borrowi^. On this eubject I architect to design it. and he made his 
Ur Street remarks, p. 42<> (' Lectures on i plan on lines Khich are distinct and 
English Arcbitectniv,' Memoir of G. E, i different from those of anj French 
Strtcl. H.A., by A. E. Street, M.A. \SSi\ ' chun'b." 

bk. VII. ch. hi. vaults. 355 

consequent feeling of repose most conducive to true architectural 

It may also be remarked that the strain of turning the head 
upwards detrsicts considerably from the pleasure of contemplating tall 
interiors, while the eye likes to dwell on long-drawn vistas which can 
bo explored in a natural position. But, perhaps, the greatest 
advantage of moderate dimensions in section is that they do not dwarf 
either the worshippers or the furniture of the church. Everything in 
an English cathedral is in just proportion, which is certainly not the 
case in many Continental examples ; and there is variety and a play 
of light and shade in the long aisles of our churches which is wholly 
wanting in French and German examples. 

Another point on which a difference of opinion may fairly exist, b 
whether the square termination of our cathedrals is or is not more 
beautiful than the apsidal arrangements so universal abroad. 

When, as at Salisbury, or Wells, or Exeter, there is a screen of open 
arches below the east window, it may safely be asserted that a poly- 
gonal termination would have been more pleasing; but when, as at 
Vork, or Gloucester, or Carlisle, the whole eastern wall is a screen 
of painted glass, divided by mullions and tracery of most exquisite 
design, judgment will probably go the other way. Such a window as 
that at York, 33 ft. in width by 80 ft. in height, is a marvellous 
Creation, which few architectural developments in any part of the 
'^^orld can rival or even approach. On the whole, perhaps, the true 
Answer to the question, is that, where a number of smaller chapels are 
Vranted, the chevet form is the best and most artistic termination 
^or a church ; where these are not required, the square form is the 
lanost beautiful, because it is the most appropriate, and, like every- 
thing appropriate, capable of being made beautiful in the hands of a 
"t^rue artist. 


Whatever opinion may be formed as to the proportions of English 
cathedrals, or the arrangement of their plans, there can be no dispute 
^ to the superiority of their vaults over those of all their Continental 
^vals. The reasons for this are various, and not very recondite. The 
^^nost obvious is the facility of construction which arose from the 
^noderation just pointed out in the section of our churches. 

The English always worked within their strength, instead of going 

't;o the very verge of it, like the French ; and they thus obtained the 

drawer of subordinating constructive necessities to architectural beauty. 

TThus the English architects never attempted a vault of any magnitude 

iiill they were sufficiently skilled in construction to do it with facility. 

In a former chapter it has been pointed out how various and painful 

2 A 2 



Part II. 

were the steps by which the French arrived at their system of vaulting 
— ^first by pointed tunnel- vaults and a system of domes, then by a ocnn- 
bination of quadripartite and hexapartite intersecting vaults, of every 
conceivable form and variety, but always with a tendency to domical 
webs, and to the union of all pre-existing systems. This experimen- 
talising, added to the great height of their roofs, and the slendemess of 
their clerestories, never left them sufficiently free to admit of their 
studying aesthetic effects in this part of the construction. 

A second reason was, that for 150 years after the Conquest, our 
architects were content with wooden roofs for their naves. One of the 
earliest vaults we possess b that at Durham, commenced by Prior 
Melsonby, 1233. Long before that time the French architects had 
been trying all those expedients detailed at pp. 113, 114, and had 
thus succeeded in vaulting their central aisles a century before we 
attempted it. In doing so, however, their eyes got accustomed to 
mechanical deformities which we never tolerated, and they were after- 
wards quite satisfied if the vault would stand, without caring much 
whether its form were beautiful or not. 

A third cause of the perfection of English vaults arose from the 
constant use of ornamental wooden roofs throughout the Middle Ages. 
The typical example of this form now remaining to us is that of 
Westminster Hall. But St. Stephen's Royal Chapel had one of the 
same class, and there is reason to believe that they were much more 
common than is usually supposed.^ All these were elaborately framed 
and richly carved and ornamented, often more beautiful than a stone 
vault, and quite as costly ; and it seems impossible that a people who 
were familiar with this exquisite mode of roofing could be content with 
the lean twisted vaults of the Continental architects. The English 
alone succeeded in constructing ornamental wooden roofs, and, as a 
corollary, alone appreciated the value of a vault constructed on truly 
artistic principles and richly ornamented. Their eyes being accustomed 
to the depth and boldness of timber construction could never tolerate 
the thin weak lines of the French ogive, just sufficient for strength, 
but sadly deficient in expression and in play of light and shade. 

Although it is, perhaps, safe to assert that there is not, and never 
was, a Saxon vaulted church in existence ; and that, during the purely 
Norman period, though the side-aisles of great churches were generally 
vaulted, the central aisle was always ceiled with wood; yet, from a 
study of their plans, we are led to conclude that their architects 
always intended that they should, or at least might, be ornamented 
with stone roofs. 

In the first place the area of their piers is enormous, and such as 

* The roofs here alluded to must Dot bo 
oonfounded with the barD-like roofs of 
remoto village churches which modern 

architects are so fond of copying, but 
such roofs as that of St. Stephen s Chapel, 
and many of those of the Lancastrian era. 

Bk. VII. Ch. in. VAULTS- 357 

could never have been intended to support wooden roofs. Even 
making ereiy allowance for the badness of the masonry, one-tenth of 
the sectional area would have sufficed, and not more was employed 
cotemporoneously in Germany when it was intended to use wooden 

Nm «( Marbonngb 

roofs. There is also generally some variation in the design <^ the 
alternate piers, as if a hexapartite arrangement were contempUt«d. 

' Thii, and ft coneiilerablo number of I publiihed hj Hr. Hurray. In order to 
ibawoodcuUintbitohapter.are borrowed prsTont noedlcM repetition, they are 
tiDm the pUtMorthe t«autirul bfHm of marked Cath. Hb. 
' Handbodu of the English Cathcdrale,' | 


But the evidence is not conclusive, for the vaulting shafts are usually 
similar, and in all instances run from the ground through the clere- 
story, and terminate with the copings of the wall, so that, in their 
present form, they could only be meant to support the main timber of 
the roof. It may be that it was intended to cut them away down to 
the string-course of the clerestory, as was actually done at Norwich in 
1446, when the nave was vaulted ; but at present we must be satisfied 
with the evidence that the architects were content with such roofs as 
that of Peterborough (Woodcut No. 810), which is the oldest and 
finest we possess. It is very beautiful, but certainly not the class of 
roof these massive piers were designed to support. 

Though we may hesitate with regard to the intention of the builders 
of Norwich, Ely, or Peterborough, there can be no doubt, from the 
alternate piers and pillars, that when Durham (Woodcut No. 804) was 
commenced it was intended that the nave should be covered by a great 
hezapartite vault. Before, however, the intention could be carried out, 
the art of vaulting had been so far perfected that that very domsy 
expedient was abandoned ; and, by the introduction of a bracket in the 
nave, and afterwards of a vaulting shaft in the choir, a vault of the 
usual quadrilateral form was successfully carried out between the years 
1233 and 1284. 

It is probably to St. Hugh of Lincoln that we owe the first perfect 
vault in England. Coming from Burgundy he must have been fi^miliAr 
with the great vaults which had been constructed in his country long 
before the year 1 200, when he encouraged his new followers to under- 
take one not necessarily in the Burgundian style, but in that form with 
which they were conversant from their practice in erecting smaller 
side-vaults. He built and roofed the choir of Lincoln, immediately 
after which (1209-1235) the nave (Woodcut No. 811) was undertaken 
by Hugh of Wells, and its roof may be taken as a type of the first 
perfected form of English vaulting. It is very simple and beantifal ; 
but it cannot be denied — and this is felt still more at Exeter — ^th»t the 
great inverted pyramidal blocks of the roof are too heavy for the light 
pier and pierced walls which support them. Another defect ia^ that 
the lines of the clerestory windows do not accord with the lines of the 
*' severeys " of the vault. This defect was remedied at lidbfield, but 
nowhere else, until the invention of the four-centred arck and ol 
fan-tracery. At Lichiicld (Woodcut No. 812) the triangular form of 
the clerestory windows afforded a perfect solution of the difficulty, 
and gave a stability and propriety to the whole arrangement that never 
was surpassed, and never might have been relinquished had not their 
fatal fondness for painted glass forced the architects in this, as in 
other instances, to forego constructive propriety for indulgence in 
that fascinating mode of decoration. 

Beautiful as these simple early roofs were felt to be, the great mass 

Bk. VII. Ch. iil vaults. 859 

of tbe "Bevereys," or inverted pyramida, formed a very obvious defect. 
It was, however, easily remedied when once perceived. The earliest 
example of ita auccessful removal is probably in the roof of the choir 

rt Gloucester {1337-1377) (Woodcut No. 813). In thia instance the 
roof is almost a tunnej-vaiilt with the window spaces cutting into it, so 
as to leave nearly one-third of the space unbroken ; and, as the whole is 
covered with rich and appropriate tracery, the effect is highly pleasing. 


The snmo principle was afterwnrds carried to its utmoat perfection in 
the roof of St. George's Chapel at Windsor. In that case » flat band 
was introduced as a separate constructive compartment in the centre, 

NiTcnTLIehflPldCithtdnl. (Cilh. HK) 

supported by the severoys, and us the roof is ornamented with ribbings 

of the most exquisitir di-sign, it fiirni! 
ever designed by a (.lothic architect. 

primps the most beautiful vftult 

Bk. Vir. Cn. III. VADLTS. 361 

The great mvention of the Eogliah architects in vaultiog is the 
form naually known oa fan-trscery. It is so beautiful in itself, and ao 
exclusively EngUah, that it ma;, perhaps, be worth while to retrace the 

CboltofaioDnrterCUUKdnl. (CUb. HbO 

steps by which it was arrived at. This may lead to a little repetition, 
but the stone vault is bo essentially the governing modulus of the style 
that its principles cannot be made too clear. 


PABT 11. 

The original form of the intersecting vault is that of two halves 
of a hollow-sided square pyramid placed opposite one another in an 
inverted position.' One half of sDch a vault is ahowa at a and A A 
(Woodcut No. 814, fig. 1). The English seem early to have tired erf 
the endless repetition of these forms, and, after trying every mode of 
concealing their sameness by covering them with tracery, they hit on 
the happy ex|>edient of cutting off their angles, as shown at b and b b. 
This left a flat square space 
in the centre, which would 
have been awkward in the 
central vault, though in & 
side-aisle it was easily got 
over, and its flatness con- 
cealed by ornament. Arrived 
at this stage it was easy to 
see that by again dividing 
each face into two, as at c, 
fig. 1, the principal original 
lines were restored, SLiid the 
central space could be snb' 
divided by constructive lines 
to any extent required. By 
this process the square i^r*- 
mid had became a polygonal 
cone of 24 sides, which was 
practically so near a circle 
that it was impoosible to 

, , ,_^ resist the suggestion of mak- 

rrrprC;-^^^ ing it one, which was aooofd- 

^^^"^ ingly done, as shovn at d 
and a D, fig. 1. 

So for all was easy, bat ^j 
the fact of the flat central space resting on the four cones was stilLV 
felt to be a defect, as indeed is apparent in such a vault as that (A** 
the cloisters at Gloucester (Woodcut No. 815), where a segment ■** - 
used nearly equal to an equilateral spherical triangle. In this casw^ 
they did not dare to employ a constructive decoration, but covere^wE 
the space with circles so as to confuse and deceive the eye. A-^* 
Windsor (Woodcut No. 816) the defect was obviated by using a lo^«: 
four-centrcd arch invented for the purpose, so that the outer tangent c» 
the concoidwag nearly flat, and the principal transverse rib wascarri^»J 
to the centre without being broken — as the others might have 1 


' Thia hftjj nirimly bcpn pxplai 
especial iy at imu^f'S II I and IG'.K 

'<! in tho clinptcra c 

Frenrh architecta , 

Bk. vri. ch. ni. 


had that mode of decoration beea deemed expedient. This may be 
considered the perfection of this kind of vaulting, and is perhaps the 
most beautiful method ever invented. At Westminster (as shown in 
Woodcut No. 817) the difficulty was got over by reversing the curve by 
the introduction of pendants. This was a clever expedient, and pro- 
duced a startling effect, but is ao evidently » tour df. force that the 
result is never quite satisfactory ; though on a small scale perfectly 

These devices all answered perfectly so long as the space to be 
roofed was square, or nearly ao ; but when this mode of vaulting came 

• 16. Vault of ClolUFr, Oloocotn. 

**> be applied to the bays of the central nave, which were twice as long 
i»i one direction as in the other, the difficulties spemed insuperable. By 
^tttting off the angle as in the former instance (as at B, fig. 1, Woodcut 
^^«. 8H), you may get either a small diamond-shaped spjice in the 
*^««itre or a square, but in both cases the pyramid l)ecomrs very 
»'^kvard ; and by carrying on the system as liefore, you never arrive 
*■*! ft circle, but at an elliptical section as .shown at n, fig. 3 (Woodcut 
^^o- 814). 

The builders of Kinc's College Chapft Rlrnvr to obviate the diffi- 
<^«)ty by continuing the conoid to the centre, and then cutting off 



Part II- 

i shown i 

whnt was reclundaut nt the sidos, as in E, fig. 2 
view of the interior {Woodcut No. 846) further on. 

The richncsa of the ortinments, and the loftiness and elegance of the 
whole, lead us to overlook these defects at Cambridge, but nothing can 
be less constructive or leas ptejiaing than the abruptnesa of the int«r- 
sections no obtained. 
In the central aisle of 
Henry Vll.'a Chapel 
it was avoided by a 
bold aeries of pen- 
dants, supported 1^ 
internal flying bnt- 
tresaes, producing a 
surprising degree of 
complexity, and nidi 
an exhibition of 
mechanical dextwity 
09 never fails to ■•- 
tonish, and generally 
to please ; though it 
must be oonfeesed tlut 
it is at best a mere 
pieM of ingenuity very 
unworthy <^ F.ngHA 
art. By far the most 
satisfactory (d tbeae 
roofs is that at Wind- 
sor, where a broad flat 
' band is introdooed in 
' the centre of the rao^ 
: throughout the whole 
! length of the diqid. 
This is ornamented by 
panelling of the most 
exquisite design, and 
relieved by pendants 
of slight projection, 
the whole being in 
such good taste as to 
make it one of the richest and probably the moat beautiful vault ever 
constructtHJ. It has not the loftiness of that at Cambridge, being 
only 52 ft. high, instciid of 78, nor is Jt of the same extent, and 
consequently it does not so immediately strike observers, but on 
examination it is far more satisfactory. 

The truth of thf matter seoms to bo that, after all their experience, 

Bk. Vll. Ch. III. 



the architects had got back to precisely the puliit from which thej 
started, namely, the necessity of a square space for the erection of a 
satisfactory intersecting vault. The Romans saw this, and never 
swerved from it. The side^isles of all cathedrals and all cloisters 
adhered to it throughout ; and, when it was departed from in the wider 

central aisles, it always led to an awkwardness that was hardly ever 
successfully conquered. In some instances, as in the retro-choir at 
Peterborough (1438-1528), two windows are boldly but awkwardly 
included in one bay (Woodcut No. SIP), and the compartments are so 
nearly square that the ditticulty is not very apparent, but it is sufficient 



■ II. 

to injure conaideritbly the effect of wbat would otherwiBC be & very 
beautiful roof. 

In Henry VII.'s Chapel the difficulty was palliated, not conquered, 
by thrusting forward the great pendants of the roof and treating them 
aa essential ports of the construction, and as if they were supported bj 
pillars from the floor instead of by brackets from the wall. By this 

Choir Anshr* of OifoH Cjith<di 

means the roof was divided into rectangles more nearly approaching 
squares than was otherwise attainable ; but it is moat false in prin- 
ciple, and, in spite of all its beauty of detail, cannot be considered 

Strange as it may appear from its date, the mgst satisfactory roof 
of this class is that erected by Cardinal Wolsey in, the beginning of the 
16th century over the choir of Oxford Cathedral. In this instance the 

Bk. Vn. Ch. in. PIER ARCHES. 367 

pendants are thrust so far forward and made so important that the 
central part of the roof is practically quadripartite. The remaining 
difficulty was obviated by abandoning the circular horizontal outline 
of true fan-tracery, and adopting a polygonal form instead. As the 
whole is done in a constructive manner and with appropriate detail, 
this roof— except in sisse — ^is one of the best and most remarkable ever 

The true solution of the difficulty, in so far as the vault was con- 
cerned, would have been to include two bays of the side^isles in one of 
the centre ; but this would have necessitated a rearrangement of both 
plan and exterior to an extent the architects were not then prepared to 
tolerate, and it never was attempted, except perhaps in the instance of 
the retro-choir at Peterborough (Woodcut No. 818). Had it been done 
in King's College Chapel at Cambridge (Woodcut No. 846), it would 
have been in every respect an immense improvement. At present the 
length of King's College Chapel is too great for its other dimensions. 
Had there been six bays instead of twelve, its apparent length would 
have been considerably diminished, and the variety introduced by this 
change would have relieved its monotony without detracting from any 
of the excellent points of design it now possesses. 

The English architects never attempted such vaults as those of 
Toulouse and Alby, 63 and 58 ft. respectively, still less such as that 
of Gerona in Spain, which is 72 ft. clear width. With our present 
mechanical knowledge, we could probably construct wider vaults still. 
Even the Mediaeval architects in England might have done more in 
this direction than they actually accomplished, had they tried. On 
the whole, however, it seems that they exercised a wise discretion in 
limiting themselves to moderate dimensions. More poetry of design 
and greater apparent size is attainable by the introduction of pillars 
on the floor, and with far less mechanical effort. Unless everjrthing is 
increased in even a greater ratio, the dwarfing effect of a great vault 
never fails to make itself painfully apparent. We may regret that 
they did not vary their vaults by such an expedient as the lantern 
at Ely, but hardly that they confined them to the dimensions they 
generally adopted. 

Pier Abchbs. 

Although the principles adopted by the English architects did not 
materially difier from those of their Continental confreres with regard 
to the arrangement of pier arches and the proportions of triforia and 
clerestories, still their practice was generally so sound and the results 
so satisfactory, that this seems the best place to point out what the 
Mediaeval architects aimed at in the arrangement of their wall surfaces. 

In the Norman cathedrals the general scheme seems to have been 


to divide the height into three equftl parts aad to allot one to the 
pier arch another to the trifonum or great gallery and the third to 
the clerestory In all the examples we aow have, the upper is the 

iiiiorai«N»e, wiDcbc 

(fittb. Hb.) 

stnallest division \ but I cannot help fancying that some arrang^neat 
of the timbers of the roof gave the additional height required. It is 
generally supposed that the roof at Peterborough (Woodcut No, 810) 
was originally flat. This, however, is by no means clear, nor that it 
started so low ; but, be that as it may, the woodcut (No. 820) will 

Bk. YII. Ch. 111. 


explain the usual arraagement, aa well as the changes afterwards 

introduced. At Winchester the two lower divisions are practically 

equal, the upper 

Bomewbat less, and 

the alternate ar 

rangement of the 

piers hints at a 

hexapartite vault if 

such should ever 

come to be executed 

When WiUiam of 

Wykeham undertook 
to remodel the style 
of the nave, he first 
threw the two lower 
compartments into 
One, as shown on the 
left-hand aide of the 
cut. He then 
vlivided the whole 
laeight, aa nearly as 
"the masonry would 
^low him, into two 
equal parts, allotting 
one to the pier 
Arches, and appor- 

1:ioning the upper as 

nearly oa he could 

ttj giving two-thirds 

tiO the clerestory 

aad one-third to the 

triforium. With 

pointed archee this 

^«aa the most ple&s- 

Sng and satisfactory 

^urangement adopted 

vlnring the Middle 

—Ages ; but when 

^mmething rery like 

£t was attempted in 

"*he nave of Glou- 

^Dester with round arches, the effect was moat uii pi easing. 

^Brchitects, however, settled down to this pi-oportiou, 

'^Szperimenta were tried. One of the most successful was the nave 

3Uchfield Cathedral (Woodcut No. 812). Here the whole height 
vou II. 2 u 

felly Citlitdrol. (Citb. Ilt^) 

Before the 
variety of 



Paot IL 

divided equaUy : one half is giren to the pier arches, and the other 
divided equally between the clerestory and triforium. If the latter 
had been glazed externally, as was the case at Westminster Abbey 
and elsewhere, and made to look like part of the church, the whole 
might be considered as satisfactory. As it is, the area of the 
clerestory is so much less than that of the triforium, that the 
proportion is not quite agreeable, though the solidity and repose 
which this arrangement gives to 
I the root is above all praise. 

All these objections were 
obviated in the three bays of the 
choir at Ely, which were rebuilt 
by Walsingham at the same time 
as the octagon. Here the tri- 
forium and clerestory are equal ; 
but the upper window is so 
spread out, and so much ia made 
of it, that it looks equal to the 
compartment below. The pier 

833. OiuBcjarcUtmlnlUEuta'. 

arch below is also subdued to less than half the whole height, so as to 
give value to the upper division. These proportions are derived from 
the very beautiful Early English presbytery beyond ; but they are 
here used with such exquisite taste and such singular beauty of detail 
that there is perhaps no single portion of any Gothic building in 

bk. vii. Ch. hi. window tracery. 371 

the world which can vie with this part of the choir of Ely for poetry 
of design or beauty of detail. 

The perfection of proportion, as of many other things, was reached 
in Westminster Abbey (1245-1269). Here the whole height is divided 
into two equal parts, and the upper subdivided into three, of which one 
is allotted to the triforium, and two to the clerestory. It is true 
this involves the necessity of springing the vault from a point half way 
down the clerestory windows, and thus the lines of the severeys do not 
accord quite with those of the lights ; but at best it is a choice of 
difficulties, and the happy medium seems to have been reached here 
more successfully than elsewhere. The proportion of the width of a 
bay to its height is here also most pleasing ; it is as 1 to 5j^.^ Some- 
times, as at Exeter, it sinks as low as 1 in 3, but the whole eifect of the 
building is very much destroyed by the change. 

Shortly after this, as in the choir at Lichfield (1250-1325) or at 
£lxeter (1308-1369), the mania for the display of painted glass upset 
^11 these arrangements — ^generally at the expense of the triforium. 
This feature was never entirely omitted, nor was it ever glazed 
ioiternally, as was frequently the case on the Continent ; but it was 
»*educed to the most insignificant proportions — sometimes not pierced — 
c^nd, with the wider spacing just alluded to, deprived the English side 
Screen of much of that vigour and beauty which characterised its earlier 

Window Tracery. 

The date of the introduction of the pointed arch in England — for 
Xi> may he considered as established that it was introduced — is a ques- 
tion which has been much discussed, but is by no means settled. The 
general impression is that it was at the rebuilding of the cathedral of 
^Uanterbury after the fire of 1174 that the style was first fairly tried, 
^ffhe architect who superintended that work for the first five years 
"^vas William of Sens ; and the details and all the arrangements are so 
^essentially French, and so different from anything else of the same age 
England, that his influence on the style of the building can hardly 
doubted. Of course it is not meant to assert that no earlier speci- 
^nens exist ; indeed, we can scarcely suppose that they did not, when 
"^^e recollect that the pointed arch was used currently in France for more 
^han a century before this time, and that the pointed style was inaugu- 
:^^ted at St. Denis at least thirty years before. Still this is probably 

> In Woodont No. 822 tho right-hand 

is that of the nave generally, the lef t- 

"^land hay is adapted to the greater width 

^f the aisle of tho transept, and is less 

pleasingly proportioned in consequence. 

Woodcuts No8. 822 and 823 are drawn to 
the scale of 25 feet to 1 inch, or double 
that usually employed for elevations in 
this work. 



Part II. 

the first instanoe of the style being carried out io suythiag like com- 
pleteness, not only in the pier archea and openings, but in the raults 
also, which is far more characteristic. 

Even after this date the struggle was long, and the innoraticm most 
unwillingly received by the Enghsh, so that even down to the year 1200 
the round arch was ciurently employed, in conjunction with the pcunted, 
to which it at last gave way, and was then for three centuries banished 
entirely from English architecture. 

Be this as it may, in their treatment of traceiy, which followed 
immediately on the introduction of the pointed arch, the English 
architects showed coniiiderable originality in design, though inspired 

mun Wladoir, York. (Fniu Biiwn-i 

by the same sobriety which chai-acteriaes all their works. They 
not only invented the lancet form of window, but what may be called 
the lancet style of fenestration. Nowhere on the Continent are 
such combinations to be found as the Five Sisters at York (Woodcut 
No. 824), or the east end of Ely (Woodcut No. 825), or such a group 
as that which terminates the east end of Hereford (Woodcut No. 826). 
Tracery it can hardly be called, but it is as essentially one design as 
any of the great east windows that afterwards came into fashion ; and 
until painted glass became all-important, such an arrangement was 
constructively better than a screen of mullions, and as used in this 
country is capable of very beautiful combinations. 

So, at least, the English architects of the 13th century seem to haye 
thought, for they continued to practise their lancet style, as in the 

Bk. VII. Cii. III. 



much-quotod oxamplonf Salisbury Cathedral, long after the French had 
perfected the geometric forms ; which may be scea from the contem- 
porary cathedral in Amiens. In France, as was pointed out in a 
previous chapter (p. 163 f.l leq.), we can trace every step by which 

the geometric forms were invp.nted. In Enpiland this cannot be done, 
and when we do find a rudimentary comhination of two lancets with 
a circle, it is more fretjurntty a harkin;; hack to previous forms than 
stepping forwards triward a new invention. 

When, however, pitinted jfla-ss became an indispensable part of 




church decoration, it was impossible to resist the influence of the Frenclk 
inveation. Like many other Continental forms it seems first to bav^ 
beea systematically employed at Westminster, when the choir was 
rebnilt by Henry III., a.d. 1245-69, but even then it was used timidly 
and uoecientifically as compared with the Samte Chapelle at Paria, 
which was commenced 1244 and completed long before the English 
choir Once, however it was fairly introduced the English architects 

m, HtnrDrd CitbednL (CUh, Hb.) 

employed it with great success. One of the earliest examples is tlw 
beautiful circular window of the north transept at Lincoln. It, howcTW, 
is still of the imperfect tracery of the early French examples. The 
lines do not in all instances follow one another, and flat plain spaces 
are left, as in what is generally called plate tracery. True geometric 
tracery is, however, seen in perfection in the Angel Choir at Lincola 
{ 1270-1282), in the nave of York (1291-1330), or better, in audi abbeys 
as Tintern or Gainsborough. In the chapter-house at York (Woodcut 

Bs. vn. Ch. 111. WINDOW TRACERY. 375 

No. 829) the style had already begun to deviate from the French 
pattern, and before the end of the 13th century the English had so 
thoroughly aasimilated it that hardly a trace of its original form 
was left. The chapel at Merton College, Oxford, is porb&ps the most 
beautiful example remaining of that exquisite form of English tracery; 
but St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, was the typical example, and 
specimens of it are found in all our cathedrals. One at St. Anselm's 

m. EHt End or LIdcoId Cithedril. (From Wlld'i ■LlncolD.-) 

Chapel at Canterbury (Woodcut No. 830) is perhaps as characteristic 
as any. When tracery bad reached this stage, it seemed capable of 
any amount of development, and was applicable to any form of opening. 
All the difficulties of fitting circles into spherical triangles which had 
so puzzled the early builders were conquered,' and the range of design 
seemed unlimited. But during the £dwardian period there prevailed 
a restless desire for new inventions, and an amount of intellectual 

' II is not neocigarj to repeal licre what IFrenchtrBrpij, p. 164,tonliirh llierpader 
vw Mid on t)ic Bubji'ct ID epiBking of |ii rcrcircU. 


activity applied to architecture which nothing could resist ; so that 
these beautiful geometric forma in their turn were forced to give way 
after being employed for little more than half a century, and wero 
superseded by the fashion of flowing tracery, which lasted, however, for- 
even a shorter period than the style which preceded it. This time the 
invention seems to have been English ; for though we cannot feel 
quite certain when the first specimen of flowing tracery was introduced 
in France, the Flamboyant style was adopted by the French only after 

Tran-ept \t Indnv. Lincoln Cub^dnl. (CiUi. Hb.) 

the English wnrs, whereas the Perpendicular style had superseded this 
and nil olhrr Dtturrited forms in England before the deftth ot 
Edward m. 

During' thctinin thiLt llowinK fomts were used in England they gave 
rise to sonio of the most iMHutiful creations in window tracery that are 
anywhpre to!«'f..und. The riist windows at Carlisle {Woodcut No. 831) 
and of Si'lhy an- twi. of thi^ finest examples, and illustrate the 
peculiarity of the style as adopted in this country. Though the fomu 
are flowinj.', and tunsiquiTitly, as lithic forms, weak, the parts at« so 
ex<iuisitely bulancetl by the sirongei- ribs introduced and by the 

Bk. VII. Ch. III. 



arrangement of the whole, that, so far from any weakness being felt, 
'fche whole is quite »s stable as the purposes to which it ia applied 
"^would seem to require. Another equallj constructive and equally 
L>eautiful example is the south transept window at Lincoln (Woodcut 

window In St. Anetm • Chipel CuKcrbnrjr 

No 8SJ), where the segmental hnca introduced give the strength 
required Though almo>:t all its lines are Itowmg it looks stronger 
and more constructively correct than the north transept window 
(Woodcut No. 828), wliii.h is wholly mode up of circular forms, and is 
in ithelf one of thi bpst oxamplts of the earlier fonn of English 
KKometnc tract ry Circuiir window) were not, honcicr, the forte of 



Past II. 

English architects thejr very rsrel; used them m their west froats, 
not always in their transepts, and generally indeed may be said to 
have preferred the ordinary 
pointed forms, m wbicb, 
as in moat matters, tb^ 
probably exercised a wise 

It may not be quite 
clear whether William <^ 
Wykeham (1366-1404) in- 
vented perpendicular 
tracery, but certain it is 
that the admiration excited 
by his works in thia style 
at Winchester Oxford, 
and elsewhere, gave a 
death-blow to the Decorated 
forms previously in fashion. 
Although every lover of true art must regret the change, there was 

bk. vil Cu. hi. external proportions. 


a great deal to be said in favour of the new style. It was pte- 

emineatly constructive txad reasonable. Nothing in a masonic point 

of view could be better than the straight lines rutining throu^ 

from bottom to top of the window, strengthened hj transoms when 

requisite for support, and doubled in the upper division. The orno- 

xnents, too, were all appropriate, and, externally at least, the whole 

karmonised perfectly with the lines of the building. Internally, the 

^kTchitects were more studious to prepare forma suitable by their 

dimensions and arrangements for the display of painted glass, than to 

spend much thought on the 

form of the frames themselves. 

The poetry of tracery was 

£ODe, but it was not only in 

this respect that we miss the 

poetic feeling of earlier days. 

rrbe mason was gradually 

'taking the guidance of the 

-work out of the hands of the 

educated classes, and applying 

-the square and the rule to 

replace the poetic inspirations 

of enthuaiaatd and the delicate 

imaginings by which they 

■were expressed. 

It is curious to observe how different the con 
Trance. While Saxon common sense was gradi 

'licMtr Cithednl. 

B of events was in 
lly coming to the 
surface in this country and curbing every fancy for which a good 
economic reason could not be given, the Celtic fancy of our neighbours 
Yiroke loose in all the playful vagaries of the Flamboyant style. Their 
tracery became so delicate and so uncnnstructive that it is a wonder it 
ever stood, and no wonder that half the windows of that date are now 
without tracery at all. They were carved, too, with foliage so delicate 
that it ought to have been executed in metal and never attempted in 
stone — in wonderful contrast to the plain deep mouldings which 
surround most of our windows of that period. 

External Froportiomb. 

It the sobriety of proportion which characterised the design of 
''Ctglish architects led to satisfactory results internally, its influence 
^'^^ still more favourable on the external appearance of their 
^bfircbea. An English cathedral is always a part of a group of buildinga 
^— the most important and most dignified part, it is true, but always 
^^inciding and harmonising with its chapter-house, its cloister and 



pabt n. 

conventual buildings, its bishop's palaoe or abbot's lodging. In France 
the cathedral is generally like a giant among pigmies — nothing can 
exist in its neighbourhood. The town itself is dwarfed by the immense 
incubus that stands in its centre, and in almost no instance can the 
subordinate buildings be said to form part of the same design^ — ^both 
consequently suffering from their quasi-accidental juxtaposition. 

This effect is even more apparent when we come to examine the 
sky-line of the buildings. Their moderate internal dimensions enabled 
the English architects to keep the roofs low, so as to give full eSdct to 
the height of the towers, and to project their transepts so boldly as to 
vary in perspective the long lines of the roofs from whatever point the 
building was viewed. Their greatest gain, however, was that they were 
able to place their tallest and most important feature in the centre of 
their buildings, and so to give a unity and harmony to the whole deaign 
which is generally wanting in Continental examples. One of the few- 
cases in which this feature is successfully carried out in France is the 
church of St. Sernin at Toulouse (Woodcut No. 578), but there the 
body of the building is low and long like the English type, and a tower 
of the same height as those of the facade at Amiens suffices to give 
dignity to the whole. That church, however, wants the western towers 
to complete the composition. In this respect it is the reverse of what 
generally happens in French cathedrals, where the western facades are 
rich and beautifully proportioned in themselves, but too often over- 
powered by the building in the rear, and unsupported by any central 
object. In Germany they took their revenge, and in many instances 
kill the building to which they are attached. In England the group of 
three towers or spires — ^the t3rpical arrangement of our architects — ^was 
always pleasing, and very frequently surpasses in grace and appro- 
priateness an3rthing to be found on the Continent. Even when, as at 
Norwich or at Chichester, the spire is unsupported by any western 
towers, the same effect of dignity la produced as at Toulouse ; the design 
is pyramidal, and from whatever point it is viewed it is felt to be well 
balanced, which is seldom the case when the greatest elevation is at one 

The cathedral at Salisbury (Woodcut No. 834), though, like the two 
last named, it has no western towers, still possesses so noble a spire in 
the centre, and two transepts so boldly projecting, that when viewed 
from any point east of the great transept it displays one of the best 
proportioned and at the same time most poetic designs of the Middle 
Ages. It is quite true that the spire is an afterthought of the 14th 
century, and that those who added it ought to have completed the 
design by erecting also two western towers, but, like St. Sernin's, it is 

* This was not so much the case in 
Paris and Rouen, where the houses wore 

carried up to a much greater height than 
in other towns.— Ed. 

Bk. VII. Ch. III. EXTEItNAI. I'K0l*0r.TI0K8. 381 

complete us it is, and vi-ry bi*autiful. Thi; fliiclic at Amiensi is 20 ft, 
higher than tho spire at Salisbury, Iieing 4'24 ft. as ngaiiist 404 ft. 
Yet the Salisbury spire ia luuong the most impouing objecta of which 
Gothic architecture c-an Ixtast, the ether an insignificiint pinnacle that 

hardly suffices to relieve tho monotony of the roof on which it ia 

Lichfield (Woodcut No. 83.')), tliough one of the smallest of English 
rathedmls, is one of the most pleiwiiig from hjwing all its three spires 
complete, and itt tho propirtion originally designed for the building 
and for eaeh other. The height nf the luivc int.:i-nully is ..nly 5H ft.. 
and of the roof o.vlernally only SO ft. ; yi^t with tlicse diminuliM^ 



Pakt 1L 

dimensions great dignity is obtained and great beauty of composition, 
certainly at leaa than one-fonrtb the expenditure in materials and moyea 
it would have cost to produce a like effect among the tall heavy-roofed 
cathedrals of the Continent. 

Had the octagon at Ely been completed externally,' even in wood, 
it would probably have been superior to the spire at Salisbury both in 
height and design. As before mentioned, it was left with only a 

' Aaplendid chance of tiTiag the effect I purism, only the ugly tmnpcvaTj airuige- 
of thii occurred a fcv years ago. when it mGut wm made nev. It looked Teneisble 
was dp(«rinined to rcBtore the Inntoni. na I before the recent repain ; now that it is 
a momorinl U> Dr. I'tacock. In a fit of quite new again, it is moat unpleaaiiig. 


temporaiy lantern extemallj, and, as was always the case in England, 
no drawing — no written speciScationa of the designer have been left. 
The masons on the Continent were careful to preserve the drawings of 
unfinished parts of the designs. The gentlemen architects of England 
seem to have trusted to inspiration to enable them to mould their forms 
into beauty as they proceeded. With true Gothic feeling they 
believed in progress, and it never occurred to them but that their 
successors would surpass them in their art, in the manner they f«lt 
they were excelling those who preceded them. 

The three-towered cathedrals are not less beautiful and character- 
istic (rf England than those with three spires. Nothing can exceed 
the beauty of the outline of Lincoln' as it stands on its cliff looking 
orer the Fens (Woodcut No. 836) ; though the erection of a screen in 
front of tlie western towers cuts them off from the ground, and so far 
mars their effect when seen close at hand. York perhaps possesses the 
best facade of the class in England, both as regards proportion and 
detail. The height of the towers to the top of the pinnacles is under 

' Tho towen of Lincoln i 
reara ago. 

lUd b 

three spirct, removed about 100 


two hundred feet (196), but this is quite sufficient for the n&ve tbey 
terminate, or the centra) tower with which they group. At Amiens 
the western towers are respectively 224 and 205 ft. in height, but thej 
are utterly lost under the roof cA the cathedral, and fail to gire any 
dignity to the design. 

Cuncrbnr;. (Cuh. Hb.) 

For poetry of design and beauty of proportion, both in itself and in 
the building of which it fonns a part, perhaps the Angel Tower at 
Canterbury is the best in England, aad is superior to any of the same 
class of towers to be found elsewhere. It is difficult, however, among 
so many beautiful objects, to decide which is the Iwst. The highest 



tower at Wella is only IC.5 ft. from the ground to the top of the 

pinnacle, yet it is (juite sulBcient for its position, and groui>a beautifully 

with the western towers. Though of different ages, the three towers 

at Durham group beautifully together, and the single tower at 

*'loucester crowns nobly the central point of that cathedral. But the 

same ia true of all. The central tower or spire is the distinguishing 
feature of the external design of English citthedrals, and possessing it 
tbey in this respect surpass all their rivals. 

The western facades iif English cathedrjils, on the contrary, arc 
^on<!ralIy inferior to thi>se on the Contiin'nt. We havi! none of thiwB 
tli?<;ply recessed triple portals 
covered with sculpture which 
f^ve such dignity Jind nu^aning 
to the faijades of Paris, Amiens, 
Xtbeims, Chartres, and other 
Vrench cathedrals. Beautiful 
cks is the sculptured facade of 
^VcUs, its outline is hard and 
mta portals mean. Salisbury 
ia worse, Winchester, Excttr 
Ouiterbnry, Gloucester, indcc d 

most of our cathedrals, hait 

mean western entrances thi 

principal mode of access to the 

liailding being a side door of 

the nave. Peterborough alone 

ha» a facade at once original 

and beaatifnl. Nothing liut 

the portico <rf a classic temple 

caa mrpBss the majesty of the 

three groat arches of the 

facade of this church. The 

eSect is a little marred by the 

fact that the central arch, 

which shoold have i)een the 

widest and have formed the '»■'■ Wc-i From of i-nctborongh cuhedrar. 

(Knini UrllUin* 'Plclumqu Anttqultlra. ) 
chief entrance to the nave, is 

narrower than the other two, and, further, ia blocked up by a chapel 
built between the central piers. The great portal in fact docs not agree, 
either, with the main lines of the church Iwhind, and so far must bo 
regarded only as a decorative front ; but, take it all in all, it is one of 
the most beautiful inventions of the Middle Ages. 

Buch a screen would have l^een letter had the arches been flanked 
by two more important towers than those which now ivclurii that fii^a<le. 
but unless the piers of the central tower were sullicient to carry a much 

VOL. II. ;; c 


more important feature in the centre, the architects showed only their 
usual discretion in refusing to dwarf the rest of the cathedral by an 
exaggerated fa<^ade. 

It may sound like the indulgence of national predilection to say so ; 
but it does seem that the English architects seized the true doctrine of 
proportion to a greater extent than their contemporaries on the Con- 
tinent, and applied it more successfully. It will be easily understood 
that in so complicated and constructive a machine as a Gothic cathe- 
dral, unless every part is in proportion the whole will not unite. It is 
as if , in a watch or any delicate piece of machinery, one wheel or one 
part were made stronger or larger in proportion to all the rest. It 
may bo quite true that it would be better if all were as strong or as 
large as this one part ; but perfection in all the arts is attained only 
by balance and proportion. Whenever any one part gets too large for 
the rest the harmony is destroyed. This the English architects 
perfectly understood. They kept their cathedrals narrow, that they 
might appear long ; they k(jpt them low, that they might not appear too 
narrow. They broke up the length with transepts, that it might not 
fatigue by monotony. Externally they kept their roofs low that 
with little expenditure they might obtain a varied and dignified 
sky-lino, and they balanced every part against every other so as to 
get the greatest value out of each without interfering with the 
whole. A Gothic cathedral, however, is so complicated — there are 
so many parts and so many things to think of — that none can be 
said to be perfect. A pyramid may be so, or a tower, or a Greek 
temple, or any very simple form of building, whatever its size ; but a 
Gothic cathedral hardly can be made so — at least has not yet, though 
perhaps it might now be ; but in the meanwhile the English, con- 
sidering the limited dimensions of their buildings, seem to have 
approach(*d a perfect ideal more nearly than any other nation during 
the Middle Ages. 

Diversity op Style. 

There is still another consideration which must not be lost sight 
of in attempting to estimate the relative merit of Continental and 
English cathedrals; which is, the extraordinary diversity of style 
which generally prevails in the same building in this country as com- 
pared with those abroad. All the Great French cathedrals — such as 
Paris, Rheims, Chartres, Bourgcs, and Amiens — are singularly uniform 
throughout. InttTnally it requires a very keen perception of style to 
appreciate the diiVerencc, and externally the variations are generally 
in the towers, or in unessential adjuncts which hardly interfere with 
the general design. In this country wo have scarcely a cathedral, 
except Salisbury, of which this can be said. It is true that Norwich is 

Bk. Vn. Ch. ni. SITUATION. 387 

tolerably uaiform in plan and in the detail of its walls up to a certain 
height ; but the whole of the vaulting is of the 1 5th century, and the 
windows are all filled with tracery of the same date. At Ely, a 
Norman nave leads up to the octagon and choir of the 1 4th century, 
and we then pass on to the presbytery of the 13th. At Canterbury 
and Winchester the anomalies are still greater ; and at Gloucester, 
owing to the perpendicular tracery being spread over the Norman 
skeleton, they become absolutely bewildering. 

In some, as Wells or York, it must be confessed the increase in 
richness from the western entrance to Lady Chapel is appropriate, and 
adds to the effect of the church more than if the whole were uniform 
throughout. This is particularly felt at Lincoln, where the simplicity 
of the early English nave and choir blossoms at last into the chaste 
beauty of the Angel Choir at the east end. It follows so immediately 
after the rest as not to produce any want of harmony, while it gives 
such a degree of enrichment as is suitable to the sanctity of the altar 
and the localities which surround it. 

Even, however, when this is not the case, the historical interest 
attaching to these examples of the different ages of English architec- 
ture goes far to compensate for the want of architectural symmetrj, 
and in this respect the English cathedrals excel all others. That 
history which on the Continent must be learnt from the examination 
of fifty different examples, may frequently be found in England 
written complete in a single cathedral. The difficulty is to descri- 
minate how much of the feeling thus excited is due to Archaeology, 
and how much to Architecture. In so far as the last-named art is 
concerned, it must probably be confessed that our churches do suffer 
from the various changes they have undergone, which, when architec- 
ture alone is considered, frequently turn the balance against them 
when compared with their Continental rivals. 


Whatever conclusion may be arrived at with regard to some of the 
points mooted in the above section, there can be no doubt that in 
beauty of situation and pleasing arrangement of the entourage the 
"Rngliah cathedrals surpass all others. On the Ccmtinent the cathedral 
is generally situated in the market-place, and frequently encumbered 
by shops and domestic buildings, not stuck up against it in barbarous 
times, but either contemporary, or generally at least MedioevaJ ; and 
their great abbeys are frequently situated in towns, or in localities 
possessing no particular beauty of feature. In England this is seldom 
or never the case. The cathedral was always surrounded by a 
close of sufficient extent to afford a lawn of turf and a grove of trees. 

2 c 2 


Even in the worst times of Anne and the Georges, when men chiselled 
away the most exquisite Gothic canopies to set up wooden classical 
altar-screens, they spared the trees and cherished the grass ; and it is 
to this that our cathedrals owe half their charm. There can be no 
greater mistake than to suppose that the architect's mission ceases 
with heaping stone on stone, or arranging interiors for convenience 
and effect. The situation is the first thing he should study; the 
arrangement of the accessories, though the last, is still amongst the 
most important of his duties. 

Durham owes half its charm to its situation, and Lincoln much of 
its grandeur. Without its park the cathedral at Ely would lose much 
of its beauty ; and Wells, lying in its well wooded and watered vale, 
forms a picture which may challenge comparison with anything of its 
class. Even when situated in towns, as Canterbury, Winchester, or 
Gloucester, a sufficient space is left for a little greenery and to keep 
off the hum and movement of the busy world. York, among our great 
cathedrals is about the most unfortunate in this respect, and sufiSars 
accordingly. But in <)rd(;r to appreciate how essentially the love ol 
Nature mingled with the taste for architectural beauty during tlie 
Middle Ages, it is necessary to visit some of the ruined abbeys whose 
remains still sanctify the green valleys or the banks of placid streams 
in every corner of England. 

Even if it should bo d(?cided that in some respects the architects of 
England must yield tlu; palm to those of the Continent as regards the 
mechanical perfection of tbcir designs, it must at least be conceded, 
that in combining the beauties of Art with those of Nature they were 
unrivalled. Their buildings are always well fitted to the position in 
which th(»y are placed. The subsidiary edifices are always properly 
sulwrdinati'd, never too crowded nor too widely spaced, and always 
allowing when possible for a considerable admixture of natural objects. 
Too frequently in modern times — even in England — this has been 
negl(Tted : but. it is onr of the most inip)rtant functitms of the archi- 
tect, and the ihcans by which in many instances most agreeable effects 
have been produced. 

C II A PT E R- 1 1 U S ES. 

The chapter-house is tcM) important and too be;iutiful an adjunct to 
be passed ovvv in any skctib, liowever slight, of English architecture. 
It also is almost exclusively natiimal. There are, it is true, some 
** Salles Capitulaires' attached to Continental cathedrals or conventual 
establishments, but they am little more than large vestry -rooms, with 
none of that dignity or sjiecial ordinanct^ that l)elong8 to the Engli.«%h 
examples. One cause (»f tlie small importance attached to this feature 
on the Contin«Mit was that, in the original bjusilica, the apse was the 

bk. vn. ch. III. 


assembly-place, where the bishop sat in the centre of his clergy and 
regulated the affairs of the church. In Italy this arrangement con- 
tinued till late in the Middle Ages. In France it never seems to have 
had any real existence, though figuratively it always prevailed. In 
England we find the Bishop's throne still existing in the choir at 
Norwich ; and at Canterbury, and doubtless in all the apsidal Norman 
cathedrals, this form of consistory originally existed Such an arrnnge 

Sient was welt suited for the delivery of an allocution or pastoral 
address by the bishop to his clergy, and was all that was required in 
a despotic hierarchy like the French Church ; but it was by no means 
in accordance with the Anglo-Saxon idea of a deliberate assembly 
which should discuss every question as a necessary preliminary to 
its being promulgated as a law. 

In consequence of this, we find in England chapter-houses attached 
to cathedrals even in early Norman times. These were generally rocU 


angular rooms, 25 or 30ft. wide by about twice that extent in length. 
We can still trace their form at Canterbury and Winchester. They 
exist at Gloucester and Bristol and elsewhere. So convenient And 
appropriate does this original form appear, that it is difficult to under- 
stand why it was abandoned, unless it was that the resonance was 

intolerable. The rarliest innovation seems to have been at Durham, 
where, in 1133, a chapterhouse was commenced with its inner end 
semicircular ; but shortly after this, at Worcester, a circular chamber 
with a central pilljir was erected, and the design was so much 
approvMl of, that it liecame the typical form of the English chapter- 

Bk. Vn. Cu. III. CHAPl'EU-lIOURES. 391 

house ever afterwards. Next, apparently, in date camo Lincoln, and 
shortly afterwards the two beautiful edifices at Westminster and 
Salisbury. The former, commenced about the year ISSO, became, 
without any apparent incongruity, the parliament-house of the nation, 

Ohipter Hook, Well* (Citb Hb ) 

Instead of the council-chamber nf a monastic establishment and all 
the parliaments of the kingdom were held within its walls till the 
dissolution of the rehgious orders placed the more convenient reot 
angular chapel of St Stephen at thoir disposal Now that it has been 
restored we are enabled to [udpe of the lieauty of its prnpcirtions 
and from the remiinu of paintings which ha\c been so wondorfullv 
preserved, of the beiuty of the art with which it was once dcicorated 


Pabt II. 
to realise the 

It only wiinta coloured glass in its windows to enable 
l>eauty of these truly English edifices. 

That at Bristol is late in the style {1155-1170), and consequently 

(CuLb. Hb.) 

almost approaches the tninsitioniil epoch, but is very rich and beautif ul- 
The eaateni end has been unfortunately pulled down and rebuilt, but 
the western I'ud, shown in the annexed Woodcut (No, 839), is one of the 
richest aiid iM'st speeinieiis of litte Nonnanwork to be found anywhere. 
But, having once f^A rid of the central pillar, which wm the grvat 
defect of their euiist ruction as halls nf ass<!nd)ly, they would hardly hftve 

Bk. VII. Ch. III. CHAPELS. 393 

reverted to it again, and a true Gothic dome might have been the result 
had the style been continued long enough to admit of its being perfected. 
Salisbury chapter-house (Woodcut No. 840) was erected shortly 
afterwards ; and, though its. original beauties have been to a great 
extent washed out by modern restorations, it still affords a very perfect 
type of an English chapter-house of the 13th century, at a time when 
the French geometric tracery was most in vogue. That at Wells 
(1293-1302, Woodcut No. 841), however, is more beautiful and more 
essentially English in all its details. The tracery of the windows, the 
stalls below them, and the ornaments of the roof, are all of that perfect 
type which prevailed in this country about the year 1300. Its central 
pillar may perhaps be considered a little too massive for the utilitarian 
purpose of the building, but as an architectural feature its proportions 
are perfect. Still the existence of the pillar was a defect that it was 
thought expedient to remove, if possible ; and it was at last accom- 
plished in the chapter-house at York, the most perfect example of the 
class existing, as its boasting inscription testifies, — 

** Ut Rosa floe flonim, 

Sic DomuB ista Doinorum.** 

Like all the rest of them, its diameter is 57 or 58 ft. — as has been 
suggested, an octagon inscribed in a circle of 60 ft. diameter. In this 
instance alone has a perfect Gothic dome been accomplished. It is 
12 ft. less in diameter than the lantern at Ely, and much less in height ; 
but it is extremely beautiful both in design and detail, and makes us 
regret more and more that, having gone so far, the Gothic architects 
did not follow out this invention to its legitimate conclusion. 

By the time, however, that York chapter-house was complete, all the 
^reat cathedrals and monastic establishments had been provided with 
this indispensable adjunct to their ecclesiastical arrangements, and 
Xione were erected either in the Lancastrian or Tudor periods of the art, 
Bo that we can hardly guess what might have been done had a monastic 
parliament-house been attempted at a later date.^ 


Although not so strictly peculiar, the forms of English chapels 
were so original and ofler so many points of interest that they are well 
"Worthy of study. 

With the exception of the chapel in the White Tower there is 

' The central octagon of the Parliament 
Houses is G5 ft. in diamotiT, and is tho 
bpst specimen of a modem (lothic dome 
which has been attempt(Hl. 

tion l)etween classes. A church has a 
chancel for the clergy, a nave for tho 
laity. A catluMlral has these and attached 
chapeln and numerous adjuncts which do 

* A chapid, properly speaking, is a hall not pn>iKrrly Udoiig to either of tho other 
designed for wonihip, without any seiwira- ' two. 


Vi.«t II. 

perhaps no example of a Norman Chapel now existing, unless the 
remains of the infirmary chapels at Canterbury and Ely may be 
considered as such. The practice of erecting them seems to have 
risen with oar educational colleges, where all those present took part 
in the service, and the public were practically excluded. One of the 
finest and earliest of these is that of Merton College, Oxford. It 
has, and was always designed to have, a wooden roof; but of what 

fashion is not quite clear, except that it certainly could never have 
been like the one now existing. 

The typical specimen of that age, however, was the royal chapel of 
St. Stephen at Westminster, which, from what remained of it tUI 
after the Great Fire, wc know must have been the most exquisitely 
beautiful specimen of English art left us by the Middle .A^es.' 

It was 92 ft. long by 33 ft. wide internally, and 42 ft. high to the 

' Few things of ils class nro more io br . 
Tc^ttcd tliAK tho destruction of thin 
beautiful rclic in rebuilding; Ibo Parliu- 
nent Houses. It would have been chenppr 
to restore it, nud infinitely more beautiful 
when restored tlian tlio prnmnt gallery 
whiob takes its place. It is sad, too, to 
think that nothing hne been dona to re- 
proiluco its b<>autieB. When tlic colleges 
of Eicter nt Oifonl, or Kt. John's, Cam- 

bridge, were rebuilding their chapels, it 
would hHTo been infinitely better to re- 
produce this ciquiaite vpeoioieu of Bng^lit^ 
art than the inodels of French chapels 
which have been adopted. 

The work on Bt Stephen's Chapel. 
published for the Woods and Forests by 
Mr. Mackenzie, is rendered nseleoa by the 
luldition of an upper storey which never 

bk. vn. Ch. ni. 



Bpringing of the roof. ThiB was of wood, supported by hammer-beam 
trusses simihu' to, but evidently more delicate in deaiga and more 
elegantly carved than those of Westminster Hall, which were apparently 
copied from those of the chapel. The pro[>ortions were beautiful ; but 
the greatest charm was in its details, which were carried out evidently 
by the beat artists, and with all the care that was required in the 
principal residence of the sovereign. 

Though nearly n century later in dato,^ St. Stephen's Chapel is 
BO nearly a counterpart of the royal chapel of Paris— "the Sainte 
Ghapelle "—that it may be worth while to pause a second to compare 
the twa In dimensions, on plan, tboy are not dissimilar ; both ore 

us. PlsnofSt-Siiphon' 

raised on an under-croft or crypt of great beauty. The French 
example has the usual apsidal termination ; the English the equally 
characteristic square east end. The French roof ia higher and 
vaulted ; the English was lower and of wood. It is irapoasiblo 
to deny that the French chapel is very beautiful, and only wants 
increased dimensions to merit the title of » sublime specimen of 
Gothic art ; but the English example was far more elegant. AU the 
parts are better balanced, and altogether it was a far more satisfactory 
ecample than its more ambitious rival, of the highest qualities to 
which the art of the Middle Ages could attain. 

We have an excellent means of ascertaining how far St. Stephen's 
Chapel would have been damaged by a vaulted roof, by comparing it 



Past II. 

with the nearly coutempornry cliiipel at Ely (1321-1349), erected 
under the suj^r in ten donee of the eame Alan de W'alaingham who de 
signed the octagon of the church. Its internal dimensions are 100 ft. 
long by 43 wide, and sixty high. The details of the screen of niches 

r View of hlug'n CuLlige Ctwptl, Ci 

which form a d.ido i-ound the whole chapel are jjerhnps, without excep- 
tion, the most exquisite Kpeeiinens of deeor.itive carving that Bur\-ire 
from the Jliddlc Ages. The detiiils of the side windows are also good, 
but the end wiiulowH nre bad in de.sign, and neither externally nor 
internally tit the spaces in whith they arc pl.iced. With painted glass 


this might be remedied, internally at least ; but the whole design is 
thrown out of harmony by its stone roof. As a vault its width is 
too great for its length ; the height insufficient for its other dimen- 
sions ; and altogether, though its details are beyond all praise, it 
leaves a more unsatisfactory impression on the mind than almost any 
other building of its class. 

King's College Chapel at Cambridge (1479-1515) errs in exactly 
the opposite direction. It is too long for its width, but has height 
sufficient to redeem the length, though at the expense of exaggerating 
its narrowness. These, however are all errors in the direction of 
sublimity of effect ; and though greater balance would have been more 
satisfactory, the chapel is internally so beautiful that it is impossible 
not to overlook them. It is more sublime than the Saint Chapelle, 
though, from its late age, wanting the beauty of detail of that 

Henry VII.'s Chapel, Westminster (1502-1515), differs from all 
previous examples, in having side-aisles with chapels at the east end 
and a clerestory. Its proportions are not, howev(;r, pleasing, but it 
makes up in richness of detail for any defects of di^sign. • 

Of the three royal chapels, that at Windsor (1475-1521) is perh«aps 
on the whole the most satisfactory. Being a chapel it has no western 
or central towers to break its sky-line and give it external dignity ; 
Ijut internally it is a small cathedral, and notwithstanding the lateness 
of some of its details (part of the vault was finished in the reign of 
Henry VIII.), is so elegant and so appropriate in every part as to be 
certainly one of the most beautiful Gothic buildings in existence ; for 
its size, perhaps the most bijautiful. Considering that these three 
last-named chapels were being erected conteniporan(X)usly with St. 
Jeter's at Rome, it is wonderful how little trace of classic feeling they 
T3etray; and how completely not only Gothic details but true Gothic 
Reeling still prevailed in this country almost up to the outbreak of the 

Parish Churcues. 

Were it possible in a work like this to attempt anything approach- 
ing an exhaustive enumeration of the various objects of interest pro- 
duced during the Middle Ages, it would be impossible to escape a very 
long chapter on the parish churches of England. They are not so 
magnificent as her cathedrals, nor so rich as her chapels ; but for 
beauty of detail and appropriateness of design they are unsurpassed 
by either, while on the Continent there is nothing to compare with 
them. .The parochial system seems to have been more firmly rooted 
in the affection of the pi^ople of this country than of any other. 
Especially in the 14th and 15th centuries the parishioners took great 


Pabt II. 

pride id their churches, and those thou erected are conscqneutty moro 
numerous as wi;!! aa moro ornamental than at aaj other time. 

Straiigo to say, considering how common the circular form w*8 in 
the countries from which our forefathers are said to 
have emigrated, it never took root in England. The 
round churches at Cambridge, Ncsthampton, and 
London were cert^nlj sepulchral, or erected in 
imitation of the church at Jerusalem. The one known 
example of a Tillage church with a circular nave is 
that at Little Maplestead, in Esaex. It is of the pure 
German or Scandinavian type ' — a little St. Gereon, 
standing alone in this form in England ; but a curious 
modiiication of it occurs in the eastern counties, in 
' which this church is situated, which points very 
distinctly to the origin of a great deal of the archi- 
tecture of that country. There are in Norfolk and 
Suffolk some forty or fifty churches with round Western towers, which 

seem undoubtedly to be mere modifications of the western round nave of 
the Scandinavian churches. At page 331, Liiderbro Church (Woodcut 
No. T95) was pointed out as an example of a circular nave attenuated 

■ Vide anie, p. 2G4. anil p. 328. 


into a steeple, and there are no doubt many others of the same class 
in Scandinavia. It was, however, in England, where rectangular 
naves were common, that the compromise found in this country 
became fashionable. These Norfolk churches with round towers may 
consequently be looked upon as safa indexes of the existence of 
Scandinavian influences in the eastern counties, and also as interesting 
examples of the mode in which a compromise is frequently hit upon 
between the feelings of intrusive races and the habits of the previous 

It is doubtful whether round-naved and round-towered churches 
existed in the eastern counties anterior to the Norman Conquest; 
so far as we know, none have been described. The earliest that 
are known were erected during the Norman period, and extend 
certainly down to the end of the Edwardian period. Some of the 
towers have perpendicular details, but these seem insertions, and 
consequently do not indicate the date of the essential parts of the 

As a rule, the English parish church is never vaulted, that species 
of magnificence being reserved, after the Norman times at least, for 
cathedrals and collegiate churches ; but on the other hand, their 
wooden roofs are always appropriate, and frequently of great beauty. 
So essential does the vault appear to have been to Gothic architecture 
both abroad and in this country, that it is at first sight difficult to 
admit that any other form of covering can be as beautiful. But some 
of the roofs in English churches go far to refute the idea. Even, 
however, if they are not in themselves so monumental and so grand, 
they had at least this advantage, that the absence of the vault allowed 
the architect to play with the construction of the substructure. He 
was enabled to lighten the pillars of the nave to any extent he 
thought consistent with dignity, and to glaze his clerestory in a 
manner which must have given extreme brilliancy to the interior 
when the whole was filled with painted glass. Generally with a 
wooden roof there were two windows in the clerestory for one 
in the aisles : with a vaulted roof the tendency was the other way. 
Had they dared, they would have put one above for two below. But 
the great merit ci a wooden roof was, that it enabled the architect 
to dispense with all flying buttresses, exaggerated pinnacles, and 
mechanical expedients, which were necessary to support a vault, but 
which often sadly hampered and crowded his designs. 

So various were the forms these wooden roofs took that they almost 
defy classitication. The earlier and best type was a reminiscence, 
rather than an imitation, of the roof of St. Stephen's Chapel or 
Westminster Hall, but seldom so deeply framed. That at Trunch 
Church, Norfolk (Woodcut No. 850), may be taken as a fair average 
specimen of the form adopted for the larger spans, and that at New 


Roufkl Trnncb Cbncdi, (Fram i IMiwlng hj II. Glutton.) 

Roorof Aide In Kcw W»lirtn( 

Bk. VU. Ch. III. 



Walaingham of the mode adopted for roofing aisles. Some, of course, 
are simpler, but many much more elaborate. In later periods they 
become flatter, and more like the panelled ceiling of a hall or chamber ; 
but they were always perfectly truthful in construction, and the lead 
was laid directly on the boarded framing. They thus avoided the 
double roof, which was so inherent a defect in the vaulted forms, 
where the stone ceiling required to be protected externally by a true 

Among so many examples it is difficult to select one which shall 
represent the class, but the annexed plan of Walpole St. Peter's, 
Norfolk, will suffice to explain the typical 
arrangement of an English parish church. In 
almost every instance the nave had aisles, and 
was lighted by a clerestory. The chancel was 
narrow and deep, without aisles, and with a 
square termination. There was one tower, 
with a belfry, generally, but not always, at the 
west end ; and the principal entrance was by a 
south door, usually covered by a porch of more 
or less magnificence, frequently, as in this 
instance, vaulted, and with a muniment room 
or library chamber over it. 

Often, as at Coventry, Boston, and other 
places, these churches with the above described 
arrangements almost reached the dimensions of 
small cathedrals, the towers and spires matching 
those of the proudest ecclesiastical edifices ; and in many instances 
the details of their tracery and the beauty of their sculptured 
ornaments are quite equal to anything to be found in the cathedral of 
the diocese. 

852. Plan of Church of Walpole 
St. I'eter'*, N«»rfolk. 
Scale 100 ft. to 1 In. 


When we consider the brilliancy of invention displayed in the 
decorative details of French ecclesiastical buUdings, the play of fancy 
and the delicacy of execution, it must perhaps be admitted that in this 
respect the French architects of the Middle Ages far excelled those of 
any other nation. This was, no doubt, due in a great measure to the 
reminiscences of classical art that remained in the country, especially 
in the south, where the barbarian influence never really made itself 
felt, and whence the feeling gradually spread northwards ; and may 
be traced in the quasi-classical details of the best French examples of 
the Idth century, even in the Isle de France. More also should perhaps 
be ascribed to the Celtic feeling for art, which still characterises the 
French mition, and has influenced it ever since its people became 

VOL. u. 2 D 


Though the English maat yield the pahn to the French in this 
respect, there is atill a solidity and appropriateness of parpose in their 
details which goes far to compensate for any want of fancy. There is 
also in this conntry a depth of cutting and a richness ci form, arising 
from the details being so often imitated frcnn wood-carving, which is 
architectnratly more valuable than the more delicate exuberance of 
French examples. 

These remarks apply with almost equal force to figure-sculpture 
as a mode (^ decoration. Neither in Germany nor in this country is 
anything to be found at all comparable with the great sculptural 
Bibles <tf Rheims, Chartres, Bourges, and other great cathedrals of 
France; even such at Poitiers, Aries, St. Qilles, are richer in this 
respect than many of our largest churches. It is true that the 
sculptures of the facade at Wells, or t^ the Angel Choir at Lincoln, 

and the t&qaAc of Oroyland Abbey, are quite equal in merit to any- 
thing of the same period on the Continent ; and, had there been 
the same demand, we might have done as well or better than any 
other nation. Whether it arose from a latent feeling of respect 
for the Second Commandment, or a cropping out of Saxon feeling, 
certain it is that, with certain exceptions, such as the Lady Chapel at 
Ely, figure-sculpture gradually died out in Elngland. In the 14th 
century it was not essential ; in the 15th and 1 6th it was subordinate 
to the architectural details, and in this respect the people became 
Protestant long before they thought of protesting against the pi^ie and 
the papist form of worship. 

As already hinted at, it is probable that a great deal of the 
richness of English d<^corative carving is due to the employment, in 
early times, of wood as a building material in preference to stone. Ik 

Bk. VII. On. lU. 


is difficult, for instance, to understand how such a form of decorative 
arch as that on the old staircase at Canterbury could have arisen from 
anj exigency of atone construction ; but it displays all that freedom 
of form and richnefls of carving that might easily arise from the 
employment of timber. 

The same remarks apply, though in a less degree, to the Norman 
gateway at Bristol (Woodcut No. 864) ; which may be r^arded as a 

UcUUJ. (Cith. Hb.) 

typical specimen of the style — sober, and constructive, yet rich — 
without a vestige of animal Ufe, but with such forms as an ivory or 
Wood carver might easily invent, and would certainly adopt. 

The great defect of such a style of decoration as this was its 
extreme elaboration. It was almost impossible to carry out a large 
building, every part of which should be worked up to the same key- 
note as this ; and, if it had been done, it would have been felt that the 
effect was not commensurate with the labour bestowed upon it. What 
the architects therefore set to work to invent was some mode of 



Past II. 

decoration which should be effective with a lesa expenditure erf labour. 
This they bood discovered in the deepout mouldings of the Gothic 
arch, with the occasional intermixture of the dog-tooth moulding (aa in 
the nave at Lichfield, Woodcut No. S12), which was oae of the e&rliest 
and moat effective discoveries of the 13th century. Sometimes a band 
oi foliage was introduced with the dc^-tooth, as in the doorways 
leading to the choir aisles at Lincoln (Woodcut No. 655), making 
together as effective a piece of decoration aa any in the whole range of 
English architecture, — more difficult to design, but less expensive to 

execute, than many Norman examples, and infinitely more effectit-e 
when done. 

The west doorway at Lichfield (a.d. 1275, Woodcut No. 856) shows 
the style in its highest degree of perfection. There is just that 
admixture of architectural moulding with decorative foliage which is 
necHSsary to harmonise the constructive necessities of the building with 
the decorative purposes to which it was to be applied, oombised with a 
feeling of elegance which could only have proceeded from a thoroughly 
cultivated and refined class of intellect. 

Everything in England of the same age bears the same impress so 

Bk. Vn. Ch. IlL DETAILS. 405 

that it is difficult to go wrong in selecting ex&mples, though hopeloBS 
to expect, with any reasonable amount of illustration, to explain its 

ilDoDrniiT, IJrhfieLdCalbMril. (Catli. lib.) 

UT. Tonb ol Blibop Huibill, ExeMr Cilbednl. (CUh. Hb.) 

beAUtieB. The niches at the back of the altar-screen at Winchester are 
among the best examples of that combination of constructive lines and 


decorative details which when properly balanced make up the pex- 
fection of architectural decoration ; or, perhaps, even better than thew 

PS^^i:^-}^ b^ .^ J I 2 .^ ^ ^ i^ 


mmgMiim m!mm^: fisammimiK^, 

are the heads of the three niches over the sedilia in the parish c' 
at Heckington in Lincolnshire (Woodcut No. 858). The style of 
examples is peculiar to Englimd, and quite equal to anything tbi 

Bk. til Ch. ul details. 407 

be found on the Continent ; and thoiuanda of examples, more or leas 
perfect, executed during the Edwardian period, exist in erery coraer 
of tbeconntiy. Bishop MarshsU's tomb at Exeter (Woodcut Na 621), 

DtwmjotChqiWr-Houie, RocbaUi 

though somewhat earlier, displays the same playful combination of 
conventional foliage with architectural details. 

After the year 1300, however, we can perceive a change gradually 



Pabt n. 

creeping over the style of decoration. CooBtructive forms are be- 
coming more and more prominent ; merely decorative features being 
gradually dropped as years went od. la Prior de Estria's screen in 
Canterbury Cathedral, for instance (Woodcnt No. $59), though all the 
elegance of earlier times is retained, the principal features are 
mechanical, and the decoration much more subdued than in the 
examples just quoted. The celebrated doorway leading to the 
chapter-house at Rochester (Woodcut No. 860) is a still more striking 
example of this. It is rich even to excess; but the larger part of 
its decoration consists of ornaments which could be drawn with 
instruments. Of free-hand carving there is comparatively little : and 
though the whole effect ia very satisfactory, there is so evident a ten- 
dency towards the mere mech&nic&l 
arrangement of the Perpendicular 
style that it does not please to the 
same extent as earlier works of the 
ne class. 


Among the more beautiful objects 
of decorative art with which our 
churches were adorned during the 
Middle Ages are the canopies of 
shrines erected over the bniying- 
places of kings or prelates^ or as 
cenotaphs in honour of their mranoiy. 
Simple slabs, with a figure upon 
them, seem to have been all that was 
attempted during the Norman period ; 
but the pomp of sepulchral magnifi- 
cence gradually devek^>ed itself, so 
that by the end of the 13tb or 
beginning of the 14th oeotuiy we 
have some of the most splendid 
specimens existing, and the practice 
lasted down almost to the Renaissance^ 
as exemplified in Bishop West's tomb 
at Ely (1515-1534), or Bishop Oar- 
diner's at Winchester (1531-1.565). 

At first the tomb-builders were 

content with a simple wooden tester, 

like that which covers the tomb of the 

Black Prince at Canterbury ; but this became one of great beauty 

when applied, as in Westminster Abbey, to the tomb of Edward III. 

Bk. VII. Ch. III. 



(Woodcut No. 662), where its appropriateness and beauty of detail 
diatinguish it from many more ambitious shrines in stone. 

In general design these two monuments are similar to one another, 
and must have been erected veiy nearly at the same time — the 
difference being in the superior richness and elaboration of the regal as 
compared with the princely tomb. 

In WdrtmlDiMr AUxr- 

Although this form of wooden tester was the most osnal in monu- 
ments of the age, stone canopies were also frequently employed, as in 
the well-known monument of Aymer de Valence (died 1334) in 
Westminster Abbey. But all previous examples were excelled by the 
beautiful shrine which the monks of Gloucester erected, at a con- 
siderably later period, over the burying-place of the unfortunate 


Edward II. {Woodcut No. 863). In its cIbbs there is nothing in 
English architecture more beautiful than this. It belongs to the vmrj 
beat age of the style, and is carried out with a degree of proprie^ and 

ofEdwirdlMaOlancHtnCUlKdn]. (CUhBb.) 

elegance which baa not b<Min surpassed hy any example now r 
If the statues with which it was once adorned could now be replaced, 
it would convey a more correct idea of the style of the Edwardian 
period than can be obtained from larger examples. 

Ik. VII. Ch. III. 


It seems to have been as much admired then as now ; for we find 
ba form repeated, vith more or less correctness of outline and detail, 

vt Winchester, at Tewkesbury, and St. Alban's, as well as elsewhere, 
'be whole forming a series of architecturnl illustrations unmatched in 
.heir class by auything on the continent of Europe. 



Past II. 

As A fine specimen oi the form t&ken by a multitude of these tomba 
during the Istst period of Qothic art we may select that of Bishop 
Redman at Ely (1501-1506). Though so late in date, there is nothing 
offensive either in its form <« detail. On the contrary, it is wall pro- 
portioned and appro- 
priate ; and thou^ 
thtxe is a little dis- 
play of oTor-ingennity 
in making the three 
arches of the canopy 
sustain tbemselvea 
without intermediate 
supports, this is excus- 
able from its position 
between two masuve 
piers. It is doing in 
stone what had been 
done in wood over 
Edward III. 'a tomb at 
Westminster, and is 
one of many instances 
which might be quoted 
of the interchangeable- 

ness of wooden and 
etone forma during the 
whole of the Middle 
Ages in thia country, 
and a proof c^ the in- 
fluence the one always 
had on the other. 

Among the moat 

beautiful monuments 

of a quasi-sepulchral 

character existing in 

this country are the 

crosses erected by 

Edward I. on the tpaU 

at which the body of 

queen Eleanor 

rested on its way from 

Nottinghamshire to 

wi. Wiiuum Ctoh C"«o»]>. London. Originally, it 

is said, tjiere wer» 

fifteen of these, all different in design. Three only now remain ; one 

near Northampton, one at Geddington, and a third at Waltham (Wood- 



cut No. 865).^ Though greatly dilapidated, enough remains to show 
what was the original design. While extremely varied both in outline 
and detail, every part is elegant, and worthy of the best age of English 

Had it not been the custom in those days to bury the illustrious 
dead within the walls of the churches, this is probably the form which 
sepulchral monuments would generally have taken. If we may judge 
from the examples left us, we can have little doubt but that, with more 
experience and somewhat increased dimensions, these monuments would 
have surpassed the spires of our cathedrals or parish churches in every 
respect as architectural designs. Being entirely free from utilitarian 
exigencies, the architect had only to consult the rules of his art in 
order to produce what would be most pleasing and most appropriate. 
We can only therefore regret that so purely English a form of sepulchral 
design began and ended with this one act of conjugal devotion. 

Civil and Domestic Architecture. 

One of the most remarkable characteristics of English architecture, 
though but a negative one, is the almost total absence of any municipal 
buildings during the whole period of the Middle Ages. The Guildhall 
of London is a late specimen, and may even be called an insignificant 
one, considering the importance of the city. There are also some cor- 
poration buildings at Bristol, and one or two unimportant town-halls in 
other cities ; but there we stop. Nothing can more vividly express how 
completely the country was Frenchified by the result of the battle of 
Hastings than this absence of municipal architecture. Till a very recent 
period the king, the baron, and the bishop were the estates of the 
realm. The people were nowhere, and neither municipalities nor guilds 
could assert an independent existence. 

On the other hand, in proportion to her population, England is rich 
in castles beyond any other country in Europe — especially of the 
Norman or round-arched Gothic age. Germany, as already pointed 
out, has some fine examples of the Hohenstaufen period. France has 
scarcely any, and neither France nor Germany can match such castles 
as those of London, Rochester, Norwich, Rising, &c. The Welsh castles 
of the Edwardian period form an unrivalled group themselves ; and are 
infinitely superior, both in extent and architectural magnificence, to the 
much-lauded robber-dens of the Rhineland ; while such castles as Raglan, 
Chepstow, Kenilworth, Warwick, or Windsor are, for picturesque 

* Mr. Soott produced a free copy of one 
of them as the Oxford Martyrs' Memorial, 
aod Edward Barry another as a restora- 

tion of Charing Cross. Both are very 
beautiful objects, but neither of them 
exhausts the subject. 



Part II. 

beauty and elegance of detail, quite unmatched except by one or two 
ruined strongholds in the North of France. The discussion of their 
merits, however, would more probably come under the head of military 

architecture, which is excluded from this 
work, and cannot therefore be entered on 

It is difficult, however, to draw the line 
exactly between the castles and the castel- 
lated mansion, the moated grange, and 
lastly the mansion or manor-house, which, 
towards the end of the Gothic period, had 
become so numerous in England, and form 
an architectural group so beautiful and so 
peculiarly English. 

Taken altogether, there is perhaps no 
class of buildings to which an Englishman 
may turn with more pride than the educa- 
tional establishments which the Middle 
Ages hare left him. Though in some 
cases entirely rebuilt and no doubt very 
much altered, still the collies of Oxford 
and Cambridge retain much of their original 
features, and are unrivalled in their kind. 
None of them, it is true, are very ancient as we now see them. With 
the exception of some of the earlier buildings at Merton, the greater 
number owe their magnificence to the days of Wykeham (ob. 1426) 
and Waynflete (ob. 1486). It was during the reign of Henry VI. 

(1422-1470) that the great im- 
pulse was given, not only within 
the limits of the Universities, 
but by the foundation of Eton_ 
and Winchester, and other great— ^ 
schools, all which belong to th^- 
15th century. But the build- 
ing of Grothic or quasi-Gk>thic 
educational establishments W9<« 
continued till the death of Queen 
Elizabeth (1602). 

In most respects, these 
colleges resembled the mon- 

«6«. Plan of WCTtmlnster Hall. 
Scale 100 ft. to 1 In. 


867. Section of Westminster Hall. Scale 50 a. to 1 in. 

astic establishments, which, to 
a certain extent, they may be considered as superseding. The 
principal difference was that the church of the monastery became 
subdued into a chapel exclusively devoted to the use of the inmates of 
the college. In all those establishments, whether palaces or oollegeSy 



oastles or maaor-houseB, the principal apartment was the ball, in some 
«aaes subordinate to the chapel only. It waa on the halls that the 
Arcbitecta lavished their art, and, generally speaking, these are roost 
entitled to be considered as architectural features. Even now there 
Are in E!ngland at least a hundred of these halls, either entire and in 
use, or BufGcientlj perfect to render their restoration easy. All have 
deeply and beautifully framed roofs of timber. In this respect they stand 
alone, no wooden roofs on the Continent being comparable with them. 


Among them the largest and grandest is, as it ought to be, the 
hall of the King's Palace at Westminster, as rebuilt by Richard II. 
Internally it is 239 ft. long by 68 ft. in width, covering about 23,000 
superficial feet. The hall at Padua is larger, aud so may some others 
be, bat none have a roof at all approaching this either in beauty of 
design or mechanical cleverness of execution. In this respect it stands 
quite alone and unrivalled, and, with the smaller roof of St. Stephen's 
chapel adjoining, seems to have formed the type on which most (d the 
subsequent roofs were framed. 

The roof of the hall at Eltham (Woodcut No. 868), which belongs 
to the reign of Henry IV., is inferior both in dimensions and design to 





that at Westminster, but still displays clearly the characteristics 
of the style. It would have been better if the trusses had sprung 
from a line level with the sills of the windows, and if the arched 
frame had been less flat; but that was the tendency of the age, 
which soon became so exaggerated as to destroy the constnictive 
proportion altogether. 

We are not able to trace the gradual steps by which the hammer- 
beam truss was perfected, but we can follow it from the date o£ the 
hall at Westminster (1397), to Wolsey's halls at Hampton Court and 
Oxford, till it passed into the Jacobean versions of Lambeth or the 
Inner Temple. Among all these, that of Kenilworth, though small 
(86 ft. X 43 ft.), must have been one of the most beautiful. It 
belongs to an age when the style adopted for halls had reached its 
acme of perfection (middle of 15th century), when the details of 
carpentry had been mastered, but before there was any tendency to 
tame the deep framing down to the flatness of a ceiling. The wooden 
roofs of churches were generally flatter and less deeply framed than 
those of the halls, which may have arisen from their being smaller in 
span, and being placed over clerestories with little abutment to resist 
a thrust ; but, whether from this or any other cause, they are generally 
less beautiful. 

There are few features of Mediaeval art in. this country to which atten- 
tion could be more profitably directed than the roof ; for, whether applied 
to secular or ecclesiastical buildings, the framed and carved wooden roof 
is essentially English in execution and application, and is one of the most 
beautiful and appropriate manifestations of our national art. 

Did space admit of it, it would be easy to extend these remarks, 
and in so doing to explain and prove a great deal which in the previous 
pages it has been necessary to advance as mere assertion. The subject 
is, in fact, practically inexhaustible ; as will be easily understood when 
it is remembered that for more than Ave centuries all the best intellects 
of the nation were more or less directed towards perfecting this great 
art. Priests and laymen worked with masons, painters, and sculptors ; 
and all were bent on producing the best possible building, and im- 
proving every part and every detail, till the amount of thought and 
contrivance accumulated in any single great structure is almost incom- 
prehensible. If any one man were to devote a lifetime to the study 
of one of our great cathedrals — assuming it to be complete in all its 
Mediaeval arrangements — ^it is questionable whether ho would master 
all its details, and fathom all the reasonings and experiments which 
led to the glorious result before him. And when we consider that not 
in the great cities alone, but in every convent and every parish, 
thoughtful professional men were trying to excel what had been done 
and was doing, by their predecessors and their fellows, we shall under- 
stand what an amount of thought is built into the walls of our CIVIL jlsd domestic architecture. 


churches, castles, colleges, and dwelling-houses. If any one thinks he 
can master and reproduce all this, he can hardly fail to be mistaken. 
My own impression is that not one-tenth part of it has been reproduced 
in all the works written on the subject up to this day, and much of it 
is probably lost and never again to be recovered for the instruction 
and delight of future ages. 






























York . . . 











Lincoln . . 










1 2 

^indieeter . 



• • 



• • 


• • 


1 3-43 

VTeatniinster . 




• • 


• • 


• • 


1 8 

Ely. ■ . . 








• • 


1 a-1 

Cantartmry . 










1 3'i 

SalUbory. . 



• • 




• • 


1 3-8 

Dnrbam . . 









1 3*8 








• • 


1 2 

Well* . . . 







• • 


1 3 

Norwich . . 



• • 




• • 


1 2'n 

Worcester . 



• • 




• • 


1 a-is 

Exeter. . . 



• • 

• • 


1 '^ 

• • 


1 2'1 

Lichfield . . 






! «« 

• • 


1 2 

> It iB not pretended that this Table ia quite correct in all details, but it is soffldently so to preeentk 
at a glance, a comparative view of the fourteen principal churches of England, and to show at least 
their relative dimensions. 


2 E 



Pabt II. 




AffinitieB of Style— Early Speoimenfr— C-athedral of Gla^ow— Elgin— MelnMe— 

Other Chiirohe»— Monasteries. 





Malcolm CAnmore. 

Accession . . 

. A.D. 105T 

David II. Accession 

. . . A.D. 1329 

David I. 

»t • • 

. . 1134 

Robert II., Stuart 

.... isn 

William the Uon 

f» • • 

. . 1166 

James L „ 

.... 1406 

John Ballol 

M • • 

. . 1292 

Mary Queen of Scots „ 

.... IMI 

Robert Bnioe 

»t • • 

. . 1306 

There are few countries in the world in respect to whose architecture 
it is so difficult to write anything like a connected narrative as it is 
regarding that of Scotland. The difficulty does not arise from the pau- 
city of examples, or from their not having been sufficiently examined 
or edited, but from the circumstance of the art not being indigenous. 
No one who knows anything of the ethnography of art would suspect 
the people who now inhabit the lowlands of Scotland of inventing any 
form of architecture, or of feeling much sympathy with it when intro- 
duced from abroad. It may have been that the Celtic element was 
more predominant in the country during the Middle Ages, and that the 
Teutonic race only came to the surface with the Reformation, when 
they showed their national characteristic in their readiness to destroy 
what they could not build. If this were not so, it must have been 
that their priests were strangers, who brought their arts with them 
and practised them for their own satisfaction, in despite of the feelings 
of their flocks. 

Briefly, the outline of Scotland's architectural story seems to be 
this. Till the time of the wars of the Edwards, the boundary line 
between the styles on either side of the border cannot be very clearly 
defined. In Scotland the forms were ruder and bolder than in the 
South, but were still the same in all essential respects. 

After the days of Wallace and of Bruce, hatred of the English 
threw the Scotch into the. arms of France. Instead of the Perpen- 
dicular style of the South, we find an increasing tendency to copy the 


Flamboyant and other contemporary styles of France, till at last, just 
as the style was expiring, both churches and mansions are almost 
literal copies of French designs. But, in addition to these, an Irish 
element is strongly felt : at lona and throughout the West, extending 
in exceptional cases to the east, as at Brechin and Abemethy. It 
can also be traced in the Lothians in the chapels and smaller edifices 
of the 11th and 1 2th centuries, and seems to be the ingredient which 
distinguishes the early Round-arched Gothic of Scotland from the 
Norman of England. Besides these three, a Scandinavian element 
makes itself felt in the Orkneys, and as far south as Morayshire ; and 
even Spain is said to have contributed the design to Roslyn Chapel, 
and made her influence felt elsewhere. 

All these foreign elements, imported into a country where a great 
mass of the people belonged to an art-hating race, tended to produce 
an entanglement of history very difficult to unravel. With leisure and 
space, however, it might be accomplished ; and, if properly completed, 
vrould form a singularly interesting illustration, not only of the ethno- 
^aphy of Scotland, but of art in general. 

The buildings of David I. (1124-1165) gave an immense impulse to 
tihe round-arched style, which continued for nearly a century after 
liis time, and long after the pointed arch had been currently used in 
the South. It is true we find pointed arches mixed up with it, as at 
vTedburgh, but the pillars and capitals are those of the earlier orders ; 
«uid the circular arch continued to be used from predilection whenever 
the constructive necessities of the building did not suggest the employ- 
ment of the pointed form. 

The feature of English art which the Scotch seem to have best 
appreciated was the lancet window, which suited their simple style so 
completely that they clung to it long after its use had been abandoned 
in England. This circumstance has given rise to much confusion in 
the dates of Scottish buildings, antiquaries being unwilling to believe 
that the lancet windows of Elgin and other churches really belong 
to the middle of the 1 4th century, after England had passed through 
the phases of circle and flowing tracery, and was settling down to the 
sober constructiveness of the Perpendicular. 

Circle tracery is, in fact, very little known in the North, and English 
flowing tracery hardly to be found in all Scotland. It is true that a 
class of flowing tracery occurs everywhere in Scotland, but it is, both 
in form and age, much more closely allied to French Flamboyant than 
to anything English. It was used currently during the whole period 
between the 2nd and 3rd Richards, and even during the Tudor period 
of England. 

The one great exception to what has been said is the east window 
of the border monastery of Melrose ; but even here it is not English 
Perpendicular, but an original mode of treating an English idea, found 

2 E 2 


Pabt IL 

ool; in this one inatance, and mixed up with the Sowing tnkcery of 
the period. 

Of Tudor architecture there is no trace in ScotUnd ; neither the 
fouT'ceatred low arch nor fan-vaulting are to be found there, nor that 
peculiar class of Perpendicular tracery which distinguished the 16th 
and 17th centuries- in the South. At that period the Scotch still 
adhered to their Flamboyant style, and such attempts as they did 
make at Perpendicular work were so clumsy and unconatructive that 
it is little wonder that, like the French, they soon abandoned it. 

In so poor and thinly-populated a country as Scotland was in the 
1 1th century, it would be in vain to look for any of the great ecclesi- 

Dnwing br R. W 

City I. 
or editeu, 
No one who i< 
the people 

form of arc hi lecture, l 
duced from abroad, ] 
more predominant in the ook. 
Teutonic race only came to „ ^^d in the South. The churchea 
they showed their national cht ^n^ ^^ ^^^ chapels, such as that at 
what they could not build. It resembling St. Clemenfa church at 
that their prieaU were stranger j^^^ ^^^^ contemporary edificea so 
and practised them for their own 

of their flocks. characteristic and beautiful specimen 

Briefly, the outline of Scotl-j^temporarj chapel at Caahel, which 
this. Till the time of the ^f^r^^i^^ed a8 the type. Its details are 
between the styles on either aidi 
defined. In Scotland the form^ 
South, but were still the same it"f 

After the days of Wailacf^^j 
threw the Scotch into the.ntianr],' 
dicular style of the South, wicifid. 

rule. Mr. Billings' work h mrlainlj the 
moat correct and beautirul that hu yet 
appeored on the aabject, and if completot 
with tbo nccecsar; plans and archileclnral 
details, would be unriTalled as a mutio. 
graph of au nrchilcctuml proTinoe. 


not onlj rich, but, as maj be seen from the woodcut, bold and elegant 
at the same tima Both internally and external!}', the ornament is 
applied in so masterly a manner that the beauty of the art makes 
up for the smallness <d dimensions, and renders it one of the most 
interesting churches in Scotland. 

David I. seems to have been the first king who gave an impulse to 
the monastic establishments and to the building of larger churches. 
His endowment of the great border abbeys, and his general patronage 

of the monks, enabled them to undertake buildings on a greatly ex- 
tended scale. The churches of Jedburgh and Kelso, as we now find 
them, belong either to the very end of the 12th or beginning of the 
13th century. They display all the rude magnificence of the Nonnan 
period, uaeil in this instance not experimentally, as was too often the 
case in Kngland, but as a well-understood style, whose features were 
fully perfected. So far from striving after novelty, the Scotch archi- 
tects were looking backwards, and culling the beauties of a long- 
established style. The great arch under the tower of Kelso is certainly 


a well-nnderBtood example of the pointed-arched architecture of the 
13th century, while aronnd it and above it nothing ia to be seen but 
circular'headed openings, combined generally with the beaded shafts 
and the foliage of the Early Ebiglish period. The whole is nsed with 
a Doric simplicity and boldness which is very remarkable. Sometimes, 
it must be confessed, this independence of constraint is carried a httle 
too far, as in the pier-arches .at- Jedburgh (Woodcut No. 870), which 
are thrown across between the circular pillars without any subordinate 
shaft or apparent support. This was a favourite trick of the lAter 
Gothic architects of Germany, though seldom found at this early 


period Here the excess ve strength of the arch in great i 
excuses t 

Besides the general grandeur of the r designs, a great deal of the 
detail of these abbeys is of the richest and best class of the age. The 
favourite form, as at Leuchars, is that of circular arches intersecting 
one another, so as to form pointed sub-arches, and these ore generally 
ornamented with all the elaborate intricate of the period, such as is 
shown in Woodcut No, 671, taken from Kelso Abbey Church. 

While these great abbeys were being erected in the southern ex- 
tremity of the kingdom, the cathedral of St. Magnus was founded at 
the other extremity, at Kirkwall in the Orkneys. This building was 
commenced 1 137, and carried on with vigour for some time. The first 
three arches of the choir (Woodcut No. 872) are all that can certainly 


identified as belonging to that period. The arch of the tower 
longs probably to the Hth centory, and the raulting can hardly be 


I^^^^Bl ^^^^^^li ^^H 




-t. Flan ini thr» Hnyn of Choir, Klik<call Cttbtdral. 

ch earlier. The three arches beyond this are still circular, though 
,h mouldiags o[ u lute period. It is said that these were not com- 
ted till the IGth century. 


Farther south, arches of this late age ooold not hare been built in 
such an ancient style, but we can believe that in tiiat remote oomer 
the old famOiar modes were retained in spite of changing fashion; 

and the consequence is that though the buildmg of this cftthedral waa 
carried on at intervals during 400 years t is at first wght sugnlarly 
uniform in style, and has all the charactenst cs of an old Hanoaa 
building, as may be seen from the woodcut 

The cathedral of Glasgow (Woodcut No 878) la almost the onlr 



other of the great ecclesmstical edifices of Scotland which retains its 
original features in a nearly perfect state. It is at the same time one 
of the most satisfactory and ctu^acteristic buildings to be found in the 

The bishopric was founded by David I., but it was not till after 
sereral destructions by fire that the present building was commenced, 
probably about the year 1340. The crypt and the whole of the choir 
belong to the latter part of the 13th century, the nave to the 14th, the 

(Fmn J. Collle'i 

tower and spire to the I5tb. The central aisle never b&ving been 
intended to be vaulted, the architect has been enabled to dispense 
with all pinnacles, flying buttresses, and such expedients, and thus to 
give the whole outline a degree of solidity and repose which is 
extremely beautiful, and accords perfectly with the simple lancet 
openings which prevail throughout. 

The whole length of the building externally, exclusive of the 
western towers, one of which baa recently been pulled down, is 300 
feet, the breadth 73, and the area about 26,400 feet, so that it is far 
from being a large building; but its situation is so good, and Its 
design and proportion so appropriate and satiafactOTy throughout, 

Pak IL 


that it is more imposing than many others of twice its d 
The spire, which is 219 feet in height from the floor of the church, 
is in perfect proportion U> the rest of the bmldiag both in dimenmons 
and outline, and aids very much the general effect of the wbolo. 

The glory of this cathedral is its crypt, which is unrivalled m 
Britain, and indeed perhaps in Europe. Almost oU the ciTpta now 
found in England were built dunng the Norman period, ot ^ery 

view In Crrpt otGU^cn CUbMnl. 

early in the pointed style. That at Glasgow, however, belongs to tbe 
perfwted style of the 13th century, and as the ground falls rapidly 
towards the west, the architect was enabled to give it all the height 
required, and to light it with perfect ease. Here the crypt actually 
extends under and beyond the whole choir ; but even with all its 
adjuncts, it did not ei)ual in size the crypt of old St. Paul's. There is 
a solidity, however, in the architecture of the ciypt at Glasgow, a 
richness in itii vaulting, and a variety of prrspet'tire in the spacing of 




Part H. 

its pillars, which make it one of the most perfect pieces of architecture 
in these islands. 

In the crjpt and lower part of the church the windows are 
generally single or double lancet, united by an arch. In the clerestory 
they sometimes take the form of three lancets, united, as shown in 
Woodcut Na 877, by an imperfect kind of tracery, more in accordance 
with the simplicity of the building than the more complex form pre- 

Ulupiir CuhcdnL 

valent in England at the same period. In the south transept, and 
some of the later additions, there is a tracery of considemble elabora- 
tion and beauty of design. 

Perhaps the most beautiful building in Scotland is, or was, the 
cathedral of Elgin. The province of Moray, in which it nraa mtnated, 
was so remote that it seems to bare been comparatively undisturbed 
by the English wars, and the greater part of the building was erected 
during the Edwardian period, with all the beautiful detailsof that age. 

Bk. VII. Ch. IV. 


The seat of the see was removed from Spynie to Elgin in the year 1223, 
and the cathedral commenced contemporaneously with those of Aiuieiui 
and Siilisbury. All that now remains of this period is the fragment 

Kut Xud. Elgin CiiU 

of the south transept {Woodcut No. 880), where we see the round arch 
reappearing over the pointed, at a period when its use was entirely 
discontinued in the South. At the same time the details of th« 



Bk. VII. Ch. IV. 



doorway (Woodcut No. 881) show that in other respects the style was 
at that period as far advanced as in England. The cathedral was 
burnt down in 1270, and again partially in 1390. The choir and 
other parts which still remain were built subsequently to the first 
conflagration and escaped the second. These parts appear at first 
sight to belong to the lancet style of the previous century, but used 
with the details and tracery of the Edwardian period, and with a 
degree of beauty hardly surpassed anywhere. As compared with 
English cathedrals, that at Elgin must be considered as a small 
church, being only 253 ft. in length internally, and 82 wide across the 
five aisles of the nave. It is very beautifully arranged, and on the 
whole is perhaps more elegant in plan 
than any of the Southern examples. As 
a mechanical design, its worst fault is 
that the piers supporting the central 
tower want strength and accentuation. 
As will be seen from the plan, an 
attempt was made to throw the weight 
of the tower on the transept walls, which 
are built solid for this purpose ; but this 
was artistically a mistake, while mechani- 
cally it caused the destruction of the 
tower at the beginning of the last 
century. The choir (see Woodcut No. 
879) is terminated by what is virtually 
a great east window, but with piers 
between the compartments instead of 
mullions. As an architectural object this 
is a far more stable and appropriate 
desiirn than a great mullioned window 882. PUn of Elgin CathMrai. (From an 

1-, .1 ^ i. xr 1 1 xi_ . XI 1 1 Original I'lan.) Scale 100 ft. to I In. 

like that of York and others in England. 

But the latter must be judged of as frames for glass pictures, which 
Elgin is by no means so well suited to display. Its details, however, 
are exquisite, and the whole design very rich and beautiful. 

The north and south aisles of the nave and the chapter-house were 
Rebuilt after the last destruction, and belong to the 15th century. 
These parts, though very charming, display generally the faults of the 
Scotch Flamboyant style, and show a certain amount of hea\4ness and 
clumsiness mixed with the flowing and unconstructive lines of this 
class of tracery, which nothing could redeem but the grace and elegance 
with which the French always used it. 

Next in beauty to Elgin Cathedral is the well-known abbey at 
Melrose. This, though founded contemporaneously with Jedburgh 
and Kelso, was entirely rebuilt during the Lancastrian period, and, 
owing to its situation near the border, shows much more affinity to 


the English style than the building last deacribed. The oare, as 
may be seen from the view of its aisle (Woodcut N^o. 883), is of a bold, 
solid stylo of architecture, with a vault of considerable richness. The 
window of the south transept is the most elegant specimen oi flowing 
trocety to be found in Scotland, and its great east window (Woodcut 
No. 884), as before remarked, is almost the only example oi the Per- 
pendicular style in the North, and is equal to anything of the kind 
on this side of the Tweed 

»»3. AUle Id MbIiok AbUty. 

Few of the architectural antiquities of Scotland are so well known, 
or have been so much admired, as the qhapel at Roalyn (Woodcut No. 
885), which William St. Clair caused to be erected in the year 1446. 

For this purpose he did not employ his countrymen, but " brought 
artificers from other regions and forraigne kiagdomea," • and employed 
them to erect it building very unlike anything else to be found in Great 

Our present knowledge of styles enables us to pronounce with little 
doubt thikt his anhitects came from the Spanish peninsula. In fact, 

■ LlrlltDUB 'Arcliitcctural ADtiqinlJes,' to), zit. p. 8], 

Bk. Vn. Ch. IV. MELROSE ABBEY. 433 

there U no detail or ornament in the whole bnilding which may not 
be traced back to Burgos or Belem ; thongh there is e. certain clumsi- 
nesa both in the carving and construction that betrajs the work- 
manship of persona not too famitiar with the task that they wera 

But madDw, Halmn. 

employed upon. The building, which perhaps exhibits the greatest 
affinity <^ detail to the Chapel is the church at Belem on the Tagus, 
opposite Lisbon (Woodcut No. 969). Nothing, in £act, can well be 
more similar than the two are. That at Roslyn is the oldest, having 
been commenced in 144C. Belem, begun in 1498, was finished appa- 
rently in 1511, at which date the Scottish example hardly appears to 
bare been complete. Boslyn Chapel is small, only 6S ft. by 35 ft. 
internally. The central aisle is but 15 ft. wide, and has the Southern 
VOL. II. 3 F 


(JndiT Cluipal, RmItil 

bk. vn. ch. IV. 



peculiarity of a tuaael-vault with only transverse ribs, such as is 
found at Foattfroide (Woodcut No. 553), and in almost all the old 
churches of the South of France. The ornaments between these, 
which were painted in the earlier examples, are at Roelyn carved in 
reliel The vault, as in the South, is a true roof, the oovering slabs 
being laid directly on the 
extrados or outside of it, 
without the intervention of 
may woodwork, a circum- 
stance to which the chapel 
owes its preserratioii to the 
present day. Beyond the 
upper chapel is a sub-chapel 
{Woodcut No. 886), dis- 
playing the same mode of 
vaulting in & simpler form, 
but equally foreign and 
ualike the usual form of 
vaults in Scotland. 

Another very interesting 
chapel of the same class is 
that now used as the church 
at Bothwell, near Glasgow. 
like Roslyn, it has the 
peculiarity unknown in 
England, though common in 
the South of France, of a 
tuimel-vault with a stone 
roof resting directly nponit. 
It is not large, measuring 
only 53 feet by S2, inter- 
nally. The beauty of its 
details, however — late in 
the 14th centuty — and the simplicity of its outline, combined with the 
liolidity of its stone roof, impart to the whole an air of grandeur far 
greater than its dimensions would justify. Had it been constructed 
With a timber roof, as usual in churches of its date, it would hardly 
be considered remarkable, but it is redeemed both internally and ex- 
ternally by its stone roof. As will be seen from Woodcut No. 888, 
the arrangement of the stones forming the roof is very elegant, 
^iid gave rise to a form of battlement frequently found afterwards in 
Scotland, though generally used only as an ornament.^ 

irRwfor Both mil ChiiRh. 

■ For tbe dr»«ing> nad inrormiition I debted to Mr. John Honeynukn, jun 
VQgardiug Bothwell Cbutcb, I am in- 1 architect, ol Glasgow. 

2 F 2 


Bk. VIL Oh. IV. 



The chapel attached to the palace at Holjrood ia of a very different 
character from that at Roalya ; being infinitely more beautiful, though 
not nearly so curious. The building was originally founded by David I. 
in 1128, but what now remains belongs to the latter end of the 13tb 
or beginning of the 14th century, and has all the elegance of the 
Edwardian style joined to a massiveness which in England would 
indicate a far earlier period. Some of its details (as that shown, 
Woodcut No. 889) are of a beautiful transitional character, though 

ML IdUtIot of Funh, DiDlCnnlliia 

not so early as might be suspected and others (such as Woodcut 
No 890) have the nch but foreign aspect that generally characterises 
the architecture of Scotland 

The nave of the cathedral of Aberdeen is still sufficiently entire to 
be used as a church, and with its twin western spires of bold castellated 
design is an impressive building ; but it has a character of over- 
heaviness arising from the material used being granite, which did 
not admit of any of the lighter graces of Gothic art. 

The cathednil of St. Andrews must nt one time have been one of 



Tut n. 

the most beautiful in Scotland, but fragments only of its east and west 
ends now remain. They suffice to show that it was of considerable 
dimensions, and inferior, perhaps, only to Elgin and Melrose in beanty 
of detail. 

Besides these there are in Scotland many ruined monastic establish- 
ments, all evincing more or less beauty of design and detail. One 
of the moat remarkable of these is Dunfermline, whose nave is of a 
bold, round-arched style, very like what Durham Cathedral wonld 

Donkf d (nMDnd). 

have been had it been intended (as this was) for a wooden roof Hie 
other parts display that mtermucture of styles so usual m monastic 
buildings; bold billeted arches, as in Woodcut No. 891, being «nr- 
moutited by vaults of a much lat«r date. But Scotch vaulting was in 
general so msssive and rich that it requires the eye of an arclueologist 
to detect a ditFerence that is never nffensive to the true artist. Among 
the remaining specimens are Dunblane, Aberbrothock, Arbroath, and 
Dunkeld, a window of which (Woodcut No. 892) is a fine specimen of 
the Scotch flamboyant, identical in design with one still existing in 
Linlithgow paiish church, and very similar to many found elsewbere. 



The west doorway in the last named church is a. pleasing specimen of 
the half Contiaental * manner in which that feature wa« nsualljr 
treated in Scotland. 

It has already been hinted that the Scotch unwillinglj abandoned 
the circular archway, especially as a decorative feature, aad that they 
indeed retain it occasionally throughout the whole of the Middle Ages, 
though with the details of the period. The doorway illustrated in 

Doarwv, LlDllthgow. 

Woodcut Ko. 894, from St. Giles's, Edinburgh, is a fine specimen of 
this mode of treatment, and so is the next illustration, from Flns- 
cardine Abbey. Similar doorways occur at Melrose and elsewhere. 
For canopies of tombs and suchlike purposes, the circular arch is 
almost as common as the pointed. Other examples are found at lona, 
though there the buildings are nearly as eTc«ptional and Continental 
in design as Boslyn itself — the circular pier-arch is used with the 

' The lame cIbm of tracery U found in 
the Lambeiti Kircbe at Moualer, nnd | 
gntenllj ia WeftphalU ; >ome ipecimeiw I 

being almost abaolatelv 

the Scolcb einmplei. 

identical vith 



Pabt IL 

mouldings of the 13th century, and the poinl«d arch is placed on a capital 
of intertwined dragons, more worthy of a Bnoic crosa or tombstone 
than a Gothic edifice. The tower windows are filled with a quatrefoil 
tracery (Woodcut No. 896), in a manner very onusual, and a mode of 
construction ia adopted which does not perhaps exist anywhere else in 
Britain. The whole group, in fact, is as exceptional as its ntaatian, 
and as remote from the usual modes of architecture on the mainland. 
The early Scotch vaults, as already mentioned, were dngularlir 
bold and maatdn, 
and all their mould- 
ings were character- 
ised by strength aod 
vigour, as abown 
in the examples 
taken btaa Olasgov 
and Dunfermline 
(■Woodcuts Noa. 
876, 891). At & 
later period, how- 
ever, when the 
^ ___n |. a^iv^^ ' ' Elnglish were using 

V^ luBli I I it 11 Br I perpendicular tra- 

' eery, and when the 

invention of fan- 
vaulting was begin- 
ning to be intro- 
duced, the Scott^ 
with the flamboyant 
tracery of the 
French, adopted 
also their weak 
and nnconstructiTe 
modes of vaulting. 
It is not uncommon 
to find as poor a ^ 
vault AS that of the^ 
lately destroyed Trinity College Church, Edinburgh (Woodcut No. 897),. 4 
erected contemporaneously with the elaborate vaulting of the nj»X^ 
chapels in England ; and not only in this but in every other respect i»-j 
is to the Continent, and not to their nearest neighbours, that we mnstS'j 
at this late period look for analogies with the architecture of the Scotch ^i 
Scotland is, generally speaking, very deficient in objects oi civil o(C3 
domestic architecture belonging to the Middle Ages. Of her palacc^Ktf 
Holyrood was almost rebuilt in the reign of Charles I., and Edinburgf^^ 
Castle entirely remodelled. Stirling still retains some fragment* ^ 

7, SI. OLlet'i, Edinburgh. 


Docrwiy Plnscirdlo* Abbey 


ancient art, and Falkland seems on the verge of the Renaissance. 
Linlithgow perhaps alone remains in its original state, a fine specimeD 
ef a fortified palace, with bold flanking towers externally, and a noble 
courtyard in the centre. 

There are, besides these, numberless sqnare towers and fortalicea 
scattered over the country, which wet« the residences of the turbulent 
barons of Scotland during the Middle Ages; but none of these can 
properly be called objects of architecture 

HI. Alal* in TrtDl^ Golltga ChDrcb. Sdlobwib. 

The baronial edifices of the succeeding age give the inapreamoD of 
belonging to an earlier style, which was retained in this wild country 
to&g after it had been laid aside elsewhere. They ve as remarkable 
as any class of buildings erected after the Middle Ages, both for 
originality and picturesquenesa. But they were, with scarcely an 
exception, built after the accession of Elizabeth to the throne d 
England, and all, when closely examined, display feature* belonging 
to the Renaissance style. Their description would therefore be more 
appropriate in a subsequent volume than in a chapter devoted to the 
Gothic architecture of Scotlniid. 

bk. vn. ch. v. oratories. 443 



Oratoriei — ^Ronnd Towen — Domical Dwellings — ^Domestic Architecture— 

Bunic Cross Decoration. 

The history of architecture in Ireland forms as distinct a contrast to 
that of Scotland as it is possible to conceive. At a very early period 
the Irish showed themselves not only capable of inventing a style 
for themselves, but perfectly competent to carry it to a successful issue, 
had an opportunity ever been afforded them. But this has not yet 
happened. Before the English conquest (1169) the country seems to 
have been divided into a number of small states, whose chieftains 
occupied the scant leisure left them between the incursions of the 
Danes and other Northmen, in little wars among themselves. These 
were never of such importance as to yield glory to either party, though 
amply sufficient to retard the increase of population and to banish that 
peace and sense of security which are indispensable for the cultivation 
of the softer arts. Yet during that period the Irish built round towers 
and oratories of a beauty of form and with an elegance of detail that 
charm even at the present day. Their metal work showed a true 
appreciation of the nature of the material, and an artistic feeling equal 
in kind, if not in degree, to anything in the best ages of Qreece or 
Italy ; and their manuscripts and paintings exhibit an amount of taste 
which was evidently capable of anything. 

After the conquest, the English introduced their own pointed archi- 
tecture, and built two churches in Dublin which, in dimensions and 
detail, differ very little from Elnglish parish churches. But beyond 
the Pale their influence was hardly felt. Whatever was done was 
stamped with a character so distinctly Irish as to show how strong the 
feeling of the people was ; and sufficient to prove, with our knowledge 
of their antecedents, how earnestly and how successfully they would 
have laboured in the field of art had circumstances been favourable to 
its development. For seven centuries, however, the two races have 
lived together, hating and hated, and neither capable of comprehending 
the motives or appreciating the feelings of the other. It was not that 


the Saxon was tTrazmical or unjust, but that he was prosaic among a 
people whose imagination too often supplied the plaoe of reason, and 
that he was strong among those who could not combine for any steady 
purpose. His real crime was that, like the leopard, he could not change 
his spots. He belonged to a different race, and the Irish have always 
chosen to cherish the idea of vengeance and suffer the derangement 
consequent on it, rather than enjoy peace and prosperity under those 
they hated. Art is a plant too tender to flourish in the garden of 
hatred, and it has consequently been long banished from Irish soil, 
though, under gentler influences, it is probable that it might be more 
easily revived and more successfully cultivated there than in any other 
part of the British Isles. 

Whatever may be the fate of art in Ireland for the future, the 
history of the past is sufficiently discouraging. 

The cathedral of Dublin must always have been a second-class 
edifice for a metropolitan church, and those of Cashel and Kildare, 
which are as celebrated and as important as any in Ireland, are neither 
so large nor so richly ornamented as many English parish churches. 
The cathedral of Lismore has entirely disappeared ; and generally it 
may be asserted that, throughout the country, there is not one cathe- 
dra] church remarkable for architectural beauty or magnificence, though 
many are interesting from their associations, and picturesque from the 
state of ivy-clad ruin in which they appear. 

The same is true with regard to the monasteries — they are nume- 
rous ; and many, though small, are rich in detail. One of the most 
elaborate is that of the Holy Cross near Cashel, erected in the 15th 
century. This, like every other building of the Gothic period in 
Ireland, shows a strong affinity to the styles of the Continent, and a 
clearly marked difference from those of this country. 

Some of the monasteries still retain their cloisters, which, in all 
instances, have so foreign an aspect as to be quite startling. That at 
Muckross (Elillarney) retains the round arch on two sides with the 
details of the 15th century. That at Kilconnel (Woodcut No. 662)^ 
looks more like a cloister in Sicily or Spain than anything in the 
British Islands. None of them seem large. The last named is only 
48 ft. square, though, if more extensive, it would be out of place com- 
pared with the rest of the establishment. 

There is scarcely a single parish church of any importance which 
was built in Ireland beyond the limits of the Pale during the Middle 
Ages, nor, indeed, could it be expected that there should be. The 
parochial system is singularly unsuited to the Celtic mind at all times, 
and, during the Gothic period, the state of Ireland was especially 
unfavourable to its development, even if any desire for it had existed. 

' The woodcntB in this chapter are, 

with one or two exceptions, borrowed from Geology of Ireland.' 

Wilkinson's * Ancient Architecture and 

Bk. VII. Ch. V. ORATORIES. 445 

What the Celt desiderates is a hierarchy who will take the trouble of 
bis spiritual cares off his hands, and a retreat to which he can retire 
for repose when the excitement of imagination no longer suffices to 
supply his daily intellectual wants. These may lead to a considerable 
development of cathedral and monastic establbbments, but not to 
that self-governing parish system which is so congenial to the Saxon 

View it aa we will, the study of the Mediteval architecture of 
Ireland is a melancholy one, and only too truly confirms what we know 
from other sources. It does not even help us to answer the question 
whether or not Ireland could successfully have governed herself if left 

Mf. ai^Mr KlUsDIMl Abb«T 

alone. All it does toll us is that from the accidental juxtaposition of 
two antagonistic races, one of them has certainly failed hitherto in 
fulfilling the artistic mission which under favourable circumstances 
it seems eminently qualified to perform 

From these causes, the Medtieval antiquities of Ireland would 
not deserve much notice in a work not specially devoted to that one 
subject, were it not that, besides these Ireland possesses what may 
properly be called a Celtic style of architecture wb ch is as interesting 
in itself as any of the minor local styles of any part of the world and 
SO far OS at present known, is qmte peculiar to the island None of 
the buildings of this style are large though the ornaments on many 
of them are of great beauty and elegance Their chief interest liea 
in their singularly local character and in their age which probably 
extends from the 5th or 6th century' to the time of the English con 
quest in 1169. They consist principally of churches and round towers 

' No buildiDgi with architeclnrsl deUiU ui them tue knovn pnoi to 1000 a d. 


together with crosses and a number of other antiquities hardly coming 
within the scope of this work: 

No Irish church of that period now remaining is perhaps even 60 ft. 
in length, and generally they are very much smaUer, the most common 
dimensions being from 20 to 40 ft. long. Increase of magnificence was 
sought to be attained more by extending the number of churches than 
by augmenting their size. The favourite number for a complete 
ecclesiastical establishment was 7, as in Greece and Asia Minor, this 
number being identical with that of the 7 Apocalyptic Churches of 
Asia. Thus, there are 7 at Glendalough and 7 at Cashel ; the same 
sacred number is found in several other places,^ and generally two or 
three at least are found grouped together. 

As in Greece, too, the smallness of the churches is remarkable. 
They were not places for the assembly of large congregations of wor- 
shippers, but were oratories, where the priests could celebrate the 
divine mysteries for the benefit of the laity. In fact, no church is known 
to have existed in Ireland before the Norman Conquest that can be 
called a basilica, none of them being divided into aisles either by stone 
or wooden pillars, or possessing an apse, and no circular church has yet 
been found — nothing, in short, that would lead us to believe that 
Ireland obtained her architecture direct from Rome ; while everything, 
on the contrary, tends to confirm the belief of an intimate connection 
with the farther East, and that her earlier Christianity and religious 
forms were derived from the East, by some of the more southerly 
conmiercial routes which at that period seem to have touched on 

A good deal of uncertainty and even of ridicule has been thrown on 
the subject of the Eastern origin of the Irish Church by the extreme 
enthusiasm of its advocates, but there seems to be no reasonable ground 
for doubting the fact.^ At all events, it may safely be asserted that 

* Seven churches are also found at Scat- 
tery and Innis Caltra in Clare,Tory Island, 
Donegal, Rattoo in Kerry, Inchclorin, 
Longford, and Arranmore in Galway. 

• The Rev. Professor Stokes, in a 
paper communicated to the Royal 
Society of Antiquaries in Ireland, and 
published in their Journal, 1891, states : 
**The connexion with Egypt of the 
Celtic Church of these Western Islands 
of Britain, as well as of Ireland, cannot 

Professor gives a long list of places 
where specimens of these isUuid manaA- 
teries can be found; the beat example 
still existing being that of Incheleraim 
in Lough Ree, and commonly called 
Quaker Island, some ten miles above 
Athlone, where six or seven tiny churches 
just like those of Clonmaonoise (Wood- 
cut No. 904) or Olendaloogh (Woodcat 
No. 902) still perpetuate the name of 
St. Dermot or St. Diarmaid, the teacher 

now be controverted." He points out of St Kieran, and a Celtic saint and 

that the object of the ancient monks of 
the 5th and 6th centuries was **not to 
draw large assemblies, but to get as far 
away from them as possible ; and assuredly 
they selected a lonely if not a weird spot 
when they selected the Skelligs." The in both cases covered with domical loofs 

doctor who lived just after the days of 
St. Patrick and St Bridget The mon- 
astic cells at the Skelligs, which are 
known as beehive huta^ are Sfwuntimns 
square and sometimes dronlar in plaa. 

Bk. VU. Ch. V. ORATORIES. 447 

the Christiaa religion did not reach Ireland Across Great Britain, or by 
any of the (urinary channels through th» Continent. Ax a coroUaty to 
this, we must not look for the origin of her architectural styles either 
in England or in France, but in some more remote locality whose 
antiquities have not yet been so investigated as to enable ue to point it 
out as the source whence they were derived. 

The Irish Celtic churches are generally rectangular apartments, a 
little longer than they are broad, like the small one on the island of 
Innisfallen on the lake of Killarney (Woodcut No. 663). To the 
larger churches a smaller apartment of the same proportions is added 
to the eastward, forming a chancel, with an ornamental arch between 
the two. 

The most remarkable of these now existing ia that known at 

■UfHltn, KUIuiiar. 

Connac's Chapel, on the rock at Caahel (Woodcut Na 900), which 
was consecrated in the year 1134. It is a small building, 55 ft. long 
over aU externally. The chancel is 12 ft. square internally, covered 
with an intersecting vault ; the nave is 18 ft. by 29, and covered by a 
tunnel-vault with transverse ribs, very like those found in the South of 
France. ElztemaUy, as shown in the view, it has two square towers 
attached to it at the juncture of the nave and chancel, while the church 
itself is richly ornamented by a panelling of small arches. 

In almost all cases the principal entrance to these churches is from 

of stone laid in horizontal coDnra similar typn of the orntoricB which, thoagb 
to tho Treamiry of Atreos (Woodcut rectangulor in plan, arc, like the Oralory 
No. 124). In Home cami thoM ctiambcTB ' of Gallonu (Woodcut Xu. 917) and St. 
ore so limited in height and width that ' Kevin'a KitchcD, GleniUlough (Woodcut 
it ia poMible neither to ataud apright nor j No. 002X corered with roofs of stone all 
lie down in them with eaao. Thrae laid in horizontal connoa. — En. 
beehive huts ate apparently the proto- 


the, oppoHite to tbn altar The chapel at Oashel is, hovever, u 
exception, since it has both a north and a south entrance. That on the 
north is the principal, and very richly ornamented. The some in the 

case at Ardmore, whitre the wl 
bas-relief rudely representing fli 
is on the north side of the nave 

lie of the west end is taken up by • 
nes from the Bible, and the entranca 
On tlieae principal entrances all the 
resources of art were brought 
to bear, the windows geaeniij 
being very small, and ^par- 
ently never glazed. There is 
a doorway at Freohford in 
Kilkenny, and another at 
Aghadue near Killamey, which 
for elegance of detail will bear 
<.'cimpari3on with anything in 
England or on the Continent of 
the same age. 

One of the peculiarities of 
these churches is, that they 
were nearly all designed to 
have stone roofs, no wood Imng 
used in their construction. The 
annexed section (Woodcut Na 
901) of the old church at Killaltic, belonging probably to the lOtb 
century, will explain how this was generally managed. The nave was 
roofed with a tunncl-vault "f the ordinary form ; over this is a 
chamber formed by a pointed nrch, and on the ontside of these two, 

Bk. VII. Ch. V, ORATORIES. 449 

the roofing slabs were laid. Sometimes, instead of being continuous, 
the upper vault was cut into ribs, and the roof built up straight 
externally, with horizontal courses resting on these ribs. This node 
of double roofing was, perhaps, a complication, and no improvement 
on that adopted in the South of France in the same age (Woodcuts 
No8. 312, 319), but it enabled the Irish to make the roof steeper than 
could be effected with a single vault, and in so rtuny a climate this 
may have been of the first importance. 

The roof of the Cashel Chapel b of this double construction ; so is 
the building called " St. Kevin's Kitchen " at Glendalough (Woodcut 

81. KiTln'i.Kilchoi. Oli 

Ko. 902), which apparently belongs to the 10th century. There ia 
another very similar at Kella, and several others in various parts of 
Ireland, all displaying the same peculiarity. 

Had the Irish been allowed to persevere in the elaboration of their 
own style, they would probably have applied this expedient to the 
roofing of larger buildings than they ever attempted, and might, in 
so doing, have .avoided the greatest fault of Gothic architecture. 
Without more experience, it is impossible to pronounce to what extent 
the method might have been carried with safety, or to say whether 
the Irish double vault is a better constructive form than the single 
Bomonce pointed arch. It was certainly an improvement on the 
wooden roof of the true Gothic style, and iU early abandonment is 
consequently much to be regretted. 


Round Towkbs and Oratories. 

The round towers which accompany these ancient churches have 
long proved a stumbling-block to antiquaries, not only in Ireland but 
in this country ; and more has been written about them, and more 
theories proposed to account for their peculiarities, than about any 
other objects of their class in Europe. 

The controversy has been, to a considerable extent, set at rest by 
the late Mr. George Petrie.^ He has proved beyond all cavil that the 
greater number of the towers now existing were built by Christians, 
and for Christian purposes, between the 5th and 13th centuries ; and 
has shown that there is no reasonable ground for supposing the 
remainder to be either of a different age or erected for different uses. 

Another step has recently been made by Mr. Hodder Westropp, 
who has pointed out their similarity with the Fanal de Cimetiere 
so frequently found in France,* and even in Austria (Woodcut Na 

To any one who is familiar with the Eastern practice of lighting 
lamps at night in cemeteries or in the tombs of saints, this suggestion 
seems singularly plausible when coupled with the knowledge that the 
custom did prevail on the Continent in the Middle Ages. It is, how- 
ever, far from being a complete explanation, since many of these towers 
have only one or two very small openings in their upper storey ; and 
there is also the staggering fact that this use is not mentioned in any 
legendary or written account of them which has come down to our 
time. On the other hand, they are frequently described as bell-towers, 
and also as treasuries and places of refuge, and seem even better adapted 
to these purposes than to that of displaying lights. 

That they may have been applied to all these purposes seems clear, 
but a knowledge of their use does not explain their origin; it only 
removes the difficulty a step farther back. No attempt has been made 
to show whence the Irish obtained this very remarkable form of tower, 
or why they pei-severed so long in its use, with peculiarities not found 
either in the contem^rary churches or in any other of their buildings. 
No one imagines it to have been invented by the rude builders of the 
early churches, and no theory yet proposed accounts for the perseverance 
of the Irish in its employment, at a time when the practice of all the 
other natifms of Europe was so widely different. It must have been a 
sacred and time-honoured form somewhere, and with some people, 

* * Tho EorlpsiaBtical Architecture of 
Ireland anterior to the Anglo-Norman 
Invasion.* Dublin, 1845. 

* See Viollet le Dae, * Diolioiuiaiie 
d* Architecture,* iii6 ''/anaV* 

Bi. vn. ch. v. 



previous to ite carreol adoption in Ireland ; but the place and the time 
at which it was so, still remain to be determined.' 

Although, therefore, Air. Fetrie's writings and recent investigations 
have considerably narrowed the grounds of the Inquiry, they cannot 
be said to have set the question at rest, and anyone who has seen the 
towers must feel that there is still room for any amount of speculation 
regarding such peculiar monuments. 

In nine coses out of t«u they are placed unsymmetrically at stone 
little distance from the churches to which they belong, and are generaUj 
of a different age and different style of masonry. Their openings, from 
the oldest to the most modem, generally have sloping jambs, which are 
very rare in the churches, being only found in the earliest examples. 
Their doorways are always at a height of 7, 10, or 13 ft. from the 
ground, while the church doors are, it need hardly be said, always on 
the ground level. But more than all this, there is sometimes an un- 
familiar aspect in the detail of the towers which is not always observed 
in the churches. The latter may be rude, or may be highly finished, 
but they rarely have the strange and foreign appearance which the 
towers always present. 

Notwithstanding this, the proof of their Christian origin is in most 
cases easy. Woodcut No. 902, for instance, shows a round tower 
placed upon what is, undoubtedly, a Christian chapel, and which must 
consequently be either coeval with the tower or more ancient. At 
ClonmacQoise (Woodcut No. 904) the masonry of the tower is bonded 
with the walla of the church, and evidently coeval therewith, the 

* Odo of the towera in the Eaat tlmt , 
bears moat directly on Ihe Ijiator; of 
these Iri«h tuwvra it that iliacavercd by 
Dr. Tristmm ntar Um Uosbij. It is de- . 
■ciibed and figured at page 14!i iu liis 
work on the ' Land of Moab ; ' but uofor- i 
tunately the noodvut id lakca rrojii the 
aide that doe* not roiiresent tlie doorwu; 
witli the crose ovor it su like that at , 
Antrim (Woodcut No. 907), and elsewhere. 
Like most oF tlie Irish ciaiuplee, it in | 
ailnaled at about ID ft. from tlie ground. 
There is no other opening to the toner, 
except one on each face at tlio top. It 1 
boa ulw the peculiarity that it stands ^ 
ri«e lint clO'Q la a email cell or cbapcl, \ 
BI is the rase vith iilmost all the Iriib 
towers. The one point in which it dlSen 
from the Irish examples is that its plan ' 
is aqnare instead of being circular. Thia 
dons not seem so important as it at flnit i 
sight may appear, seeing how many ctr 
«ular minarets were ■ftonruJs erected ii 

a st ha e hod a model 

M ab to tow ma; be escribed Htber- 
nice, as B squue Irish round tower. 
2 Q 2 


chancel arch being undoubtedly Christian round Gothic of the lOtii or 
1 1th century. At Kildare the doorway of the tower (Woodcut No. 905) 
is likewise of unquestionatile Ckriatian art, and an integral part of the 
design, though it may be somewhat earlier than the foregoing ; and at 
Timahoe the doorway of the tower is richer and more elaborate, but at 
the same time of a style so closely resembling that of Connac's Cfaapd 
as to leave no doubt of their being nearly of the same age. The wly 
remarkable difTeretice is that the Jambs of 
the doorway of the tower slope consider- 
ably inwards, vhilo all those of the chapel 
are perfectly perpendicular. Another 
proof of their age is, that many of the 
doorways have Christian emblems c 
tn relief on their lintels, t 

•M. Doomj In Tsinr, KIUik 

example from the tower at Donoughmore (Woodcut No. 906), or that 
from Antrim (Woodcut No. 907), or on the round tower at Brechin in 
Scotland, — emblems which, from their position, and the fact of their 
being in relief, cannot have been added, and must therefore be con- 
sidered as original. When we find that the towers which have not 
the se in dications differ in no other respect from those that have, it is 
if^ "Tb to resist the conclusion that they too are of Christuui ori^ ; 
^'^ pB evidence of a few being sufficient to overbahuiGe the mers 

^^ m a proof in a far greater number, 

^^ mtMsvui have enumerated 118 of these rooaument« aa atUl to be 

Bk. vn. ch. v. 


found in Ireland ; of these same twenty ore perfect, or nearly so, 
raiding in height from about 60 ft. to 130 ft., which is the hei^t of 
the imperfect one at Old Kilcnllen. They all taper upwards towards 

the summit, and are generally crowned with a conical cap like that at 
Ctonmacnoise (Woodcut No. 904), though not often constructed in the 
herring-bone masonry there shown. 

The tower <d Devenish (Woodcut No 90S) may be taken as a 



typic&l example of the class. It is 82 ft. high, with a conic&l cap, and 
its doorway and windowa are alt of the form and in the poeition me«t 
UHually found in monuments of this class. The conical cap ia BOmetimes 
omitted, and its place supplied by a hattlemented crown, though this i» 
probably of later date ; this is the case at Kildare, and also at Eilree 
(Woodcut Na 909). In one instance, and, I believe, one only, the base 
of the tower ia octagonal. This is found at Kinneh, county Cork 
(Woodcut No. 910).' 

One ot the most beautiful and most perfect is that td Ardnuve 
(Woodcut No. 911). It is of excellent ashlar masonry throughout, and 

is divided externally into 4 storeys by string-courses, which do not, 
however, mark the position of the floors inside. Its mouldings and 
details lead to the presumption that it ia nearly coeval with Cormac's 
Chapel, Cashel, and that consetjuently it must belong to the 12th 
century. It stands within the precincts of the rude old chnrch 
mentioned above, and when explored not long ago the skeletons of two 
persona were found below its foundations, placed in such a manner ai to 
lead to the inevitable conclusion that it was a place of Christian burial 
before the foundations of the tower were laid. 

The floors which divide the tower into storeys are generally of wood. 

. VIL Ch. V. 




bnt sometimes of mosouiy, constructed as th&t at Kinneh (Woodcut 
So. 912). There are no sturs, but ladders are used to pass &otn one 
storey to the next. 

Several instances of doorways have been quoted above. Of these 
no two are exactly ahke, though all 
show the same general characteristics 
That at Monasterboice for instance 
(Woodcut No 913) has an arch cut 
out of a horizontal Imtel extending the 
whole way across while that at 
Kilcullen (Woodcut No 914) has the j 
arch cut out of two stones which is by ^ ' 

far the most usual arrangement. fi^ Floor id Towfr KSnoBb 

The windows are generally beaded 
with two stones meeting at the apex, as in the three examples given 
below (Woodcut No. 915) ; but sometimea the window-head is either a 
flat lintel or a single stone cut into the form of an arch, as at 
Olendalough (Woodcut No. 916). 

Though these remarkable towers are of extremely various forms, 
differing acoordiug to their age and locality, almost all exhibit that 
peculiar Cyclopean character of masonry which has led to such strange, 


though often plausible, speculations ; for though neither their details, 
nor their masonry would excite remark if found at Norba in Latium or 
at ^niade in Acamanise, yet here they stand alone and exceptional 
to everything around them. 

Whatever may have been their origin, there can be no doubt 
as to the uses to which they were applied by the Christians — they 
were symbols of power and marks of dignity. They were also 
bell-towers, and lamps were possibly lighted in them in honour of the 
dead. But perhaps their most important use was that of keeps or 
fortalices; to which, in troubled times, the church plate and other 
articles of value could be removed and kept in safety till danger 
was past. 

As architectural objects these towers are singularly pleasing. 
Their outline is always graceful, and the simplicity of their form is 
such as to give the utmost value to their dimensions. Few can believe 
that they are hardly larger than the pillars of many porticoes, and 
that it is to their design alone that they owe that appearance of size 
they all present. No one can see them without admiring them for 
these qualities, though the peculiar fascination they possess is no doubt 
in great measure owing to the mystery which stUl hangs round their 
origin, and to the association of locality. In almost every instance the 
tower stands alone and erect beside the ruins of an ancient but deserted 
church, and among the mouldering tombstones of a neglected or 
desecrated graveyard. In a town or amid the busy haunts of men, 
they would lose half their charm ; situated as they are, they are among 
the most interesting of the antiquities of Europe. 

There is still another class of antiquities in Ireland, older perhaps 
than even these round towers, and certainly older than the churches 
to which the towers are attached. These are the circular domical 
dwellings found in the west of the island, constructed of loose stones in 
horizontal layers approaching one another till they. meet at the apex, 
like the old so-called treasuries of the Greeks, or the domes of the 
Jains in India. Numbers of these are still to be found in remote parts, 
sometimes accompanied by what are properly called oratories, like that 
shown in Woodcut No. 917, taken from Mr. Petrie's valuable work. 
It is certainly one of the oldest places of worship in these islands, 
belonging probably to the age of St. Patrick ; and it is also one of the 
smallest, being externally only 23 ft. by 10. It shows the strange 
Cyclopean masonry, the sloping doorway, the stone roof, and many of 
the elements of the subsequent style, and it is at the same time so like 
some things in Lycia and in India, and so unlike almost any other 
building in Europe, that it is not to be wondered at that antiquaries 
should indulge in somewhat speculative fancies in endeavoaring to 
account for such remarkable phenomena. 


Irel&nd is not rich in Bpecimens of domestic architecture of the 
Middle Ages, but such fragments as do exbt show marked variations 
from the contemporary style in E^land. Such battlements, for 

Onlorr of OillBiu. (Fimi FMrlt'i ' Asdent IfiAIUcUin el Iraluid.') 

in.stance, as those which crown the tower of Jerpoint Abbey are 
identical with many found in the North of Italy, but very unlike any- 

thing either in England or Scotland, and give a foreign look to the 
whole building which is very striking. 

The same may be said of the next example (Woodcut No. 919) from 
a bouse in Galway. Its architecture might be Spanish, but its 
wiuunental details look like a reminisceoce of the entwined decoration 


of a Runic crosa, and remiDds one more of the interlaced work of Uie 
Byzantine style than of any other.' 

BallyFomnej Court, illustrated in Woodcut No. 920, is perhaps tlie 

moat usual form of an Irish mantuon in the last age of Gothic After 
its time the Elizabethan became the prevalent style. All individuality 

Briljromntj Coon, Cork. 

vanished with the more complete subjection of the country in the r«ign 
of that queen. This is, no doubt, to be n^retted; but, as before 

■ NomsHiat examples of ByzantiiiB I flneaoe of BjiBntine Art in Italy from 
JDtetlaced work of t\\ periodi will be tbe Sth to the llthoentoriM.' 
found in Cattaneo'i work ' On the Id- I 


remarked, Ireland is interesting!, ^^^ ^"^ her Gothic so much aa for her 
Celtic antiquities, the epoch of which closed as nearljr as may be with 
the English conquest in 1169. 



Part IL 










Oothic Conqnest— Athulf .... 

A.D. 411 

Alpbonso Ill.^conqaest of Tolsdo . 

A.n. IMS 

Moofiah conquest 


Conquest of Cwdova 


Kingdoms of NftyArre And Arragon 

„ „ Valencia 


esUiUished, about 


„ „ Seville and Murda . . 


Sancho I., King of CastUle .... 


Ferdinand el Santo died .... 


Alphooso VI. unites all Northern 



Spaiu into one kingdom .... 


Pedro the Cruel 


Henry de Besan^on — foundation of 

Ferdinand and Isabella 


kingdom of Portugal 


Conquest of Granada ..... 


Spain is one of those countries regarding the architecture of which it 
is almost as difficult to write anything consecutive as r^arding that of 
Scotland. This does not arise from the paucity of examples nor from 
their not having been examined and described, but from the same 
cause as was insisted upon in speaking of Scotch art, that the style was 
not indigenous, but borrowed from other nations, and consequently 
practised far more capriciously than if it had been elaborated by the 
Spaniards themselves. 

In the very early ages of their architectural history we do find the 
inhabitants of the Peninsula making rude attempts to provide them- 
selves with churches. These, however, were so unsuited for their 
purposes that so soon as returning prosperity put the Spaniards in a 


position to erect larger edifices, they at once fell into the arms of the 
French architects, who had advanced far beyond them in the adaptation 
of classical materials to Christian purposes. When tired of the French 
styles, they enlisted the Germans to assist them in supplying their 
wants, and Italy also contributed her influence, though less directly 
than the other two. In the mean time the Moors were more steadily 
elaborating their very ornate but rather flimsy style of art in the 
southern part of the Peninsula, and occasionally contributed workmen 
and ideas whose influence may be traced almost to the foot of the 
Pyrenees. When all this passed away with the Middle Ages, they 
borrowed the Renaissance style of the Italians, but used its Doric and 
Corinthian details more literally and with less adaptation, than any 
other nation. With these classical materials they erected churches 
which were larger and more gorgeous than those of the previous styles, 
and admired them with the same unreasoning devotion they had 
bestowed on their predecessors. 

So far as we at present know, this peculiarity is unique in the 
history of architecture. Some nations are content to worship in 
barns, or to dispense with temples altogether. It is not, therefore, 
surprising that they should have no architecture, or should throw it 
aside as the Scotch did the moment they could shake off its trammels. 
But the Spaniards loved art. They delighted in the display of 
architectural magnificence, and indulged in pomp and ceremonial 
observances beyond any other people on the Continent. 

The singularity is, that though endowed with the love of architec- 
ture, and an intense desire to possess its products, nature seems to 
have denied to the Spaniard the inventive faculty necessary to enable 
him to supply himself with the productions so indispensable to his 
intellectual nature. We can perfectly understand how, among so 
Teutonic a people as the Scotch, architecture should be found planted 
in an uncongenial soil and perish with the first blast of winter ; but 
what seems unique is that, planted where both the soil and climate 
seem so thoroughly congenisbl as they do in Spain, it should still 
remain exotic and refuse to be acclimatised. 

If we knew who the Spaniards were we might be able to explain 
these phenomena, but we know so little of the ethnography of Spain 
that at present this source of information is not available The term 
" Iberian " hardly conveys a distinct idea to the mind. The first im- 
pulse is to say they must have been Turanian ; but, if so, where are 
their tombs ? Few tumuli or rude-stone monuments exist in Spain, 
and fewer traces of sepulchral rites or ancestral worship, and these 
have been so imperfectly described that it is difficult to reason regard- 
ing them, but unless they do exist we are safe in asserting that no 
Turanian people lived in historic times in Spain. From history we 
know that the Phoenicians occupied the coast-line at least all round 


the southern part •£ the Peninsula, and their settlements probahlj 
penetrated some way into the interior. The facility with which the 
Moors conquered and colonised the country, is in itself sufficient to 
prove that a people of cognate race had occupied the land long before 
they came there ; but this hardly helps us, for neither the PhoeniciaDS 
nor any of the Semitic races were ever builders, and we look in vain in 
Spain or at Carthage, or at Tyre or Sidon, for anything to tell us 
what their architecture may have been. The Goths who invaded Spain 
in the beginning of the 5th century must have been of Teutonic race, 
Aryans pur sang, for they have not left a building or a tradition 
of one, and they therefore can hardly have influenced the style of 
their successors in the Peninsula. Even the Moors were scarcely an 
architectural people in the proper sense of the term. Their mosques 
were, so far as we know them, made up of fragments of classical 
temples arranged without art or design. Their palaces were orna- 
mented with plaster work of the most admired complexity of design, 
coloured with the most exquisite harmony ; but all this was the 
work of the omamentalist, hardly of the architect. It was perfectly 
suited to the wants of an elegant and refined Oriental race, but most 
ill adapted to the wants of a hardy race of mountaineers struggling 
for freedom against the invaders of their birthright. The Celtic 
element must have been the one wanting in this *' olla podrida " of 
nations to fuse the whole together, and to give the arts that impulse 
which in Spain was always wanting. All the other elements they 
seem to have possessed, but the absence of this single one prevented 
them from attaining that unity which would enable us to follow 
their story with the same interest which we feel in tracing the 
development of the arts in France or England. Notwithstanding 
this, however, it must be confessed that the result in Spain is 
frequently grand, and even gorgeous, though never quite satis- 

The periods of Gothic architecture in Spain coincide in age very 
nearly with those in this country ; far more nearly than with France 
or Italy, or any other nation. Before the era of the Cid (106S-1099), 
which was coincident with that of William the Conqueror, there 
existed a style similar in importance and character to our Saxon 
style. This the Spaniards call *^obras de los Godos," and the term 
may be practically correct, but it would confuse our nomenclature to 
call it the " Gothic " of Spain. " Asturian "or " Catalonian " might 
nearly describe it, but for the present some such indefinite descrip- 
tion as " Early Spanish " must suffice. 

In the latter half of the 11th century it was overwhelmed, as in 
this country, by a wholesale importation of French designs. These 
continued to be employed, a.s if no Pyrenees existed for about a 

Bk. Vni. Ch. I. PERIODS. 463 

century, with the round arch in all the decorative features, but with 
an occasional tendency to employ the pointed arch in construction. 

By degrees this round-arched style grew into an early pointed 
Spanish, which, like our own lancet, is more national and more 
characteristic than any other phase of the art, and, like it, seems to 
have been more cherished and for a longer time. In the beginning 
of the 13th century a new set of French patterns were introduced ; 
but while French cathedrals with geometric tracery were being 
erected at Toledo, Burgos, and Leon, in the provinces they continued 
to adhere to the simpler and more solid forms of the earlier style. 

During the 14th century the French style reigned supreme, with 
only a slight touch of local feeling and a slight infusion of Moorish 
details in parts, till in the 15th it broke away from its prototype into 
a style half German, half Spanish, with all the masonic cleverness 
so fatal to the style in Southern Germany, and more than German 
exuberance of detail, and complexity of vaulting expedients. With 
these the style continued to be used for churches as late as in England, 
and long after the classical styles had become universal in Italy and 
fashionable in France. 

The Gothic style was not entirely disused in Spain till after the 
middle of the 16th century, but there its history ends, no attempt at 
a Grothic revival having yet been perpetrated among that inartistic 
race. It may come, however ; but they would adopt Mexican or 
Chinese with equal readiness, if either of these styles would provide 
them with places of worship as gorgeous and as suited to their 
purposes as those they now possess.^ 

* So much of the information regarding Mr. Street's book, and many of the wood- 

Spanish architecture which is contained 
in the following pages, is derived from 
Mr. Street's beautiful W()rk, entitled 
* Gothic Architecture in Spain,' published 
in 1865, that it has not been thought 
necessary to refer specially to that work 
in the text With one or two exceptions, 
all the plans are reduced from tliose in 

cuts are also his. If any one will take 
the trouble of comparing the very meagre 
account of Spanish architecture contained 
in the * Handbook,' with what is said in 
this work, they will at once perceive my 
obligations to Mr. Street. His work is a 
mudel of its class, and has quite revolu- 
tionised our knowledge of the subject. 






Bomancsque: Churches at Naranco, Boda, and Leon — ^Early Spumh Gothk: 
Churches at Santiago, Zamora, Toro, Avila, Salamanca, and Tinnpnni MliMlo 
Pointed stylo : Churches at Tole<lo, Burgos, Leon, Barcelona, MinriT, CkraHi 
Seville — Late Gothic style: Churches at Segovia, Villena — Mokboo iljle: 
Churches at Toledo, Ilescas, and Saragoza. 

Early Spanish Romanesque. 

As might be expected from what we know of the history of Spain, 
the only specimens of this style which are known to exist in the 
country are to be found in the Asturias or in the recesses of that 
mountain range which extends from Corunna to Barcelona. It was 
in these regions alone that the Spanish Christians found refuge during 
the supremacy of the Moslems in the Peninsula, and were free to 
exercise their religious forms without molestation. 

Four or five examples of the style have been described in sufficient 
detail to enable us to see what its leading features were. The earliest 
appears to be that of Santa Maria de Naranco, near Oviedo, said to 
be erected a.d. 848.^ Another is San Miguel de Lino, which appears 
to be nearly as old. A third, San Salvador de Val de Dios,' is less 
important than the other two, though peculiar, more like an Irish 
or French oratory than the others. A fourth is Santa Cristina de 
Lino.^ San Pablo, Barcelona,^ may be of about the same age as 
these ; and no doubt there are many others which have escaped notice 
from their insignificant dimensions. 

Among these the most interesting is that first named, which 
stands at Naranco. As will be seen from the plan (Woodcut 
No. 923), it is unlike any contemporary example we are acquainted 
with. Practically it is a Roman tetrastyle amphiprostyle temple, if 
such terms can be applied to a Christian edifice ; and, so far as we 
can understand, the altar was placed originally in one of the porticoes, 

1 Parcerisa, * Becuerdos y Bellezas de 
Espafia,* Asturias, p. 78. 
' * Monumentos Arquitectonicos.* 

' * Monumontos Arquiteotooiooa.' 
• Ibid. 


and the worship was consequently prubably external. The great 
difference seems to have been that there was a lateral entrance, and 
some of the communicants at least must have been accommodated in 

tSt. Vl*w of Cbnrdi It Huanco. (Proa Pumln.) 

the interior. The ornamentiition of tlie interior differs from classical 
models more than the plan. The columns are spirally fluted — a 
classical form— but the capitals are angular, and made to support 
arches. On the walls also there are curious medallions from which 
the vaulting-ribs spring, which seem peculiar to the 
style, since they are found repeated in S. Cristina. 

The chief interest of this building, however, 
lies in the fact that it exhibits the Spaniards in the 
middle of the 9th century trying to adapt a Pagan 
temple to Christian purposes, as if the Bomans had 
left no basilicas in the land, and as if the Ooths 
bad been unable to elaborate any kind of 
" ecclesia " in which they might assemble for 
worship. San Miguel and Santa Cristina are 
adapted for internal worship, but their form is very 
unlike those of any other church we are acquainted , 
with. The church of San Pablo differs essentially _^ _ 

from them, inasmuch as it is a complete Christian 
church in all its essentials. Though very small (80 ft. by 67), it ia 
triapsal, with a central dome and all the arrangements of a church, 
but more like examples found in the East than anything usually 


E&RLT Spakisb Gothic. 

After three centuries of more or less complete supremac; over the 
whole of Spain with the exception of the northern mountain faatnteua, 
the tide of fortune at length turned against the Moors. Daring the 
course of the llth century the Castilles and all to the north of them 
were freed for ever from their power. Their favourite capit&l, Toledo^ 
fell into the hands of the Christians in 1085, and from that time the 
Christians had no- 
thing to fear from the 
Uoors, but on the 
contnu; had the pro- 
spect of reoovning the 
whole of their country 
from their grasp. It 
was consequtmtl; s 
period of great and 
Intimate exultation, 
greater than that 
which followed the 
fall of the laat strong- 
hold of the infideU 
before the cooqaeriag 
arms of Ferdinutd 
and Isabella (jus. 
1492)— an event tJiat 
ended the drama of 
the Middle Ages in 
Spain, which the ood- 
quest of Toledo hnd 
commenced. It k 
between these two 
events thatthe historr 
of Gothic art in Spain 
is practically included. 
For present purposes it uitiy sutfice to divide this history into 
three great chapters. 

1. Early Spanish Gothic, couunenciug about 1060, and laating for 
two centuries. A plain and simple, but bold and effective style, first 
borrowed from the French, but latterly assuming a local character. 
Round-arched when first introduced, but adopting the pointed form in 
its later development, though still retaining the rounded form in many 
of its details till a vory latr peri(>d of the style. 


2. Middle or perfect Pointed Gothic, introduced from France 
about the year 1220, when Amiens &ad Salisbury were founded ; uid 
used in the plans of Toledo, Burgos, and Leon. It consequently 

n*. Butiigo CubtdnL iDUrhKOfBuMhTnBNptiloaklBcNonb-luk (VnaStrMt.) 

overlaps the other to some ext«nt, though its actual development as 
we now see it (except in plans) must probably date frum the latter 
p&rt of the 13th century. It may be said to have lasted for more than 


ixtremelf difficult to draw e 

line between it 

200 years, though it is 
EMid the 

3rd period, or Late Gothic style, the duration of which was pro- 
bably hardly more than one century. The cathedral at Salamanca 
was founded 1513, and that at Segovia 1525 ; and these are the two 
typical examples of the style, which in minor examples continued to be 

iloFO, LcdD. (Jfrmn St 

practised till nearly the end of the 16th century, but latterly with a 
considerable admixture of Henaissance detail. 

One of the earhest examples of a complete cathedral in Spain is 
that of Compoetella, commenced in 1078, and carried on vigorously 
from the foundation. As will be seen by the plan, it is a complete 
French cathedral in every respect, very nearly identical with that of 
St. Semin at Toulouse {Woodcut No. 572), pos.sessing only three aisles 
instead of five in the nave, though otherwise very similar to it in 
arrangement and general dimensions. 



Its internal structure is also that of the French cathedral, and 
forma an instructive pcant of comparison with our English examples of 
the same age. Up to the string-course above the triforium the 
Spanish, French, and English examples are much alike, except that the 
Bection of the piers in England is nearly double that of the others. 
Above this, at Toulouse and Compostella, there is a bold tunnel-vault 

with transverse ribw ; at Ely, Norwich and Peterborough a clerestory 
with a flat wooden roof. These differences in the treatment of the 
upper part no doubt arose to some extent from the difference of 
latitude, sufficient light being attainable in the South without a 
clerestory, though the gloom of such a design could never be tolerated in 
Normandy, and much less in England. 

What is most striking, however, at Compostella is the completeness 
of the style. The piers are not only judiciously proportioned to the 


work they have to perform, b«t are a» perfect in their details as any of 
the contemporary churches in Auvergne ; and though in what may be 
called a Doric style, this church is oa complete in itself as any of the 
florid Corinthian Gothics that succeeded it. 

The same may be said of the church of San Isidore at Leon, wbi<^ 
though probably somewhat later — the church seems to have beem 
completed about 1149 — presents the same simple style in tlie 
same degree of well understood completeness, all the Imes running 

through without confusion, and every part well proportioned to 
the other. The foliation of the transept arch may be a peculiarity 
borrowed from the Moors, but, as used here, it is simple and 
appropriate, and perhaps better that a roll moulding, which would 
have been the mode of treatment on this side of the Pyrenees. 

The interior of Zamora Cathedral, which seems to have been 
erect«d about the year 1174, though wholly in the pointed-arch style, 
b as plain and as little ornamented as that last described. Even the 
interior of the dome is plain when compared with its exterior, which 
is varied in outline and rich in decoration, like most of those of that 
age ia Spain. As in the fa^e, the round arch is employed in the 

Bk. vin. Ch. il early spanisu gothic. 


cimborio almost to the exclusion of the [Hiinted arch as s decorative 
feature, though in the lower part of the faviide and uudcr the dome all 
the arches are pointed. 

It is possible that these interiors, which now loiik so plain, were, or 
were intended to be, plastered and painted ; though, had the intention 
been carried out, it is hardly probable but that traces of this mode 
of decoration would have remained to this day, which does not seem 
to be the case. Still it is difficult to understand why they should 
have designed a facade so rich as that of Zamora Cathedral (Woodcut 
No. 931), if it were to lead to an interior infinitely plainer than the 
exterior would lead one 
to expect. In all the 
countries of Europe dur- 
ing the Romanesque 
period the external door- 
ways were the features 
on which the architects 
lavished all their art, and 
Spain was certainly not 
behind the others in this 
respect. That at Zamora 
is excelled in richness by 
that at Toro (Woodcut 
No. 932), though the rest 
of the facade is not so well 
worked up to its key-note 
as in the last example. 
Among a hundred, one of 
those at Lerida (Woodcut 
No. 933), borrowed from 
Mr. Street's work, will 
illustrate their beauty, and 
seems to force on us the 
conviction that so much "^ 
labour would not have 

been bestowed on them if they were not intended to herald a greater 
richness within. 

In this last example, the doorway has been covered by a porch of 
Hth or 15th century work; but occasionally the Spaniards seem to 
have attempted a porch on the scale of Peterborough, as in the church 
of San Vincente at Avila (Woodcut No. 934). In this instance wa 
have only one arch between two flanking towers ; but, though limited 
in extent, it forma a very noble feature, and give.s a dignity to the 
entrance, too often wanting in Gothic design. Its date is uncertain — 
probably the end of the l'2th century — but, strange as it may appear, 


the richly carved doorway within, though round-arched, seema to be an 
insertion either of the same age, or subsequent to the pointed-arch 
architecture which xurroundH it. 

Bu VlDanto, AtIU. InlRfiir of WMtam Porch, (tYnn SIrMt.) 

Beautiful as are these details, the great feature of the Early Spanish 
style is the cimborio, or dome, which generally occurs at the intersection 
of the nave with the transepts. Something very simihir is to be found 
in France, especially in Auvergne and Anjou ; but the Spaniards seized 
upon it with avidity, and worked it out more completely than any 


uther nation; anil with their wide naves it afterwards assumed an 
ini]M>rtaiice almost equal to the ootagon at Ely. One of the most 

Bilcrior of IdDlern, Salu&ua Old CillHdnL (From : 

perfect examples in the early style is that which crowns the old 
cathedral at Salamanca (Woodcut No. 935), and dates about 1200. Aa 
will be observed from the view of the exterior, every detail belongs to 


the round-arched style, and in France would certainly be quoted as 
^ belonging to th&t date, or 

earlier ; but when we turn 
to the interior (Woodcut No, 
936), we find that the whole 
substructure ia of pointed 
architecture. True it is the 
old simple Early Spaniah 
style, yet still such as rather 
to upset our ideas of archi- 
tectural chronology in this 
respect. The ttttemal dia- 
meter of the dome is only 
28 ft. ; yet it is a most 
effective feature both inter- 
nally and externally, and 
gives great dignity to what 
otherwise would be a very 
plain building. 

Without going beyond 
the limits of the style, the 
dome at Tarragona (Wood- 
cut Ko. 938) illustrates the 
form usually taken by Gothic 
d<aaeB when resting on square bases. There is a little awkwardness in 
the form of the pendentives, which do not fit the main arches below 
them, though at that age the Spaniards might have learned frran the 
Saracens how to manage this feature. At 
. the mode in which the square 
I worked up into a drcle was by 
' Byzantine form, the courses 
masonry simply projecting beyond one 
another till the transition was effected, 
hut without that accentuation which was 
thought so essential in Gothic art. Above 
the pendentives, however, at Tarragona, the 
form of the dome is perfect. The windows 
are alternately of three and four lights, and 
the whole is fitted together with exquisite 
propriety and taste. 
Although borrowing their style in the first instance immediately 
from the French, the Spaniards developed it with such a variety of 
plans and details, aa might have made it a style of their own but ior 
the fresh importation of French designs in the beginning of the 1 3th 
century. Before these came in, however, they had very frequently in 



their churches adopted h form of external portico which w&s singularly 
BUit«d to the climate and produced very original and pleasing effects. 
In the annexed plan of St Millan at Segovia (Woodcut Ko 937), they 
form fourth and hfth aisles, opening externally uuitead of internally ; 

these, with the windows over them and the shadow they afford, break 
up the monotony of the sides of the church most pleasingly,' Some- 
times the aisles are carried round the church, so as to form a portico at 
the west end as well as at the sides. Sometimes they are on one side 



Part 1L 

or the other as the situatioa demutds; but wherever osed they are 

ftlways pleasing and appropriate. 

The round form of church does not Beem ever to have been a 
favourite in Spain. There 
are somo examples, it is 
true, but they seem, like 
that at Segovia (Woodcut 
No. 939), to have been 
built by the Templars in 
imitation of the church at 
Jerusalem, and used by 
them, and them only. The 
idea of a circular cere- 
monial church attached to 
a rectangular " ecdesia," 
does not appear to have 
entered into Spanish ar- 
rangements. As before 
remarked, the sepulchres 
of the original people of 
Spain do not seem to have 
been sufficiently important 
to lead to any considerable 
development of this form in 
the Christian times. 

Middle Pointed Spanish Style. 

While the early style described in the last chapter was gradoally 
working itiielf into something original and national, its course was 
turned aside by a fresh importation of French designs in the b^inning 
of the 13tb century. Before the Germans had made up their minds b^ 
building the Cathedral of Cologne to surpass the grandest designs of 
the French architects, the Spaniards had already planned a cathedral 
on a scale larger than any attempted even in France. The great 
church at Toledo was commenced in 1227, seven years after Aminnm 
and Salisbury cathedrals bad been determined upon. The plan b 
certainly of that date ; the present superstructure may rather be taken 
as representing the style of the end of the 13th century, though it does 
not seem to be known when the church was first ocusecrated. 

The church which Toledo Cathedral most resembles in that plan is 
at Bourges {Woodcut No. G40). The length is about the same, but the 
French example is only 130 ft, in width across the five aisles, while the 
Spanish church is 178 ft., so that its area is considerably in axcess. It 



(68,000 ft.), or any 

of the French cathe- 

The church at 

Toledo possesses 

the some defect ta 

plan that we re- 

h "■ ' 

is not easy to aay what the area of Toledo Cathedral really was, as wo 
cannot quite detennine which of the excrescoucea belong to the original 
design ; but we shall not probably be far wrong in estimating it as 
under 79,000 ft. It is less therefore than Seville, Milan, or Cologne. 
It covers rather more ground than York Cathedral, but considerably 


marked on in 
describing that at 
Cologne : it is ton 
short for its other 
dimensions. When 
the French archi- 
tect at Bourgcs 
found himself in 
that difficulty he 
omitted the tran- 
septs, and so, to a 
great extent, re- 
stored the appear- 
ance of length. 
The architect at 
Toledo has not pro- 
jected his transepts 
to the same extent 
as at Cologne, but 
they are still sufli- 
ciently prominent 
internally to make 
the church look 
short ; but, on the ' 
other hand, by 
keeping his vault low, he has done much to restore the harmony of 
his design; and instead of the 150 ft. of Cologne, or the 125 of 
Bourges, even with his greater lateral extension, the height of the 
central vault b little over 100 ft. (1051). The next aisle is 60, the 
outer 35, — a propoi'tion certainly more pleasing than Bourgcs, or 
any other 6ve-aisled cathedral. So thoroughly French is the design, 
that there is no attempt at a cimborio or dome of any sort at the 


intersection of the nave and transepts ; but, on the other h&nd, the 

Arrangement of 
the choir ia essen- 
tially Spanish, and 
the screen sur- 
rouiiding it among 
the most gorgeous 
in Spain, and one 
of the most beau- 
tiful parts of the 

The origin of 
the Spanish ar- 
DUgemeat of the 
choir will be 
understood by re- 
ferring to the plan 
of San Clemenie 
at Rome (Wood 
cut No 395) The 
h gher clergy were 
n the early days 
of the Church ac 
commodated on 
the bema in the 
presbytery The 
Eingers, readers, 

enclosed choir in 
the nave The 
place for the laity 
was around the 
choir outside So 
long as the enclos- 
ing wall of the 
choir was kept as 
low as it was at 
Rome (about S 
ft ) this arrange- 
ment was nnobjec- 
tionable but 
when it came to 
be used as m 
Spain it was sm 
gnlarly deatmc- 



tive of iDtemtil effect. In France the st&lls d the clergy were in 
the choir beyond the transept, and alt to the eastward of the 
intereectiou wna reserved for them, the nave being wholly appro- 
priated to the laity. This was an intelligible and artistic arrangement 
of the space ; but in Spain the stalls of the clergy were projected 
into the nave, blocking up the perspective in every direction, and 
destroying ita usefulness as a congregational space, where the laity 
could assemble or be addressed by the bishop or clergy. Worse than 

t^MotBurgiKCMbsitnl. (IMimmI ftum Stnct'b) Scala 100 (t. to 1 la. 

thb, it separated the clergy from the high altar and Capilla Mayor, in 
which it was situated, so that a railed gangway had to be kept open to 
allow them to pass to and fro.* When the Spaniards determined that 
this was the proper liturgical arrangement for a church, had they been 
sa artistic people they would have invented an appropriate shell to 

' The SpaniBh ammgement has re- I in Spain, and apparently aa little felt, 
cently been adapted is WcetmiiiBter In monaslic oharchea the choir ii alwajs 
Abbey, moro by accident than doaifia ; in a gallery aboro tho we>t doorway. 
with an oSbot oi diraalroiu m anything | 

VOL. II. 2 I 



The external appearance of this oharch ia very much less beautiful 
than that of the interior. It b, however, so enDumbered, that a good 
Tiew of it can hardly be obtained, and what is seen has been so much 
altered as to have lost its original character. The north-western tower, 
in granite, of the facade is fine, though late (1428-1479) and hardly 
worthy of so grand a building. Its oompanion was terminated with an 
Italian dome in the last century, and both in height and design ia quite 
incongruous with the rest. 

If at Toledo we find a noble interior encased in an indifferent 
hnsk, the contrary is the case at Burgos. Although very much smaller, 
being only originally de- 
signed to be 90 ft. wide 
by about 310 ft. long, 
and all its dimensions 
reduced in proportion, 
still externally it is as 
picturesque and effective 
a design as can be found 
anywhere in Europe. 
The western fa^e (1442) 
is essentially a German 
design, originally consist- 
ing of three portals 
deeply recessed and rich- 
ly sculptured, and still 
crowned with two spires 
of open work, and is 
exquisitely proportioned 
to the raze of the build- 
ing, though its details 
are open to criticism. 
It is well supported by 
the cimborio or dome at 
the intersection, though this is even later, having been erected to 
replace the old dome which fell in 1539, and seems not to have been 
completed till 1567. Beyond this again,^ the extreme east, rises the 
chapel of the Connestabile, erected about 1487, and though this also is 
impure in detail, it is beautiful in outline, and groups pleasingly with 
the other features of the design. The effect of the interior is very 
much injured by the four great masses of masonry which were intra- 
duoed as piers to support the cimborio when it was rebuilt ; and which, 
with the " Coro " thrust as nsual into the nave, greatly destroy the 
appearance of the building. On the other hand, the richness of the 
details of the Capilla Mayor and of the Connestabile chapel, together 
with the variety and elaborateness of the other chapels, make up an 

3 I 2 



French than ahnost any other church in Spain. BnrgoB, on the 
contrary (Woodcnt No. 946), poasefleee featnrea not to be found in 
France, Noch as the round-arched head to the triforinni, and the rounded 
form of the clerestory intersecting vault. The tracery of the clerestory 
irindowB ib also peculiar in such a eituation, and altogether there is & 
Southern feeling about the vhole design which we misa at Leon. 

Oviedo is another example of the same class, and generally it may 
be said that the Spanish cathedrals which were commenced in the 
first half of the 13th century are all more or less distinctly French in 
design. But the Spaniards were again woi^ing themselves free from 
their masters, and towards the end of the century and during the 
next erected a class of churches 
with wide naves and widely 
spaced piers which were very 
unlike anything to be found in 
France ; tatd, if they cannot be 
considered as original, their 
affinities must be looked for 
rather in Italy than to the north I 
of the Pyrenees. 

Among these churches the ( 
moat remarkable group ts that 
still existing in Bwcelona. That 
city seems during the 1 4th 
century to have had a season of 
great prosperity, when the cathe- 
dral and other churches were 
rebuilt on a scale of great 
magnificence^ and with special 
reference to the convenience of 
the laity as contradistinguished 
from the liturgical wants of the ' 
clergy. The cathedral seems to 

have been commenced about 1298, and been tolerably far advantwd in 
1329. Its internal length is about 300 ft., its width, exclusive of the 
side chapels, about 85 ft., so that it is not a large church, but is remark- 
able for the lightness and wide spacing of its piers, and generally for the 
elegance of its details. Looked at from & purely esthetic point of view, 
it has neither the grandeur nor solemnity of the older and more solid 
style ; but gloom and grandeur are not necessary accompaniments of a 
city church, and where cheerfulness combined with elegance are con- 
sidered appropriate, few examples more fully meet these conditions 
than this church. Considerable efibct is obtained by the buttresses of 
the nave being originally designed, as was so frequently the case in the 
South of France, as internal features, and the windows being small are 



Pabt n. 

not aeen ia the general perspective. This sapplies the reqaisite ftppeor- 
&nce of strength, in which the central piers &re rather deficient, while 
the repetition of the side chapels, two in each bay, gives that perspectin 
which the wide spacing of the central aapporta fails to snpplj. Alto- 
gether the design seems very carefully studied, and the result is mora 
satisfactory than in most Spanish churches. 

The syst«m which was introduced in this cathedral was carried a . 
step further in Sta. Maria del Mar (1328-1383). There the oentnl 
vault was made square and quadripartite, as was frequently the OMS 
in Italy; the vault of the aisles oblong, on exactly the oontraiy 
principle to that adopted in the North of Eurc^. Again, howcrver, the 
equilibrium is to some extent restored by each bay oontaining thi«e 

side chapels, though the effect would have been 

better if these had been deeper and men 

important. Such a design is inappropriate 

when a choir is necessarily iatrodnoed to 

separate the clergy from the 

laity, but for a congrega- 
tional church it is superior 

to most other designs of the 

Middle Ages. 

A third church, Sta. 

Maria del Pi (1329-1353), 

carries this principle (me 
■' step farther — this time, 

however, evidently borrowed 

from such churches as those 

of Alby (Woodcut No. 568) 

or Toulouse (Woodcut No. 
' 569). It has been carried 
Mt. stL UarUdeiMir '^i'' with the Utmost sim- , 

^'fciMflo'i.TilT'"' Pl'^ty- The clea"" internal 

length is nearly 200 ft., the 
clear width upwards of 50 ft. Such a church would easily c 
2000 worshippers seated where all could see and hear all that was 
going on. Though it may be deficient in some of those poetic element* 
which charm to much in our Northern churches, there is a simple 
grandeur in the design which compensates for the loss. 

The church (Woodcut No. 950) at Manresa is very siniilar 
in design to Sta. Maria del Mar, only carried a step farther, and in the 
wrong direction. From wall to wall it is 100 ft. wide, and 200 ft. 
long, and is thus so comparatively short that we tolBS the perspective 
which is the great charm in Northern cathedrala Still if it were not 
that the central aisle is blocked up by the choir, as is usual in Spain, 
it would ))e a veiy noble church. Its central aisle, which possesses a 

Btnrt.) I 

Bk. Vril. Ch. II. CHURCH AT MANRESA. 487 

clear width of 56 ft would be a very noble place of assembly for a 
congregation Tl ere is, at the same t me a simplicity and propnety 

(From Stntt.) 

about its details and the airti 
been surpassed while at the a 

The Span nr Is b l inj; 
vaulted halls, an I f und out 
carried the pnnLiplc fa beyo da \tl n^ oa il la side of the Pyrenees 

i^ement of t? apse wb ch have seldom 
no tune they are charactenstic of Spain 
ce ^ra-sped the dea of these spac ou» 
f constructing them they 



Their most sttccessful effort m this direction was at Qerona. The 
choir of tt church of the usual French pattern had been erected there 
in the beginning of the 14th century (13121), but it had renuuned 
unfinished till 1416, when after much consultation it was determined 
to carry out the design of a certain Quillermo Boffiy, who proposed to 
add a nave without pillars, of the same breadth as the centre »nd side 
aisles of the choir. As will be seen from the plan, it oonsista of a 
ball practically of two squares, the clear width being 73 ft., the length 
160 ft. Considering that 40 ft. is about the normal width <d the 
naves of the largest French and English cathedrals, sach a span is 
gigantic, though with the internal buttresses 
of the side chapels it presented no great 
difficulty of construction. Indeed, when we 
remember that in their vaulted balls tlie 
Romans had adopted 83 ft. (vol. L p. 331) 
OS the normal span of their intersecting 
vaults, it is not its novelty or mechanical 
boldness that should surprise us so much as 
its appropriateness for Christian worship. 
As might be expected, there is a little 
awkwardness in the junction of the two 
designs. It is easy to see what an cppor- 
tunity the eastern end of the great nave 
offered to a true artist, and bow a 
Northern architect would have availed 
himself of it, and by canopies and statues 
r painting have mode it a masterpiece of 
decoration. It is too much to expect this 
in Spain ; but it probably was originally 
painted, or at least intended to be. Otlier- 
wise it is almost impossible to understand 
the absence of string-courses or architectural framings throvghoat. 
But, even as it stands, the church at Gerona must be looked aptHi as 
one of the most successful designs of the Middle Ages, and one of the 
most original in Spain. 

The eimborio had somewhat gone out of fashion in the NorUi of 
Spain in the l.'jtli century, and with these very wide naves had beooine 
not only difficult tu construct, but somewhat inappropriate. 

Still there are examples, such as that at Valencia (Woodcut No, 953), 
which, externally at leo-ft, are very nuble objects. The church at 
Valencia seems to have been erficted in 1404, and probably it was 
originally intended to have added a. spire or external roof <d some sort 
to the octagon. So completed, the tower would have been a noble 
cential feature to any cliuix'h, though hardly so perfect in design as 
that of the old cathedral ut Sahmiunea (Wuudcut No. 935). 

(Rtdum] fruni 81 


Of about the same age (1401) is the great cathedral of Seville, the 
largest and in some respects the grandest of Mediaeval cathedrals. 
Its plaa can, however, hardly be said to be Gothic, as it was erected 

ig But. (From Stmt.) 

on the site of the Mosque which was cleared awaj to make room for 
it, and was of exactly the same dimensions in plan (Woodcut Ko. 954). 
It consists of a parallelc^om 415 ft. by 298, exclusive of the sepulchral 
chapel behind the altar, which is a cinque-cento addition. It tbuf< 
covers about 124,000 sq. ft. of gniuud, more than a third in excess of 



the cathedral at Toledo (75,000), and more than Milan (108,000 ft.), 
whicli, next to Seville, is the largest of Medieval creations. Tfae 
central aisle is 56 ft. wide from centre to centre of the columns, tha 
Hide-aiales 40 ft., in the exact proportion of 7 to 10, or of the side nf 
an isosceles rigbt-tmgled triangle to the hypothenuse. As will be 

Clmborio ofCithcdnl >t Valtnel*. (From Ctajni- 

ezplaine<l hereafter, this is the proportion arrived at from the intro- 
duction of an octagonal dome in the centre of the building, thoagb it 
may have arisen here from the existence of an octa^nal court in the 
centre of the mosque ; but, be that as it may, it is a far more agreeable 
proportion than the double dimen-siona generally adopted by Gothic 
architect.*!, and probably the most pleasing that ha.^ yet been hit npcoL 



Unfortunately no section of the cathedral has been published, but the 
nave is said to be 145 ft. in height, and the side-aisles seem to be in as 
pleasing proportion to it in height as they are in plan, so that, though 
different from the usually received notions of what a Gothic design 
should be, it is an invention that should well bear to have been further 
followed out. Perhaps it might have been, had it not come so late. 


^ ^ ^'m? 

^ ^ ^ 

^ ^ i^ ^ ^ 


PUiu of CAthedral at SevUle. Sotle 100 ft. to 1 in. 

The cathedral was only finished about 1520, when St. Peter's at Rome 
was well advanced. 

The architect of this noble building is not known,* but he was 
probably a German acting under Spanish inspiration, as at Milan we 
find a German carrying out an Italian design with just that admixture 
of foreign feeling which seems to prevail at Seville. When, however, 
we consider what was done at Barcelona so shortly before, or at Segovia 



Part IL 

so soon afterwards, we need hardly be surprised if a Spanish archi- 
tect really built this cathedral also. Those features which to us have 
a foreign aspect may really be peculiarities forced upon him by having 
to suit his church to the lines of a mosque, and there may be forms in 
Andalusian architecture derived from Moorish examples with which 
we are not so familiar as with those which the Northern provinces 
derived from France. But, be this as it may, Spain may well feel 
pride in possessing a cathedral which is certainly the largest of those 
of the Middle Ages as well as far more original in design than Toledo 
or any that were built under French influence. These remarks apply 
only to the interior. Externally it never was completed, and those 
parts which are finished were erected so late in the style that their 
details are far from pleasing in form or constructively appropriate. 

Late Spanish Gothic. 

The last stage of Spanish Gothic was not less remarkable than those 
which preceded it, and perhaps more original. At the time when 
other Continental nations were turning their attention to the intro- 
duction of the classical styles, Spain still clung to the old traditions, 
and actually commenced Gothic cathedrals in the 16th century. A 
new cathedral was designed in the year 1513, for Salamanca, to super- 
sede the old one ; and another very similar both in dimensions and 
style was commenced at Segovia in 1523.^ Both these churches are 
practically five-aisled, but as they have three free aisles and two 
ranges of chapels between the internal buttresses, making a total 
internal width of 160 ft., with an internal length of twice that 
dimension, no fault is to be found with their internal proportions. 
But their details want that purity and subordination so characteristie 
of the earlier styles. 

Their great peculiarity, however, consists in the extreme richness 
and elaboration of their vaults. In this respect they more resemble 
St. Jacques, Liege (Woodcut No. 681), and some of the late German 
churches, than anything to be found nearer home. But, wherever 
derived from, the practice of thus ornamenting the vaults at this late 
date contrasts singularly with what was done in earlier stages of the 

One of the defects of Spanish architecture, after the earliest 
examples in the round-arched forms, is the poverty of its vaults 
Generally they are like those of the French ; but owing to the vast 
extent they attained at Gerona, Manresa, and elsewhere, the one lean 

^ The Church of St. Eustache at Paris 
was commenced as late as 1532, and, 
although its plan is almost as Gothic as 

thoee of the Spanish examples, the detafls 
of the French church are far men 
tially Benaissance throughout 


nb in the centre and the absence of any ndge-nb make themselves 

more painfully felt than ~ 

1 6th century the archi 

tects tn«d to obviate 

this defect, it was not 

done as m England by 

constructive lines repre 

seating the arches, but 

by waving curved lines 

spread capriciously over 

the vault, which woa 

thus certainly ennched, 

but can hardly be said 

to hare been adorned 

la one or two m 
stances, the late Gothic 
architects aimed at the 
introduction of nev. 
prmciples, not perhaps 
m the best taste, but, 
still so stnking as to 
ment attention In the 
church at Villena 
(1498-1511), for in 
stani-e, all the columns 
are ornamented with 
spiral flutings so boldly 
executed as to be very 
effective ; and as this spiral ornament 
out the design, and the parts are sufficiently massive not to look 
weakened in consequence, the 
whole design must be admitted to 
be both pleasing and original. 

The exteriors of these 16th- 
century churches have a much more 
modern look than their interiors. 
From the buttresses being internal, 
the external walb are perfectly 
flat, generally terminating upwards 
by a cornice more or less classical 
in design. The windows are fre- 
quently without tracery, and are 

ornamented with balconies, and Renaissance ornaments are i 
intermixed with those of Gothic form in a manner more picturesque 
than constructive. At times, however, they exhibit such a gorgeous 

listently carried through- 


exuberance of fancy that it is impossible to avoid admiring, though we 
feel at the same time that it would be heresy to the principles of 
correct criticism to say that such a style was legitimate. 

Among the minor examples of the age, perhaps the most remarkable 
is the church or chapel of San Juan de los Reyes at Toledo, built by 
Ferdinand and Isabella as a sepulchral chapel for themselves, though 
not used for that purpose. It is thus the exact counterpart of our 
Henry YII.'s Chapel, and of the church at Brou in Bresse. As its 
founders were at the time of its erection among the richest and most 
prosperous sovereigns in Europe, all that wealth could do was lavished 
on its ornamentation. It is as rich as our example, and richer than 
the French one. But, on the whole, the palm must be awarded the 
English architect. There is more constructive skill, and the con- 
struction is better expressed, at Westminster, than either at Toledo or 
Brou ; though it is difficult not to feel that the money in all these 
cases might have been better expended on a larger and purer style 
of art. 

Some parts of the church of San Miguel at Xeres exceed even this 
in richness and elaborateness of ornament, and surpass anything found 
in Northern cathedrals, unless it be the tabernacle-work of some tombs, 
or the screens of some chapels. In these it is always applied to 
small and merely ornamental parts. In Spain it is frequently spread 
over a whole church, and thus, what in a mere subordinate detail 
would be beautiful, on such a scale becomes fatiguing, and is decidedly 
in very bad taste. 

It would be tedious to attempt to enumerate or describe the other 
cathedrals of Spain, or the numerous conventual or collegiate churches, 
many of which are still in use, with their cloisters and conventual 
buildings nearly complete. In this respect Spain is nearly as rich as 
France ; while she possesses, in proportion to her population, a larger 
number of important parochial churches than that country, though 
inferior in that respect to England. The laity seem during the 
Middle Ages to have been of more importance in the Spanish Church 
than they were north of the Pyrenees, and the tendency of the 
architecture therefore was to provide for their accommodation. I^ 
however, any such feeling then existed, it was carefully stamped out 
by the Inquisition after the fall of Granada. It would be interest- 
ing, however, to trace it back,^and try to ascertain the cause whence 
it arose. Was it that the Aryan blood of the Goths was then 
more prevalent, and that the Iberian race has since become more 
dominant 1 Whatever the cause, it is one of those problems on which 
architecture may hope to throw some light, and to which, ocmse- 
quently, it is most desirable that the attention of architects should 
be turned. 

Dk. VIII. Ch. II. 


MoRBsco Stvlb. 

While (rothic cliurches were being erected under French influencs 
in the north and centre of Spain, another stjle was developing itself 
under Moorish influence in the south, which in the hands of a more 
artistic peuple than the Spaniards might have become as beautiful as 
any other in Europe. It failed, however, to attain anything like 
completeness, primarily because the Spaniards were incapable of 
elaborating any artistic forms, but also perhaps bei^use the two races 
came to hat« one another, and the dominant people to abhor whatever 
lielonged to those they were so cruelly persecuting. 

If we knew more of the ethnic relations of the Moors, who 
conquered Spain in the 8th century, we might perhaps be able to 
predicate whether it were possible for such dissimilar parents to 
produce a fertile hybriil. It seems certain, however, that the Moors 
did not belong to any Turanian race, or traces of their tombs would be 
found ; but none such exist. Nor did they belong to any of the great 
building races, for during the whole of their sojourn in Spain they 
showed no constructive ability, no skill in arrangement of plans, and 
no desire for architectural magniticence. But they were a rich, 
luxurious, and refined people possessing an innate knowledge of colour 
and an exquisite perception of the beauty of form and detail. They 
were, in fact, among the most perfect ornamental is ts we are acquainted 
with, but they were not architects. Had the inhabitants of Toledo 
from the 1 Ith century been French, or any Celtic race, the combina- 
tion of their constructive skill with the ta-ste in detail of the Moors 
could hardly have failed to produce the 
happiest results. As it was, after a few 
feeble efforts the style died out, but not 
without leaving some very remarkable 
specimens of architectural art, though on 
a small scale. They were also only in 
perishable plaster, which, though well 
suited to the style of the Moors, is a 
material which no architectural people 
ever would have employed. 

As might be expected, the principal 
examples of this style are to be found in 
or about Toledo, but specimens exist in 
almost every province of Spain up to the 
very roots of the Pyrenees, and its 
influence is often felt in the extreme richi 
which the architects of Spain 
expressing themselves in Gothic i 

of ornamentation into 
ivere often betrayed, even when 
Renaissance details. 


Pakt n. 

Among the examples at Toledo the two best interiors seem to be 
the church of Sta. Maria la filanca and that of Nuestra Seuora del 
Transito, both originally built as synagogues, though afterwards 
appropriated to Chriatiau purposes. The first is said to have been 
erected in the 12th century, and was appropriated by the Christians in 
1405. As will be seen by the plan, it is an irregular quadrangle, about 
87 ft. by 69 ft. in width across the centre, and divided into five aisles 
by octagonal piers supporting horse-shoe arche.^. Above these now 

SU. Mull U BUnct. (FnmVUIi 

runs what may bo called a blind clerealory, though it appears as if 
light were originally admitted through piercings in it. Th« objecta 
are so dissimilar that it is difficult to institute a very distinct 
oomparison between the synagogue and a contemporary Oothic church 
ot the same dimensions ; but it may safely be said ttiat if the 
Northern style is grander in conception, this is far more elegant in 
detcut : the essential difTerence lying in the fact that the Gothic style 
always had, or aimed at having, a vault, and consequently forced the 
architects to work and think — the very difficulty of the task being 
thus the cause ot its success. The Saracens in Spain, on the contrary. 

Bk. VIII. Ch. II. 




never attempted either » vault or a dome, but were always conteat with 
an easily constructed wooden roof, calling for no ingenuity to design, 
and no thought how to convert its mechanical exigences into artistic 
beauties. The Moorish architects could play with their style, and con- 
sequently produced fascinating elegances of detail ; the Gothic archi' 
lects, on the contraiy, were forced to work like men, and their result 
appeals to our higher intellectual wants ; though in doing so they 
frequently neglected the polish and lighter graces of style which ore so 
plessing in the semi-Asiatic art of the South of Spain. 

The other synagogue— del Transito — we know was completed in 
1366. It is merely a large room, of pleasing proportion, the walls of 
which are plain and solid up to about three-fourths of their height. 
Above this a clerestory 
admits the light in a manner 
singularly agreeable in a hot 
clmiate The roof >s of 
wood, of the form called 
Arte*tnado in Spam, from 
its being something in the 
form of an inverted trough 
— with coupled tie-beams 
across, so that, though ele- 
gant in detail it has no 
constructi\e merit, and the 
whole depends for its effect, ' 
like all Moorish work in 

Spain, on its ornamental ° lo so ^ sn''"' 

details. ta. iyMntni. a*rv'>. (Fr.>iii'M^ii. Arcb.') 

All the churches we 
know of in this style date within the period comprised between the 
faU of Toledo (1085) and that of Granada (1492). During that time 
the Moors were still sufficiently powerful to be respected and their art 
tolerated. After their expulsion from their last stronghold, fear being 
remo^'ed, bigotry became triumphant, and persecution followed, not 
only of the people and their religion, but of everything that recalled 
either to remembrance. 

It is possible that some larger and more important churches than 
those we now find were erected during this period in this style ; but if 
so, they have [lerished. One of the largest at Toledo, San Bartolomeo, 
has an apse (Woodcut No. 959) little mor« than 30 ft. across over all, 
and others, such as Santa Fe, Santa Leocadia, San Eugenio, or Santa 


' Tlie room ciilled PamDimfo in the 1 i» of preoiselj Bimilsr dietgn to this, onljt 
llDiTerutyof AIaa1&(seeWooilcut No. S!), carried ont with Renftiesuice iastead of 
Hislor; ot Modem Archi'*'ture, toI. i.) I Moorish detail. 

VOL. II. 2 K 


Isabel, are all smaller, Ht. Ursula alone being of about the same 
dimensioas with St. Bartolomeo. The decoration of the apse of the 
Utter will afford a fair idea of the style of detail adopted in these 
churches. For brick architecture it b singularly appropriate. It 
admits of more or less light, as may be required. It is crowned by » 
cornice of pleasing profile, and the whole is simpler and better than the 
many-buttressed and pinnacled apses of the Gothic architects. 

A more pictures<]ue example, though not so pure as that litai 
quoted, is found in the little chapel of Humanejos in Estremadura 
(Woodcut No. 960). As will be observed from the woodcut, there is 

some 13th-century tracery in its windows, thus revealing its date as 
well as betraying its origin, and but for which it might almost bo 
mistaken for an example of pure Saracenic architecture. 

This ia even more the in a beautiful chapel in the monastery 
of the Huelgas, near Burgos, whicli, were it not tor some Gothic foliage 
of the 14th century, introduced whei-e it can hardly be observed, might 
easily pass for a fragment of the Alhambra. The some is true of many 
parts of the churches at Seville. That of La Feria, for instance, and 
the apse of the church of the Dominicans at Calatayud, are purely 
in thLs style, and most beautiful and elaborate specimens of their 

Very pleasing cxamplof! of the adapUlion of Moorish art to Chris. 
tian pui'poscs are to be found in various churches throughout Spain 

Bk. viii. ch. ir. 


That of St. Roman at Toledo ' U a very pleasing and pure example of 
the style, but neither so picturesque nor bo characteristic as that at 
Tlescas (Woodcut No. 961), not far from Madrid, which, though 
differing essentially from any Gothic steeple, ia still in every part 
appropriately designed, and, notwithstanding its strongly marked 

horizontal lines, by no means deticient in that aspiring character bo 
admirable in Gothic steeples. 

Another remarkable example is the tower and roof of the church of 
St. PanI, Saragoza. It is so unlike anything else in Europe, that it 
might pass for a church in the Crimen or the steppes of Tartary. As 

* Au engtKTing or tbii tower iii given i plebi cDumeratioD of all the ezainplca 
in Btreet'* 'Gothic Architecture in BpftiD.' the iljlo to be Tound in Toledo, 
paige 22S, uKompMiied with a vcr; com- 1 

2 K 2 



Fxn n. 

if to add to its foreign aspect, the tiles of the tfxd are coloured and 
glated, thus rendering the contrast with Gothic art stronger than even 
that presented in the details and forma of the architecture. 

lite Church of St. ThomS at Toledo has a tower so perfectly 
Moorish in all its details, that but for its form it might as well be 
classed among the specimens cf Moorish as of Mozarabic architectur& 

. (Pram VUU Amll.) 

Throughout Spain there are many of the same class, which were un- 
doubtedly erected by the Christiaas. Both in this cotintry and in 
Sicily it is never safe to assume that because the style of a building 
is Moorish, even purely so, the structure must belong to the time when 
the Moors possessed the country, or to a happy interval, if any such 
ttxistAd, when a more than usually tolerant reign permitted them 
to erect edifices for themselves under the rule of their Christian 

Bt. Vm. Ch. II. MOBESCO STYLE. 501 

Sometimes we find Moorish details mixed np with those of Gothic 
architecture in a manner elsewhere unknown, as for instance in the 
doorway, in Woodcut No. 963, from the house of the Ablala at Valencia. 
The woodwork is of purely Moorish design, the stonework c£ the bad 
unconstructive Gothic of the late Spanish architects, altogether making 
up a combination more picturesque than beautiful, at least in an 
architectural point of view. 

VdendL (From dupsT.) 



Mnimittic Buili1iti(» — Munlripal Buildings — Csttlet. 

Monastic Buildings. 
)ned. tri most of the great churches described above 
there were attached 



Spanish architects seem, in consequence, to have revelled in the designu 
of their cloisters, and from the simple arcade of Gerona (1117) to the 
exuberant caprice of San Juan de Ids Reyes, they form a series of 
examples completely illustrative of the progress of Spanish art ; perhaps 
more so than even the churches to which they are attached. Some of 
the cloisters have octagonal projections with lavatories. 

The favourite form of the earlier examples, like those in the South 
of France (Woodcut No 
559) IS that of an open 
arcade supported < n 
c )upled columns on the 
capitals of which the 
architects delighted to 
lavish all their powers 
of vanetj and design 
That at the convent of 
the Huelgas (W>odcut 
No 9b4) gives a fan 
idea of the mode in 
which they are tarned 
out and is certainly far 
m;)re appropriate than 
the tracened arches of 
Northern examples 

which without glazing 
are mi st unmeaning 
Dunng the I4tli and 
15th centuries the 
Spaniaixls adopted them, 
and some of the bi^t 
specimens of their trac- 
eries are to be f.jund 
io the cloister arcades. 
Having gone sii far, 
however, they went on, 

and carried the idea to its legitimate conclusini 
whole opening with a sci'ei'n of pieivod tracery. 
example of this style is that found at Tara7.o: 
cloister itself ia in hrick, but not even plastered ; the openings are 
tilled with stone slabs pierced with the most varied and elegant Gothic 
tracery. It would seem a more reasonable plan to hav<> used stone for 
the structure and terra-cotta for the openings : but as it is, the effect 
of the whole is extremely pleasing. It is, however, more like an Oriental 
than an European design, and reveals as cli-ai'ly as the churches 
of Toledo the continued presence of the Muur in the land of Spain. 

by filling up the 
The most complete 

a in Aragon. The 


Municipal Bdildihgs. 

Spun does not seem to have possessed, during the Middle Ages, 
any municipalities of sufficient important^ to require buildings of an 

important or pennanent character for their occtaomodation. Then 
are, it is true, one or two Lonjas, or places for the aBBemblj of 
merchants, which are of Home magnificance. But these were erected 
in the very verge of the Renaissance, and betra; all the i 

Bk. VIII. Ch. hi. 



an expiring style. That at Valencia is, perhaps, the beat example. 
Internollj it has twisted flut«d columns aimil&r to those at Villena ' 
(Woodcut No. 9.56). The two buildings are said to have been designed 
by the same architect, but the columns in this instance are much more 
attenuated than in the church. The exterior has at least the merit of 
expressing the internal arrangements. On one side of the central 
tower is the great hall, on the other the public rooms, and above 
these an upper storey with an open arcade. The last is a feature 
very frequently found in Spain, not only in Mediteval palaces, but in 
those of the Renaissance period, and wherever it exists it is one of the 
most pleasing that can be found ; it gives all the shadow of a cornice, 
without its inconvenient and useless projection, and crowns the whole 
design in an appropriate oad pleasing manner. 


One example must sutRce to recall attention to the fact of the 

existence of " Chateaux en Espagne." On the plains of Castille they 

are not only numerous, but of great maguiiicence ; erected apparently 

before the fear of inroads from the Moors of Granada had passed 

N). CanlectCoca, CutUle. (Fnim VIU* AmlL) 

away, or at all event when a military aristocracy was indiq»enaable 
to save the nation from reconquest by these dreaded t 


these the Kasr at Segovia is one of the best known and most 
frequently drawn. It has the advantage of being still inhabited, and 
its turrets retained, till recently, their tall conical roofs, which gave 
it so peculiar and local an aspect.^ It also possesses the advantage — 
rare in Spanish castles — of standing on the edge of a tall rock, to 
which it has been fitted with almost Oriental taste. 

Another favourable specimen is the now ruined castle of Cocos, 
Its tall towera and clustering turrets still attest its former magni- 
licence, and point to a local style of defensive architecture differing 
from that of any other part of Europe, but even more picturesque 
than the best examples of either France or England. The castle at 
Olite is still more local in its style. Many other examples might be 
quoted ; but they hardly belong to the fine-art branch of Arcliitecture, 
and thus scarcely come within the scope of this work, though a 
monograph of the military architecture of Spain during the Middle 
Ages would be almost as interesting as that of her ecclesiastical 

* These were destroyed by a fire which occurred between thirty and forty 
years ago. 

Hk. VIII. Ch. IV. PORTUGAL. 507 



Cliurcli of Batulha — Alrobatja — Bolom. 

So little attention has lM*en paid to the subj(»ct of Gothic architecture 
in Portugal, that it is by -no means clear whether it contains any 
churches of interest l)elon<;ing to that style. There are certainly 
some s]>len(lid remains at IJelem nt»ar Lisbon, and fra<(ments at least 
elsewhere ; but those who have described them are so little ({ualified 
for the task by previous study, that it is imi)ossible to place ivliance 
on the correctness of their as.sertions n^«j:arding them. One church, 
howev^er, — that at liatalha, — has met with a different fate, and 
having arrested the attention of Mi*. Muii)hy, *' the illustrator of the 
Alhambra," was drawn by him, and published in a splendid folio 
w«)rk at the end of the last centuiy. As might 1m^ .supposed from the 
date of the work, the illustrations do not (|uiie meet the exigences of 
modern science, but it is at all events (me of the best illustrated 
churches in the Peninsula, and seems in some re.sp(jcts to \xi worthy 
of the distinctit)n, being certainly the linest church in Portugal. 

It was enjcted by King John of Portugal, in fullilment of a vow 
made during a Imttle with his namesake of Spain in the year 1385, 
and was comj>leted in all essentials in a veiy short peiiod of time. 
From the plan (Woodcut No. 9G8) it will be s<H^^n that the form of the 
original church is that of an Italian basilica — a three-aisled nave 
ending in a transept with five chapt^ls : the whole length internally 
l>eing 2G4 ft., and the width of the nave 72 ft. 4 in. It is therefore 
a small building compai*ed with of the Gothic churches hitherto 
descril>ed. To the right of the enti-auce, under an octagonal canopy 
which once supported a German open-work spire, are the tombs of 
the founder and of his wife Philippa, daughter of John of Gaunt ; 
beyr)nd this the octagon expands into a square, in a very Eastern 
f».shion, to accommodate the U)mbs of other members of the royal 
family who are buried around. The whole design of this part is one 
of the most suitable for a family sepulchre to }>c found anywhere. 
The wonder, howcvei*, of the Batalha, or rather what would have 



beoQ so had it been completed, is the tomb-houae which Elmauuel the 
Fortunate commeaced for himself at the east end of the church. 
Similar chapels at Burgos and Uurcia have already been noticed, but 
this was to have surpassed them all, and if completed would have been 
the moat gorgeous mausoleum erected during the Middle Ages. 

It is curious to observe how the tradition of the circular tomb- 
house behind the altar remained constant in remote provinces to the 
latest age. The plan of this 
church is virtually that of 
St. Martin at Toura, of SL 
Benigne at Dijon {Woodcuts 
Nos. 675, 577), and of other 
churches in Aquitania. Tt 
is easy to see how by 
removing the intennediaU 
walls this basilica would 
become a chevet church, 
complete except for the 
difference in the span of the 
two parts. Had the mauso- 
I '^ ' }~~^ leum been finished, the w^l 

^^*j-fl^ ^ "^^ separating it from the chnrch 

^^™^^B "^fP would not improbably have 

been removed. 

The plan of this tomb- 
house is interesting as being 
that of the largest Gothic 
dome attempted, and as 
showing how happily the 
Gothic forms adapt them- 
selves to this purpose, and 
how easily any amount of 
abutment may be obtained 
in this style with the utmost 
degree of lightness and the 
mr«t admirable play of per- 
spective ; indeed no construc- 
tive difHculties intervene to 
prevent this dome having been twice its present diameter (65 ft.) ; in 
which case it would have far surpassed Sta. Maria del Fiore and all 
the pseudo-classical erfictiona that have since disfigured the fair face 
of Europe. 

Generally speaking, neither the proportions nor the details of this 
church are good ; it was erected in a country where the principUa of 
Gothic art were either mLsappreh ended or unknown, and when a 

at niitallil. (Clul 

Bk. Vin. Ch. IV. CONVENT AT BELEM. 509 

lavish amount of expenditure in carving and ornament was thought 
to be the best means of attaining beauty. The church from this 
cause may almost be considered a failure ; its two sepulchral chapels 
being in fact by far the most interesting and beautiful parts of the 
structure. It may be observed also that the open-work spire agrees 
much better with the semi-Oriental decoration of the churches both 
of Burgos and Batalha than with the soberer forms of the more 
Northern style. One is almost tempted to fancy that the Germans 
borrowed the idea from Spain rather than that Spain imported it 
from the North. Till we know more of the age of the cathedrals of 
Leon, Oviedo, and other cities in the North of Spain, the point cannot 
be determined ; but it seems by no means certain but that further 
knowledge will compel the Germans to resign their claim to this 
their single alleged invention in the pointed style. 

Next in importance to the church at Batalha is that at AlcobaQa, 
commenced in the year 1 1 48, and finished in 1222. It is a simple 
and grand Cistercian abbey -church, not unlike that at Pontigny 
(Woodcut No. 643) in style. Its total length is 360 ft. ; its height 
about 64. The nave is divided from the side-aisles by twelve piers, the 
arches of which support vaults of the same height over the three 
divisions — a circumstance which must detract considerably from the 
beauty of its proportions. The east end is terminated by a chevet 
(called by the Portuguese a cluzrola) with nine chapels. 

The monastery attached to this church, formerly one of the most 
splendid in the world, was burnt by the French in their retreat from 

At Coimbra there are still some remains of Gothic churches ; the 
principal of these is the old cathedral, which, though much destroyed, 
still retains many features belonging to the same age as that of 

In the same town is the church of Sta. Cruz, rebuilt by French 
architects in the year 1515, in the then fashionable flamboyant style 
of their country; and in complete contrast to this is the small but 
interesting Round Gx>thic church of Sta. Salvador, erected about the 
year 1169. 

The church of the convent at Belem near Lisbon, though one of 
the latest, was intended by its founder, Emanuel the Fortunate, to 
be one of the most splendid in the kingdom. It was commenced in 
1500, but not finished till long after the Renaissance had set in, so 
that (in the interior especially) it is very much disfigured by incon- 
gruities of every sort. The southern portal, however, is wholly in 
the style of the first years of the 16th century, and is as elaborate an 
example of the exuberant ornamentation of that age as can be found 
in the Peninsula. It is, of course, full of faults, and by no means 
worthy of imitation ; but its richness in figure sculpture and in 


The Portuguese example is half a century more modem, for which 
allowance must be made. It is also more delicate, as the work of a 
Southern people might be expected to be. Moreover, it is the work 
of men among whom the style arose, and who consequently were 
more at home in it than the Scotch builder could pretend to be ; but 
notwithstanding all these deductions, there is a similarity between 
the style of the two buildings so remarkable as to leave no doubt of 
their common origin. 

The other churches of Portugal, such as those of Braga, Guima- 
raens, <fec., seem to have been of late flamboyant style, and generally 
are so much modernised that the little beauty they ever possessed is 
concealed or destroyed by modem details. 

Notwithstanding the late age of the principal examples and the 
apparent paucity of those of an earlier time, it is still possible 
that Portugal may contain much to interest the archaeologist. But 
travelling has hitherto been inconvenient and slow in that country, 
and it has not yet been visited, or at least described, by any one 
familiar with the peculiarities of Mediaeval art. When properly 
explored, we may be surprised at the treasures it contains. On the 
other hand, it is by no means impossible that the ^ Handbook of 
Portugal' is correct when it asserts that <' There is no European 
country which has less interesting ecclesiology than Portugal. There 
are certainly not 150 old churches in the kingdom. The French 
invasion, the great earthquake, and the rage for rebuilding in the 
18th century, have destroyed nearly all." 

Let us hope it may not be so, but at present we have little beyond 
the hope to rely on. 






Note. — In consequence of the re-arrangement of the work, as explained abore, by 
which all the Indian chapters are taken out of it and put together in a separate 
volume by themselves, the third part of the original work is reduced to very limited 
dimensions. It consists in the first place of those styles of Saracenic art which are 
in any way connected with the European styles, and which consequently must be 
studied together with them in order to be understood. But all the Indian develop- 
ments of the same style are omitted ; first, because they have no real or direct con- 
nection with the Western styles ; and, secondly, because their affinities are much 
more intimate with the local styles of Hindostan than with those of Europe. When, 
however, this great branch is cut off, the Saracenic styles west of the Indus do not 
occupy a very important place in a general history of architecture — nothing that 
can compare with the great Christian or classical styles, and hardly even with those 
of Assyria or Egypt. 

As the Indian styles necessarily include the Cambodian, Chinese, Japanese, ^, 
the only styles that remain to be described are those of the New World. Their con* 
nection with other styles is at present so hazy and indefinite that they may be 
arranged anywhere; but in order to avoid any appearance of prejudging any 
hypothesis, it may be as well to place them in this part of the work, in juxtaposition 
with a style with which they cannot be suspected of having any connection. 


The first century of the Hejira forms a chapter in the history of 
mankind as startling from the brilliancy of its events as it is aston- 
ishing from the permanence of its results. Whether we oonsider 
the first outburst of Mahomedanism as a conquest of one of the most 
extensive empires of the world bj a small and previously unknown 
people,^or as the propagation of a new religion, or as both these events 
combined, the success of the movement is without a parallel in 

Bk. I. Ch. I. INTRODUCTION. 513 

It far surpassed the careers of the great Eastern conquerors in the 
importance of its effects, and the growth of the Roman Empire in bril- 
liance and rapidity. From Alexander to Napoleon, conquests have 
generally been the result of the genius of some gifted individual, and 
have left, after a short period, but slight traces of their transient 
splendour. Even Rome's conquest of the world was a slow and painful 
effort compared with that of the Arabians ; and though she imposed 
her laws on the conquered nations, and enforced them by her military 
organization, she had neither the desire nor the power to teach them a 
new faith ; nor could she bind the various nations together into one 
great people, who should aid her with heart and hand in the mission 
she had undertaken. 

It was, indeed, hardly possible that a poor and simple, but warlike 
and independent, people like the Arabs, could long exist close to the 
ruins of so wealthy and so overgrown an empire as that of Constan- 
tinople, without making an attempt to appropriate the spoil which the 
effeminate hands of its possessors were evidently unable to defend. It 
was equally impossible that so great a supervision of Christianity as 
then prevailed in Egypt and Syria could exist in a countiy which 
from the earliest ages had been the seat of the most earnest Mono- 
theism without provoking some attempt to return to the simpler 
faith which had never been wholly superseded. So that on the whole 
the extraordinary success of Mahomedanism at its first outset must 
be attributed to the utter corruption, religious and political, of the 
expiring empire of the East, as much as to any inherent greatness 
in the system itself or the ability of the leaders who achieved the 
great work. 

Had it been a mere conquest, it must have crumbled to pieces as 
soon as completed ; for Arabia was too thinly populated to send forth 
armies to fight continual battles, and maintain so widely extended an 
empire. Its permanence was owing to the fact that the converted 
nations joined the cause with almost the enthusiasm of its original 
promoters ; Syria, Persia, and Africa, in turn, sent forth their swarms 
to swell the tide of conquest and to spread the religicxi of Islam to the 
remotest corners of the globe. 

To understand either Mahomedan history or art it is essential 
to bear this constantly in mind, and not to assume that, because the 
first impulse was given from Arabia, everything afterwards must be 
traced back to that primitive people : on the contrary, there was no 
great depopulation, if any, of the conquered countries, no great trans- 
plantation of races. Each country retained its own inhabitants^ who, 
under a new form, followed their old habits and clung to their old 
feelings with all the unchangeableness of the East, and perhaps with 
even less outward change than is usually supposed. Before the time 
of Mahomet the Sabean worship of the stars was common to Arabia 

VOL. II. 2 L 


and Persia, and a great part of the Babylonian Empire. The Jewish 
religion was diffused through Syria and parts of Arabia. Egypt, 
long before the time of Mahomet, must have been to a great extent 
Arabian, as it now wholly is. In all these countries the religion of 
Mahomet struck an ancient chord that still vibrated among the peq)le, 
and it must have appeared more as a revival of the past than as the 
preaching of a new faith. In Spain alone colonization to some extent 
seems to have taken place, but we must not even there overlook the 
fact of the early Carthaginian settlements, and the consequent exist- 
ence of a Semitic people of considerable importance in the south, where 
the new religion maintained itself long after its extinction in those 
parts of Spain where no Semitic blood is known to have existed. 

So weak, indeed, in the converted countries was the mere Arabian 
influence, that each province soon shook off its yoke, and, under their 
own Caliphs, Persia, Syria, Egypt, Africa, and Spain soon became 
independent States, yielding only a nominal fealty to that Caliph who 
claimed to be the rightful successor of the Prophet, and, except in 
faith and the form of religion, the real and essential ch^mge was slight, 
and far greater in externals than in the innate realities of life. 

All this is more evident from the architecture than from any other 
department — without, at least, more study than most people can devote 
to the subject. The Arabs themselves had no architecture, properly so 
called. Their only temple was the Kaabah at Mecca, a small square 
tower, almost destitute of architectural ornament, and more famous 
for its antiquity and sanctity than for any artistic merit. 

It is said that Mahomet built a mosque at Medina — a simple ediiico 
of bricks and palm-sticks.^ But the Koran gives no directions on the 
subject, and so simple were the primitive habits of the nomad Arabs, 
that had the religion been confined to its native land, it is probable 
that no mosque worthy of the name would ever have been erected. 
With them prayer everywhere and anywhere was equally acceptable. 
All that was required of the faithful was to turn towards Mecca at 
stated times and pray, going through certain forms and in certain 
attitudes, but whether the place was the desert or the housetop was 
quite immaterial. 

For the first half century after the Mahomedans burst into Syria 
they seem to have built very little. The taste for arc-ihitectural 
magnificence had not yet taken hold of the simple followers of the 
Prophet, and desecrated churches and other buHdings supplied what 
wants they had. When they did take to buUding, alxmt the end 
of the 7tb century, they employed the native architects and builders, 
and easily converted the Christian church with its atrium into a place 
of prayer; and, then, by a natural growth of style, they gradually 

' Abulfeda, ed. Rciskc, vol. i. p. 32, 


Bk. I. Cu. I. INTKODUCTION. 515 

elaborated a new style of details and new arrangements, in which 
it is often difficult to trace the source whence they were derived. 

In Eg3rpt the wealth of ancient remains, in particular of Roman 
pillars, rendered the task easy ; and mosques were enclosed and palaces 
designed and built with less thought and less trouble than had occurred 
almost anywhere else. The same happened in Barbary and in Spain. 
In the latter country, especially, a re-arrangement of Roman materials 
was all that was required. It was only when these were exhausted, 
after some centuries of toil, that wo find the style becoming original ; 
but its form was not that of Syria or of Egypt, but of Spanish birth 
and confined to that locality. 

When the Turks conquered Asia Minor, their style was that of the 
Byzantine basilicas which they found there, and when they entered 
Constantinople they did not even cure to carry a style with which they 
were familiar across the Bosphorus, but framed their mostjues upon 
a type of church peculiar to that city, of which Sta. Sophia was the 
crowning example. 

It is true that, after centuries of practice most of these hetero- 
geneous elements became fused into a complete style. This style pos- 
sesses so much that is entirely its own as to make it sometimes ditlicult 
to detect the germs, taken from the older styles of architecture, which 
gave rise to many of its most striking peculiarities. These, however, 
are never entirely obliterated. Everywhere the conviction is forced 
upon us that originally the Moslems had no style of their own, but 
adopted those which they found practised in the countries to which 
they came. In other words, the conquered or associated people still 
continued to build as they had built before their conversion, merely 
adapting their former methods to the purposes of their new religion. 
After a time this Mahomedan element thus introduced into the styles 
of different countries produced a certain amount of uniformity, — 
increased, no doubt, by the interconununications arising from the 
uniformity of religion. In this way at last a style was elaborated, 
tolerably homogeneous, though never losing entirely the local pecu- 
liarities due to the earlier styles out of which it rose, and which still 
continue to mark most distinctly the various nationalities that made 
up the great Empire of Islam. 

2 L 





Moaqnes at Jerusalem — El-Aksah — Mosque at Damascus — Egypt — ^Mosques at 

Cairo— Other African buildings — Mecca. 



The H^in a.d. 622 , IbD Tooloon «t Cairo a.d. M9 

Caliph Qnur bolldA Hueque at Jeruulem. 637 | Kaloan 1384 

Amra—Moeqne at Old Cairo .... 642 ' Saltan Hassan 13S6 

Abd el-Malek boilds El-Aksah at Jerusa- 
lem and the " Dome of the Rock " . . 691 
Caliph Walid builds Mosque at Damascus 706 

Saltan Berkook 13^6 

Kait-bey 14M 

As before mentioned, the earliest mosque of which we have any record 
was that built by Mahomet himself at Medina. As, however, it con- 
tained apartments for his wives, and other rooms for domestic purposes, 
it might perhaps be more properly denominated a dwelling house than 
a mosque. Indeed sacred buildings, as we understand them, seem to 
have formed no part of the scheme of the Mahomedan dispensation. 
The one temple of this religion was the E^aabah at Mecca, towards 
which all believers were instructed to turn when they prayed. As 
with the ancient Jews — one Temple and one Qod were the watchwords 
of the faith. 

When, however, the Mahomedans came among the temple-building 
nations, they seem early to have felt the necessity of some material 
object — some visible monument of their religion ; and we find that 
Omar, when he obtained possession of Jerusalem, in the 15th year of 
the Hejira, felt the necessity of building a place of prayer towards 
which the faithful might turn, or rather which should point out to 
them the direction of Mecca. 

According to the treaty of capitulation, in virtue of which the city 
was ceded to the Moslems, it was agreed that the Christians should 
retain possession of all their churches and holy places ; and no com- 
plaint is made of even the slightest attempt to infringe this article 
during the following three centuries. On the other hand, it was 
stipulated that a spot of ground should be ceded to Omar, in which 

bk. I. cb. n. 



he might establish a place of prater. For this purpose the ate of the 
old Temple of the Jews was assigned to him bj the patriarch ; that 
spot being oonsidered sacred by the Moslems, on accoont of the noc- 
turnal visit of the Prophet, and because they then wished to conciliate 
the Jews, while at the same time the spot was held accursed by the 
Christians on account of the Lord's denunciation and Juliaa's impious 
attempt to rebuild it. Here Omar built a mosque, which is described 
by an early pilgrim who saw it, as a simple square building of timber 

PiMoftbaHgwimel-AliHbitJnwInB. SoltlMR. 

rapable of holding three thousand people, aud constructed on the ruins 
of some more ancient edifice.' 

The troubles which, during the next half-century, succeeded the 
murder of Ali and his sons, seem to have been unfavourable to 
building or any of the arts of peace, and no record has yet been 
brought to light of any important structure erected during that 
period. In the 69tfa year ot the Hejira, Abd el-Melik, the Caliph of 
Damascus, determined to erect a mosqne at Jerusalem. His objects 
were to set up that city as a place of pilgrimage in oppodtion to 

* ■ The History at JoniMlem.' Bessnt and Pftlmer, 1S88. 



Past HI 

Meccui, which wns then in the possession of a nml, and to carry into 
effect whut was at one time understood to have been the intention of 
Alahomet, namely, to conveH the temple of Jerusalem into the holy 
place of his now religion, instead of that of lUecca. These ulterior 
purposes were never realised, in consequence of the violent opposition 
which the project mot with from the Jews. 

The mosque which Abd el-Melik erected was, according to Profeaaor 
Lewis,' partially destroyed by earthquakes in the years 748, 755 and 
770 A.D., and was rebuilt by El Mahdi in 771-781 a.d., with increased 

lateral d m n ns bu d n hcd n ngth From the description given 
by Mukaddosi,'-' the building, thus restored, covered a very much Krg^T 
area than the existing mosque, there being as many as seven aitles oa 
each side of the central aisle. Professor Lewis, in the work above quoted, 
gives a suggested restoration of the plan, which in the first place 
resembles very closely the prayer chambers of the typical Hohomedon 

' 'Thp Iliily PIftpea of Jpruaiilrni,' by 

T. Hayter Luwia, F.S.A Mnrrny, IKSil. 

' ' Descriptionof Syiia,'hy Mukaddiisi. 

Traaitlaltd and annotated by G«oi^ h 
Strange for the Paleitiiie PUBiin>' 
Society. London, 1886. 


mosc|ues at Amru in Old Cairo, Kerouan in Barbary, and Cordoba in 
Spain ; and in the general plan coincides so nearly in the position of 
its piers and columns with the existing building, so far as it extends, as 
to give a reasonable probability to his suggestion. When Jerusalem 
was taken by the Crusaders, the Aksah was converted by them into a 
palace, and some of their work is still to be seen in the arcades at the 
north end. After the conquest of Saladin he carried out extensive 
restorations ; he covered the Mihi*ab, which had been walled off by the 
Crusaders, and decorated it with marble : he erected the magnificent 
pulpit which had been sent from Aleppo, and rebuilt the transept 
with its dome as we now see it. 

As the Aksah exists at present it has the appearance of an 
ordinary basilica with nave and aisles, to which double aisles have been 
added on each side. This would suggest that the three central aisles 
<>i the mos(|ue w<»re raised al>ove the njst of the building in order to 
obtain increased light through clerestory windows both in central and 
sidf J aisles. This, however, may have been done by El Mahdi, who also 
built the transept and dome, because they are mentioned by Mukaddasi 
(985 A.D.), who says " the centre part of the main building is covered by 
a mighty roof, high pitched and gable- wise, behind which rises a magnifi- 
cent dome." The mosque (Woodcut No. 971) is 187 ft. wide and 272 ft. 
in length over all, thus covering about 50,000 sq. ft., or as much as 
many of our cathedrals. It has a porch, which is a later addition, but 
has not the usual square court in front, possibly because it was already 
within the enclosure of the sacred anja. " The interior is supported," 
says an Arab historian,* " by 45 columns, 33 of which are of marble, 
and 12 of common stone, bolides which there are 40 piers of common 
stone." Later investigation has shown that the main piers of the 
chun;h are built with materials tiiken from some earlier edifice : the 
circular piers of the nav(5, for instjince, are of a reddish marble from 
quarries near Jerusalem, patched up and bound together with iron 
rings, the whole being plastered over, painted and polished in imitation 
of marble, and Professor Lewis suggests that they may have been 
tfiken from Justinian's Church of St. Mary (described by Procopius), 
which was burnt and thrown down by Chosroes in 614 a.d. 

Although extremely picturesque, as an architectural object the 
Aksah is of no great importance, the only portions which can lay any 
claim to beauty being the arches carried on basket-capitals, which were 
erected by the Crusaders, and the later decorations of Saladin and 
other Sultans who enriched the south portion of the mosque near the 
Mihret : it must also be added that it suffers very considerably from its 
juxtaposition with the Dome of the Rock, which, though constructed by 
the same Abd el-Mel ik who founded the Aksah, has been added to and 

l^Iojr ed-Deen. * FuDdgruben des Orients.* 



Part HI. 

decorated in so sumptuous a manner by succeeding khalifs as to render 
it one of l.he most beautiful buildings in the world. 

The first drawings which were made of the Dome of the Rock 
(Cubl)et-es-Sakra, more generally known as the Mosque of Omar) by 
Messrs. Arundale and Catherwood (probably under great difficulties, 
for the sacred enclosure was not then thrown open to the gaze cl 
unbelievers), represented the work as one of uniform design. The 
more careful examination which has been made in later years has 
revealed that the columns, capitals and bases of the main structure 
were taken from some earlier buildings and adapted in the best way ; 
a high base making amends for a small capital, and new ones onlj 
being made when it became necessary. On this point Major Condor 
says,^ " only three of the capitals under the drum are alike ; the rest 
differ in size, in outline, and in details. One of the capitals is 
evidently placed on a shaft which did not originally belong to it, but 

which required a large 
capital. The sixteen 
capitals in the screen 
are more uniform : "* 
*^ two of those capitals 
are, however, of entirely 
I ^ I different design, and 
y^'/y their shafts longor than 
^^^^ the others." "The 
original bases are now 
covered with marble 
flagging ; " " but this 
was removed in 1874, 
and it was then found 
that they differed in 
outline and height, viz. from 4 to as much as 17 inches." 

The plan (Woodcut No. 972), consists of a central hall over the 
Sakhra, or sacred rock, with double aisles round. The hall is divided 
from the first aisle by 4 piers, with 3 columns between each ; these 16 
supports carry 3-centred arches (virtually pointed arches, whose centres 
are distant from one another by about one-fourth of the span, with the 
point of the arch rounded oti) with wooden tie-beams. Above these 
arches rises a lofty cylindrical drum, the upper portion of which is 
pierced with 16 clerestory windows; the whole covered by a wooden 
dome, richly carvwl, painted and gilded. The screen which divides the 
first aisle from the surrounding one is octagonal, with piers at each 
angle, and two columns between each ; these columns are surmounted 
by capitals, dosserets, and carry wood beams encased in rich archi- 

I • • T 



972. Plan of the Dome of the Rock (Motiqne of Omar) JeniMlem. 

1 ' 

Tmnsactiorw of the Royal InHtitution of BritiHh Architects, 1878-79L 

Bk. I. Ch. II. 



tmve framing, and circular arches above with a frieze decorated 
witb an inscription above, now partially hidden by later restorations. 
The outer wall is also octagonal, with four doorwsiys facing the cardinal 
points, and a parapet, the pent roof over both aisles being continuous. 

The histoiy of the structure has been carefully worked out by 
Professor Lewis, taken from various ancient authors, compiled in part liy 
Mesiirs. Besant and Palmer, from which it would seem that Abd-el- 
Melik, having first built a small dome known as the Cubbet-«s-Sil- 
sileh (Dome of the Chain) (a. Woodcut No. 972), for a treasury, was so 
pleased with the work that he ordered the great dome over the Sakhra 

to be built on tho same model. The structure thus erected {shown in 
black on the plan, Woodcut No. 972), was executed by skilled workmen 
from Persia, By/antiuni, and India. It was hung round with curtains 
of brocade, probably protected by eaves as in the Cubbet-es-Silsileh. 
Owing possibly to the inclemency of the weather, the Khalif i;l-Mamun 
(813-33) enclosed the whole with the octagonal wall, and made various 
alterations, including the erasure of Abd-el-Melik's name in the frieze 
before alluded to, and the insertion of his own, the date being un- 
touched. To this period (9th century) may also be attributed the 
mosaic decorations of the dmm, though a later date is by some ascribed 
to them. The dome was rebuilt by Salndin, 1189, and although 
restored, is substontially the same ns erected by him. In the 16th 



Paw hi. 

century the whole building was restored hy Solymon the Magnificent, 
who eaca^ed the piers of the interior and the arches covered by tlieiii 
with marble, filled the clerestoiy windows with stained glass, &nd 
enc&sed with marble and Fersiaa tiles the external walls. 

Notwithstanding the various additions and restorations which 
have thus therefore beea made from time to time, the whole structure 
retains at first sight one uniform character in its design, and it is only 
on a careful analysis of its several ports that it is possible to distinguish 
the dates of the various changes. The effect which is produced by the 

Order of Uie Uume of Uic Rock (Fnini ■ DnwiDg I17 Anmdile.) 

whole IS quite nnri\alled by any other known building of its class. It 
has not, of course, the splendour and magmficence arising froai the 
rastnesa and constructiio beauty of such a church as Sto. Sophia at 
Constantinople, but for tta diiuCDSioa, there is probably no building in 
the world the design of which is at the same time so beautiful and m 
appropriate for the purposes for which it was erected. 

MosQDE AT Damascus. 
As an architectural object the great mosque at Damascus is eren 
more important than the Aksah, and its history is a* mtaresting. 
The spot on which it stands was originally occupied by cme of thoM 

Bk. I. Cri. II. 



small Syrian temples, surrounded by a square temeivoSy of which those 
at Palmyra and Jerusalem are well-known examples.^ The one in 
question was, however, smaller, having been apparently only 450 ft. 
square ; and we do not know the form of the temple which occupied 


PUd of Mosqae at DamaacoB. By Sir Cbarlea Wilaon. Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 

its centre.* This temple was converted into a Christian church by 
Theodosius (395-^08), and dedicated to St. John the Baptist, whose 
chapel still exists within the precincts of the mosque. 

> Ante, p. 228, vol. i. 
' I state these dimensions very doubt- 
fully, the ground outside the present 

mosque never having been carefully sur- 
veyed by any one competent to restore 
the original plan. 


According to Jelal ed-Deen,^ the church remained the joint property 
of the Christians and Moslems, both praying together in it — or, at 
least, on the east and west sides of a partition run through it — ^from 
the fall of the city in the year of the Hejira 14 (a.d. 636) to the time 
of the Caliph Walid in the year 86. He offered the Christians either 
four desecrated churches in exchange for it, or threatened to deprive 
them of one which they held on sufferance. As soon as the matter 
was settled, it is said, he pulled down the Christian church, or at 
least part of it, and in ten years completed the present splendid 
mosque on its site, having first procured from the emperor at Con- 
stantinople fit and proper persons to act as architects and masons in 
its construction. 

If the building were carefully examined by some competent person, 
it might even now be possible to ascertain what parts belonged to the 
Heathen, what to the Christians, and what to the Moslems. At first 
sight it might appear that the covered part of the mosque is only the 
Christian church, used laterally like that at Ramleh ; but its dimen- 
sions — 126 ft. by 446 — are so much in excess of any three-aisled 
church of that age, that the idea is hardly tenable. On the whole, 
it seems probable that we must consider that the materials which had 
first been collected for the Temple, and were afterwards used in the 
church, were entirely rearranged by the Mahomedans in the form in 
which we now find them. 

Like all buildings in the first century of the Hejira, it was so 
badly done that nearly all the pillars of the court have since that 
time been encased in piers of masonry. The walls have been covered 
up with plaster, and whitewash has obliterated the decoration which 
once existed, and which is still visible where the plaster has peeled off. 
It is still, however, interesting from its history, venerable from its age, 
and important from its dimensions. These are, externally, 508 ft. by 
320, and the enclosed court 400 ft. by 106. So that, in so far as size 
is concerned, it may rank among the first of its class ; and it has 
always been considered so sacred, that repairs and additions have 
constantly been made to it since its erection, more than eleven 
centuries ago ; but, as in the case of its contemporary the Aksah 
at Jerusalem, the result is far from satisfactory. In this respect, 
these two buildings form, as just mentioned, a most singular con- 
trast with the Dome of the Hock at Jerusalem (Woodcuts Nos. 973 
to 975). That is perfect — solemn and solid, and one of the most 
impressive buildings in the world, both externally and internally; 
while the other erections of the Moslems are rickety, in spite of all 
repairs, and produce no impression of greatness notwithstanding their 
dimensions and antiquity. 

> * History of Jerusalem,' translated by the Rev. M. Reynolds, p. 409 H tfqq. 

Bk. I. Ch. II. 



The additions made by the Moslems to the mosque at Hebron 
(Woodcut No. 542) are mean and insignificant to the last degree ; and 
beyond these, it is difficult to say what there is in Syria built by them 
that is worthy of attention. 

There are some handsome fountains at Jerusalem, some details at 
Hasbeiya, a few large khans at Beisan and elsewhere, and some very 
fine city gates and remnants of military architecture ; but the tombs 
are insignificant, and except the two mosques described, there seems 
to be no example of monumental architecture of any importance. The 
one building epoch of the country occurred when the Roman influence 
was at its height, during the first five centuries of the Christian era. 
Since that time very little has been done, except by the Crusaders, 
worthy of record ; and before it nothing, that, from an architectural 
point of view, would deserve a place in history. 


In Egypt our history begins with the mosque which Amni, in 
the 21st year of the Hejira (a.d. 642) erected at Old Cairo ; its original 
dimensions were only 50 cubits, or 75 ft. long, by 30 cubits, or 45 ft. 
wide. Edrisi^ says that it was originally a Christian church which 
the Moslems converted into a mosque ; and its dimensions and form 
would certainly lead us to suppose that, if not so, it was at least built 
after the pattern of the Christian churches of that age. As early, 
however, as the 53rd year of the Hejira it was enlarged, and again in 
the 79th ; and it apparently was almost wholly rebuilt by the two 
great builders of that age, Abd-el-Melik and Walid, the builders of 
the mosques of Jerusalem and Damascus. 

It probably now remains in all essential parts as left by these 
two Caliphs, though frequently repaired, and in some parts probably 
altered by subsequent sovereigns of Egypt. In its present state it 
may be considered as a fair specimen of the form which mosques took 
when they had quite emancipated themselves from the Christian 
models, or rather when the court before the narthex of the Christian 
church had absorbed the basilica, so as to become itself the principal 
part of the building, the church part being spread out into a prayer 
chamber (Mihrab) and its three apses modified into niches pointing 
towards the sacred Mecca. 

As will be seen from the plan ("Woodcut No. 977), it is nearly 
square (390 ft. by 357), and consists of a court-yard, 255 ft. square, 
surrounded on all sides by arcades supported by 245 columns taken 

' Translated by Jaiibert, torn. i. p. 303. 
The particulare of the description in the 
text are taken from M. Girault de 

Pranpey * Monuments Arabes/ ccimparod 
with M. Ckwte's ' EdiiiceH de Caire.* 


PiBT lU. 

from older edlficos of the Romans and Byzantines.' Theae columns 
carried brick arches,* tied at their sprmging by wooden beams, as in 
the Aksah. All this part of the mosque, however, bas been so often 
repaired and renovated, that but little of the original details can now 

Of the original mosqne, the only part that can with cortaintj be 
said to exist is a portion of the outer wb.1I, represented in Woodcut 
No. 960, which possesses the peculiarity of being built with poiut'Cfl 
arches, similar in form to those of the Aksah at Jerusalem. Xhcy are 

now built up, and must have been so at the time of one of the earlier 
alterations ; still they arc, from their undoubted antiquity, a curious 
contribution to the much-contested history of the pointed arch. Not- 
withstanding the beautiful climate of E^pt, the whole mo«qne is now 
in a sad state of degradation and decay, arising principally fnxn its 

' It should bo n'ltcd that sll tlicsc I homodaii wonbip. 
srcadrarun in thcdirection of tlicKiblch * M. Cietc makci all these »i«tira 
or Jlercn wntl. nnd the Bsmc principle pninl^. FrnngcrsUtnUikt Uiry 
is ohtcrvt'd nt Kphiusd. Ci'Miibn. nnd src all circuUi; the truth bcin^ Uiat 
other mpbijuCB built entirely for Ma- ' they sre partly one, partly tlio oUicr. 

Bk. I. Ch. II. 



>»-^:*-r •-:- 

original faulty construction. Owing to the paucity of details, many of 
M. Coste's restorations must bo taken as extremely doubtful. 

From the time of the great rebuilding of the moscjue of Amru 
under "Walid, there is a gap in the architectural history of Egypt of 
nearly a century and a half, during which time it is probable that 
no really great work was undertaken there, as Egypt was then a 
dependent province of the great Caliphat of the Ea>st. With the 
recovery, however, of something like independence, we find one of 
its most powerful rulers, Ibn Tooloon, commencing a mosque at Cairo 
(a.d. 876), which, owing to its superior style of construction, still 
remained in tolerable perfection till about 1860.^ 

Tradition, as usual, ascribes the design to a Christian architect, 
who, when the Emir declined to use the columns of desecrated churches 
for the proposed mosque, offered to build it entirely of original 
materials. He was at first thrown into prison through the m^ichina- 
tions of his rivals; but at last, 
when they found they could not 
dispense with his services, was 
again sent for, and his design 
carried out.^ 

Be this as it may, the whole 
style of the mosque shows an 
immense advance on that of its 
predecessor, all trace of Roman or 
Byzantine art having disappeared 
in the interval, and the Saracenic 
architecture appearing complete in 
all its details, the parts originally 
borrowed from previous styles 
having been worked up and fused 
into a consentaneous whole. 

The architect is said to have been a Copt, and if so this would 
explain the development of style, Mr. Butler's work on the Coptic 
churches of Egypt, ^ proving clearly that, long previous to the buildings 
of Tooloon, a style had been developed by the Copts with ornaments of a 
geometrical character similar to that which is found in Tooloon.^ From 


978. Arches In the Mosqne of Amm. (From 
u. de I'raugey'8 Work.) 

' Since then the arches have been built 
up, and it was for a time oonvertcd into 
a hospital. This now (1892) is under tlie 
care of the Ommissioncr for the preser- 
vation of ancient monuments, hut is too 
far ruined to be long preserved. 

« See Coste's * Edifices de Caire/ p. 32, 
quoting from Makrisl. 

' 'The Ancient C(»ptic Churches,' by 
A. J. Butler, Oxford, lbi>4. 

* The marble wall decoration and tho 
mosaics which are found in later mosques 
are of different design and execution from 
that found in Byzantine buildings ; in 
fact as Mr. Butler remarks : ** this form 
of art was borrowed by tlie Muslim 
builders, or rather was lent by the Coptic 
urchitects and builders, whom the Mus- 
lims employed for the construction of their 
mosques.*' *' Although tlie iSurucenH in 


this time we find no backsliding; the stylti in Egypt at last takes 
its rank as a separate and complete architectural form. It is true, 

tit. HixqiHsrtba TwloonU C*lnt. (FniiaC«M'i 'AnblMctiin Antx'.) 

that in so rich a storehouse of materials as Egypt, the architects could 

not always resist appropriating the 

of earlier buildings ; but 

Syria borroired the art froni Byzantium ! unpictorial cb&tacter raited Ihoir la*tc, 
and used vitieouB enamelB for tiie dtcora- i and partly becaUH tbey found, ready 
tinn o( their moaqne walls, aa veil as for made, both art and artistB— artut« whoae 
inlaying jewelry and steel Brmonr on a names bave perished, but whoae skill is 
smaller scale, .vet the Mabomedan» of still iccoided in work of nnexamplM 
ERi'pt never adnpl^'d any hut the native splendnui which adonis the gnat 
orCoptic marble mosaic, iwrllybecBuse its , Motqueaof Cairu." 

Bk. 1. Ch. II. EGYFr. 52J) 

when thej did this, they used them ao completely in their own fashion, 
and BO worked them into their own style, that we do not at once 
recognise the sources from which they are derived. 

To return, however, to the mosque of Toolooa. Its general arrange- 
ment is almost identical with that of the mosque of Amru, only with 
somewhat increased dimensions, the court being very nearly 300 ft. 
square, and the whole building 330 ft. by 4-5.5. No pillars whatever 
are used in its construction, except as engaged comer shafts ; all the 
arches, which are iavariably pointed, being supported by massive piera. 
The court on three sides has two ranges of arcades, but on the side 
towards Mecca there are five ; and with this peculiarity, that instead 
of the arcades mnning at right angles to the Mecca wall (as in the 
mosques of Amru and Kerouan) they run parallel to it. This may 
be accounted for by the great solidity of the walls carried by these 
arches, and the fact that the thrust of the latter could not have been 
counteractedby the wooden ties which sutGce in the two examples above 
mentioned. By running the nrcade the other way, the arches served 
as abutments one to the other, carrying the thrust to the outer walla, 
which are of groat thickness. The same principle is observed on the 
other three sides, which in e^ich case lie pa^rallel to the external wall. 

The whole building is of brick, covered with stucco ; and fortu- 
nately almost every op9nitig is surrounded by an inscription in the 
old form of Cutic characters, which were then used, and only used, 
about the period to which the mosque is ascribed, so that there can be 
QO doubt as to its date. Indeed, the age both of the building itself 
and of alt its details, is well ascertained. 

The Woodcut No. 979 will explain the form of its arcades, and 
of the ornaments that cover them. Their general character is that of 
bold and massive simplicity, the counterpart of our own Norman style. 
A certain element of sublimity and power, in spite of occasional clum- 
siness, is common to both these styles. Indeed, excepting the Mosque 
of Sultan Qassan, there is per- 
haps no mosque in Cairo so 
imposing and so perfect as this, 
though it possesses little or 
nothing of that grace and 
elegance which we are ace 
tomed to expect in this style. 

Among the more remarkable ' 
peculiarities of this building is 
the mode in which all the 
external openings are filled " " ~ 

with that peculiar sort of n »q o 

tracery which became as charact«>iistic of this style as that of the 
windows of our churches five centuries afterwards is of the Gothit 


style. With the Saracens the whole window is filled, and the interstioes 
are small and varied ; both which characteristics are appropriate when 
the window is not to be looked out q£, or when it is filled with painted 
glass ; but of course are utterly unsuitable to our purposes. Yet it is 
doubtful, even now, whether the Saracenic did not excel the Grotliic 
architects, even in their best days, in the elegance of design and variety 
of invention displayed in the tracery of their windows. In the mosque 
of Ibn Tooloon it is used as an old and perfected invention, and with 
the germs of all those angular and flowing lines which afterwards 
were combined into such myriad forms of beauty. 

It is possible that future researches may bring to light a build- 
ing, 50 or even 100 years earlier than this, which may show nearly 
as complete an emancipation from Christian art ; but for the present, 
it is from the mosque of Tooloon (a.d. 885) that we must date the 
complete foundation of the new style. Although there is consider- 
able difficulty in tracing the history of the style from the erection of 
the mosques of Damascus and Jerusalem to that of Tooloon, there is 
none from that time onwards. Cairo alone furnishes nearly sufficient 
materials for the purpose. 

The next great mosque erected in this city was El-Azhar, or ** the 
splendid " built in the year a.d. 981 by the Arabs of Kerouan on the 
type of their own mosque. This has been rebuilt in later times, but 
according to Mr. Carpenter ^ it preserves the proportions of its original 
plan. It is said to have been converted into a university in 1199, but 
was overthrown by an earthquake in 1303, and subsequently entirely 
rebuilt and restored by various sultans. 

The Mosque of Al Hakim was built in the beginning of the lltfa 
century. Portions of the arcades stUl remain, which show it to have 
been of the same type as Tooloon, with pointed and slightly horseshoe 
arches, and engaged angle shafts, which in Tooloon are probably the 
earliest examples of that feature extant. In the place of the minarets 
are two Mabk4rehs or square tombs with small minarets on the top. 

The buildings during the next two centuries are neither numerous 
nor remarkable in size, though progress is very evident in such examples 
as exist, and towards the commencement of the 13th century we find 
the style almost entirely changed. The Mosque of El-Dhahir (1268), 
now used as a fort, is remarkable for the ornament around the arches 
of two of its porches, which would prove it to be of Norman origin. It 
consists of a chevron or zigzag in one case, and of moulded mullions 
in the other, similar to those found in the porch of the Holy Sepulchre 
at Jerusalem, attributed to the Crusaders, and in the tower of the 
Martorana at Palermo. 

* The musque cathedrals of Cordoba and Seville and the. contemporary Arabic 
buildings. Transactions, R.I.B.A., 1882-83. 

hk. I. ch. II. 



The moaque of Kalaoon aud the hospital attached to it (a.d. 1287) 
are both noble baildiaga, full of the most el^ant details, and not 
without conaiderable grandeur in ports. In all except detail, however, 
they must yield the palm to the next great example, ^e mosque with 
which the Sultan Hassan adorned Cairo in the year 1356. In some 
respects it is one of the most remarkable mosques ever erected in any 
country, and differing considerably from any other with which we are 
at present acquainted. 

As will be seen from the plan (Woodcut No. 981), its external form 
is very irregular, following on all sidos the lines of Aa streets within 



which it is situated. This irregularity, however, is not such as to 
detract from its appearance, which is singularly bold and massive on 
every side; the walls being nearly 100 ft, in height, and surmounted 
by a cornice, which adds another 13 ft., and projects about 6 ft. This 
great height is divided into no less than nine storeys of small apart- 
ments ; but the openings are so deeply recessed, and the projections 
between them so bold, that, instead of cutting it up and making it 
look like a factory, which would have been the case in England, the 
building has all the apparent solidity ci a fortress, and seems more 
worthy of the descendants of the ancient Pharoolw than any work of 
modem times in Egypt, 

Internally there is a court open to the &ky measuring 117 ft, by 



pam m. 

105, eaclosed hy a wall 112 ft. in height. Instead of the nsaftl coltui- 
nades or Arcades, only one gigantic niohe opens in each face of the 
-court. On three stdea these niches measure 46 ft. square ; but on 
that which faces Mecca, the great niche is 69 ft wide by 90 in depth, 
and 90 ft. high internally. All four are covered with rimple tunnel- 
vaults of a pointed fonn, without either ribs or intersections, and for 
simple grandeur are unrivalled by any mmilar arches known to exist 

Behind the niche pointing towards Mecca is the tomb of the founder, 
square in plan, as these buildings almost always are, measuring 69 ft. 
each way, and covered by a lofty and elegant dome resting on penden- 
tives of great beauty and richness. It is flanked on each side by two 

Section oC Ifgsqae of UuHa, Ciliv. Snl* 

noble minarets, one of which is the highest and largest in Cairo and 
probably in any part of the world, being 280 ft. in height and of fvo- 
portionate breadth. Its design and outline, however, are scarcely so 
elegant aa some others, though even in these respects it most be ecn- 
sidered a very beautiful example of its class. 

One of the principal defects of this building is the pontion at it> 
doorway, which, instead of facing the kibteh or niche pcnnting towaids 
Mecca, is placed diagonally, in the street alongside of the building. 
It is a very beautiful specimen of architecture in itself ; still its situa- 
tion aud the narrow passages that led from it to the m«in building 
detract most materially from the effect of the whole edifice^ which 
in other respects is so perfect. It may have been that ground ooold 
not be obtained for the purpose of placing the entrance in tiia right 

position ; but more probably it was so arranged for the sake of defence, 
the whole structure having very much the appearance of a fortalice, 
and being without doubt 


serve that 
well as being 
adapted for a bouse of 

One of the finest 
buildings of the 14th 
century is that buUt by 
Sultan Berkook outside 
the walla of Cairo {a,d. 
1384), which, besides a 
mosque, contains an ad- 
ditional feature in the 
great sepulchral chambers 
which are in fact the prin- 
cipal part of the edifice, 
and betray the existence 
of a strong affinity to 
the tomb-building races 
in the rulers of Egypt 
at that time. 

The plan and section (Woodcuts Nos. 963, 984), though small, will 

Liiii..-»^^^TTTTTTTII t, M 

Plin oT MoHH iDd Tomba oT Sillu Btrkook. 

MOHH lorl 

*M. fitetlao.of MMqnt of Bnkwk. (FnmCHU^'Alchlucun Anb*.') 

The pointed arch, as will be observed, is used with as much lightness 
•ad elegance as ever it reached in the West. 


The dome has become a truly graceful and elaborate appendage, 
forming not only a very perfect ceiling inside, but a most imposing 
ornament to the exterior. Above all, the minaret hcis here arrived at 
as high a degree of perfection as it ever reached in any after age. 

The oldest known example of this species of tower is that of the 
mosque of Ibn Tooloon, but it is particularly ungraceful and clumsy. 
The minaret in that of Amru was probably a later addition. But it 
is only here in Berkook that they seem to have acquired that el^ance 
and completeness which render them perhaps the most beautiful form 
of tower architecture in the world. Our prejudices are of course with 
the spires of our Gothic churches, and the Indians erected some noble 
towers ; but taken altogether, it is doubtful if anything of its class 
ever surpassed the beauty and elegance of the minarets attached to the 
mosques during this and subsequent centuries. 

The mosque El Muayyad, erected in I4I5 A.D., is a singularly elegant 
specimen of a mosque with columns. Externally it measures about 
300 ft. by 250, and possesses an internal court, surrounded by double 
colonnades on three sides, and a triple range of arches on the side 
looking towards Mecca, where also are situated — as in that of 
Berkook — the tombs of the founder and his family. A considerable 
number of ancient columns have been used in the erection of the 
building, but the superstructure is so light and elegant, that the 
effect is agreeable ; and of the " mixed mosques " — i.e., those where 
ancient materials are incorporated — this is one of the most pleasing 

Perhaps the most perfect gem in or about Cairo is the mosque and 
tomb of Kaitbey (Woodcut No. 985), outside the walls, erected a.d. 1472. 
Looked at externally or internally, nothing can exceed the grace of 
every part of this building. Its small dimensions exclude it from any 
claim to grandeur, nor does it pretend to the purity of the Greek and 
some other styles ; but as a perfect model of the elegance we generally 
associate with the architecture of this people, it is perhaps unrivalled 
by anything in Egypt, and far surpasses the Alhambra or the other 
Western buildings of its age. 

After this period there were not many important buildings 
erected in Cairo, or indeed in Egypt ; and when a new age of 
splendour appears, the old art is found to have died out, and a 
renaissance far more injurious than that of the West, has grown up in 
the interval. In modern Europe the native architects wrought out 
the so-called restoration of art in their own pedantic fashion; but 
in the Levant the corresponding process took place under the aus- 
pices of a set of refugee Italian artists, who engrafted their would-be 
classical notions on the Moorish style, with a vulgarity of form and 
colour of which we have no conception. In the later buildings of 
Mehemet Ali and his contemporaries we find the richest and most 

beautiful materials used, so as to make us wonder how men could so 
pervert every notion of beauty and propriety to the produntion of such 
discordant ugliness. 

From its size and the beauty of the materials, the mosque erected 
by the late Pasha in the citadel of Cairo ought to rival any of the more 
ancient buildings in the city ; but it is already falling to pieces, and 
except for the fact that its main design is based on the principle of the 


great mosques erected in imitation of Sta. Sophia at Constantinople, 
which gives a certain grandeur to its interior, it would be ntterlj 
uninteresting. ^ 


In a history of the Mahomedan religion a description of the mosque 
at Mecca would naturally take the first place ; but in a work devoted 
to architecture it is sufficient to mention it in connection with Egypt, 
to whose sultans it owes whatever architectural adornment it possesses. 
The Kaabah or holy shrine itself, has no architecture, and is famous 
only for its sanctity. 

In the earlier centuries of the Hejira the area seems to have been 
surrounded by a cloister of no great magnificence, but after a great fire 
which occurred in 1399, the north and west sides were built in a more 
splendid manner by Barkook, Sultan of Egypt, whose mosque and tomb 
are illustrated. Woodcuts Nos. 983, 984. In 1500 El Ghoury, like- 
wise an Egyptian sultan of Memlook race, rebuilt the Bab Ibrahim. 
The next repairs were due to the sultans of Constantinople. Selim I., 
in 1572, rebuilt one side, and in 1576 Murad effected a general repair 
of the whole, and left it pretty much as we now find it. 

It need hardly be pointed out that in arrangement it necessarily 
differs from all other mosques. The precept of the Koran was, that all 
true believers when they prayed should turn to the Kaabah, and a 
mosque consequently became a mere indicator of the direction in which 
Mecca stood; but in this instance, with the Kaabah in the centre, 
no mihrab or indication was possible. All that was required was a 
temenos to enclose the sacred object and exclude the outside world 
with its business from the hallowed precincts. 

The principal object in the enclosure is of course the Kaabah, a 
small, low tower, nearly but not quite square in plan, the longer sides 
39 and 40 ft. respectively ; the shorter 31 and 33 ft. ; its height is 36 ft 
The entrance is near one corner, at a height of 6 ft. from the ground. 
It is wholly without architectural ornament, and the upper part is 
covered by a black cloth, which is annually renewed. Next in import- 
ance to this is the Zemzem, or holy spring, which is said to have 
gushed out on this spot to the succour of Ishmael and his mother when 
perishing of thirst. These two objects are joined by a railing sur- 
rounding the Kaabah, except at one point, where it joins the Zemzem. 
The railing probably marks the enclosure of the old Pagan temple 
before Mahomet's time. 

These, with some other subordinate buildings, now stand in a court- 

> A view of it will be found in vol. ii. * History of the Modem Style of Aiehi- 
'ttcture,* 1891, p. 314. 

Bk. I. Cii. II. 



yard, forming a perfect rectangle of about 380 ft. by 570 internally, 
surrounded by arcades on all sides. These vary considerably in depth, 
so as to accommodate themselves to the external outline of the building, 
which, as shown in the Woodcut (No. 986), is very irregular. It is 
entered on all sides by nineteen gateways, some of which are said to 
be of considerable magnificence, and it is adorned by seven minarets. 
Thase are placed very irregularly, and none of them are of particular 
beauty or size. 

On the longer sides of the court there are thirty-six arches, on the 


Great Mosque at Mecca. (Frum a Plan by All Bey.i) 

shorter twenty-four, all slightly pointed. They are suppoi-ted by 
columns of greyish marble, every fourth being a srjuare pier, the 
others circular pillars. 

Neither its ordonnance, nor, so far as we can understand, its details, 
render the temple an object of much architectural magnificence. Even 
in size it is surpassed by many, and is less than its great rival, the 
temple of Jerusalem, which was 600 ft. square. Still it is interesting, 
AS it is in reality the one temple of the Moslem world ; for though 
many mosques are now reputed sacred, and as such studiously guarded 
against profanation, this pretended sanctity is evidently a prejudice 

' To get it within the page, the scale of the plan is reduced to 200 Fn'nch, or 
212 English ft. to 1 in. 



Pabt UI. 

borrowed or inherited from other religions, and is no part (d the doctrine 
of the Moslem faith, which, like the Jewish, points to one only tem[de 
aa the place where the people should worship, and towards which thej 
should turn in prayor. 

There may he— no doubt are — many buildings prected by th* 
Moslems in the countries between Bgypt and Spain ; but, strange lo 

say, with their love of art, and opportunitiea for investigating them, 
the French have not yet made us acquainted with their pecnliaritieB. 
Even if not magnificent in themselves, they must torn a curioos link 

Bk. I. Ck. II. 



between the styles of the E^t aad the West. The recent Annexation 
of Tunis by France, however, has enabled us At last to obtain plans and 
drawings of the great mosque at Kerouan, so that we can trace, 
according to Mr. Carpenter («« R.I.B.A, Transactions, 1882-83, from 
whence the particulars here given are borrowed) the parentage of the 

Hi. Miln £Dtruice Id Cunn ot timt Ui 

Mosque of Cordoba and other work in Spain, which seemed, when this 
work was first written, to be cut off from oU connection with the East 
and to stand utterly alone. 

The mosque of Kerouan was founded by the Emir Akhbah in 
675 A.D., and was rebuilt and extended in the succeeding three 
centuries. The plan of the mosque (Woodcut 987) is somewhat 
irre^Iar, being wider at the south-eastern end by about thirty feet. 



P*»T. in. 

It coveri &n area of a little over 100,000 squar« ft. of which abont 
one-third is covered over and forms the prayer chamber. The gra«t 
court meaaurea 320 X 176 ft. with doubl&4usled corridors on tho east 
and west aide ; other buildings partiall; enclosed on the north side, 
with a lofty tower, thirty feet square, in the centre and surmounted 
by a small dome. Id this tower is a marble 
staircase, with Roman fragments of the time 
of Trajan and Aurelins Antoninus. 

The prayer-chamber is entered from the 
court by thirteen archways, all circular and 
horseshoe. The central entrance (Woodcut 
988) to the principal aisle consists of a Ic^y 
horseshoe arch of two orders, with a square 
low tower and surmounted by a fluted dome. 
The prayer-chamber consists of a central aisle 
with eight aisles on each side, all running in 
the diirection of the Mecca wall, with croas- 
arcading at various intervals. The aisles are 
separated one from the other by columns all 
taken from earlier buildings, carrying horse- 
shoe arches, the columns in the central aisle 
being twenty-two feet high, and occasionally 
coupled together or in triplets ; those of the 
aisles being fifteen feet high. The capitals 
are mainly taken from Boman buildings ; 
some, however, are Byzantine, and are carved 
with birds and flowers. The arches are all 
tied together by wooden beams and iron rods. 
The mihrab is surmounted by a fluted dome 
on hexagonal base, containing richly coloured 
^ glass windows, and the mihrab niche is 
lined with marble and ByKantine mosaic and 
flanked by porphyry columns. The chief 
entrance ia through a porch on the west 
aide and is carried up as a tower, and there 
are four other minor entrances. 
le nobln edifices, not so old as this, but still of a 
good age ; but eicppt the minaret represented in the annexed woodcut 
(No. 989), none of them have yet been drawn in such a manner as to 
enable us to judge either what they are or what rank they are entitled 
to as works of art. This minaret is one of the finest specimens of a 
particular class. It possesses none of the grace or elaborate beauty <d 
detail of those at Cairo ; but the beautifui proportion of the shaft, and 
the appropriate half-military style of its ornaments, render it singularly 
pleasing. The upper part also is well proportioned, though altered to 


possesses ; 

Bk. I. Ch. II. BARBARY. 541 

some extent in modern times. Unfortunately neither its age nor 
height is correctly known. It is probably three or four centuries 
old, and with its contemporary the Hassanee mosque at Cairo, proves 
that the Saracenic architects were capable of expressing simple 
grandeur as well as elaborate beauty when it suited them to 
do so. 

Algeria possesses no buildings of any importance belonging to any 
good age of Moorish art. Those of Constantine are the only ones 
which have yet been illustrated in an intelligible manner, and they 
scarcely deserve mention after the great buildings in Egypt and the 
farther Elast. I cannot help suspecting that some remains of a better 
age may still be brought to light ; but the French archseologists seem 
to be wholly taken up with the vestiges of the Romans, and not to 
have turned their attention seriously to the more modern style, which 
it is to be hoped they soon will do. In an artistic point of view, at 
least, it is far more important than the few fragments of Roman 
buildings still left in that remote proviace. 




lotrodaotory remarks — Masque at Cordoba — Palace at Zahra — Churches of Sta. 
Maria and Cristo de la Luz at Toledo— Giralda at Seri lie— Palace of the 
Alcazar — The Alhambra — Sicily. 



Moon invade Spain a.d. 711 

Ahd-el'Rahman commencM Moeqoe at 

Oordoba 786 

>jl- Hakeem II. extends the M(«que soath- 

wards and rebol Ids sanctuary. . . . 961 
Ki Mansour enlarges mosque eastwards . 980 


Alcazar and Giralda at Seville (about) . a.d. 19M 
Mohammed ben Alhammar ocNnmences 

Alhambra 1348 

Abon abd-AIlah. bnilder of Court of 

Lions, begins to reign 133S 

Christian conquest of Granada. . . . 1493 

OwiNo probably to its position, the forms which the Saracenic style 
assumed in Spain are somewhat different from those which we find 
elsewhere. As a style it is inferior to many other forms of Saracenic 
art. It has not the purity of form and elegance of detail attained in 
Egypt, nor the perfection in colouring which characterises the style of 
Persia, while it is certainly inferior both in elegance and richness to 
that of India. Still it is to us perhaps the most interesting of the 
whole, not only because of its proximity to our own shores, and our 
consequent greater familiarity with it, but because history, poetry, and 
painting have all combined to heighten its merits and fix its forms 
on our minds. Few are un«acquainted with the brilliant daring of the 
handful of adventurers who in the 8th century subjugated Spain and 
nearly conquered Europe, and fewer still have listened without emotion 
to the sad tale of their expulsion eight centuries afterwards. Much of 
the poetry and romance of the Middle Ages owes its existence to the 
struggles between the Christian and the Paynim knights ; and in 
modern times poets, painters, and architects have all lingered and 
expatiated on the beauties of the Alhambra, or dwelt in delight on 
the mysterious magnificence of the mosque at Cordoba. Indeed no 
greater compliment could be paid to this style than that oonvejed by 
the fact that, till within the last few years, not one work of any 
importance has been devoted to the Christian antiquities of Spain, 
while even England has produced two such splendid illustrations of the 

Bk. I. Cu. III. SPAIN. 543 

Alhambra as those of Murphy and Owen Jones — works far more magni- 
ficent than any devoted to our own national art. In France, too, 
Girault de Prangey, Le Normand, Chapuy, and others, have devoted 
themselves to the task ; and even in Spain the ' Antigiiedades Arabes en 
Espana ' is the best production of the class. We are thus really 
familiar with what these strangers did ; while the cathedrals of 
Seville, Toledo, Burgos, and Leon, are only partially measured or 
illustrated ; and travellers hurrying to the Alhambra scarce con- 
descend to alight from the diligence to cast a passing glance at their 

This is indeed hardly fair ; still it must be confessed it is impossible 
to come into contact with the brilliant productions of the fervid 
imagination of a Southern people without being captivated with their 
beauty ; and there is a fjisci nation in their exuberance of ornament 
and brilliancy of colour which it is impossible to resist when these 
are used with the daring which characterises their employment here. 
It is also true that the^e Moorish architects avoid the vulgarity which 
would inevitably accompany such exuberance in the hands of Northern 
artists — a defect which the more delicately organised Asiatic invariably 


As far as the history of architecture is concerned, by far the most 
interesting building in Spain is the mosque of Cordoba ; it was the 
first important building commenced by the Moors, and was enlarged 
and ornamented by successive rulers, so that it contains specimens of 
all the styles current in Spain from the earliest times till the building 
of the Alhambra, which w